Abstract

The short-duration afterglow or pink afterglow of nitrogen is superimposed on the well-known long-duration, Lewis—Rayleigh afterglow as a bright flash of milliseconds duration, separated from the discharge by a short delay. The spectrum shows the same band systems as does the discharge, with different relative intensities. The flash of light coincides with flashes of heat and ionization. A comprehensive mechanism, including the various modifications of the short-duration afterglow, is presented. During the delay time, metastable molecules, generated by the ever-present Lewis—Rayleigh afterglow, accumulate until their concentration is sufficient for collisions between two metastables to occur. These, supported by high vibration, generate ions N<sub>2</sub><sup>+</sup>. Their excitation is due to fast electrons or highly vibrating molecules. The periodic occurrence of the pink afterglow is attributed to temperature effects. The blue and green afterglows are explained by modifications of the same idea.

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  2. K. D. Bayes and G. B. Kistiakowsky, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 992 (1960).
  3. G. E. Beale and H. P. Broida, J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1030 (1959).
  4. J. F. Noxon, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 926 (1962).
  5. A. M. Bass, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 695 (1964).
  6. Y. Tanaka, F. R. Innes, A. S. Jursa, and M. Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 1183 (1965).
  7. C. F. Fairchild, A. B. Prag, and K. C. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 794 (1963).
  8. S. N. Foner and R. L. Hudson, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 40 (1966).
  9. J. E. Morgan and H. I. Schiff, Can. J. Chem. 41, 903 (1963).
  10. H. P. Broida and I. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 236 (1962).
  11. D. D. Briglia, unpublished results. See P. Warneck, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 396 (1969).
  12. W. H. Kasner and M. A. Biondi, Phys. Rev. 137A, 317 (1965).
  13. V. Čermák and L. Herman, Coll. Czech. Chem. Comm. 30, 1343 (1965).
  14. F. R. Innes and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 2427 (1962).
  15. R. A. Young, R. L. Sharpless, and R. J. Stringham, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 251 (1964).
  16. K. M. Evenson and D. S. Burch, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2450 (1966).
  17. O. Oldenberg, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Physical Sciences Research Papers, Nos. 323 (1967) and 390 (1969).
  18. N. P. Carleton and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 3460 (1962).
  19. O. Oldenberg, Phys. Rev. 90, 727 (1953).
  20. S. N. Foner and R. L. Hudson, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1662 (1962).
  21. H. H. Brömer and F. Döbler, Z. Naturforsch. 20A, 599 (1965); Z. Physik 185, 278 (1965).
  22. R. B. Bryan, Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1951; R. B. Bryan, R. B. Holt, and O. Oldenberg, Phys. Rev. 106, 83 (1957).
  23. D. E. Shemansky and N. P. Carleton, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 682 (1969).
  24. D. E. Shemansky, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 689 (1969).
  25. F. R. Gilmore, unpublished results.
  26. C. Kenty, in 17th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 190 (1965); R. S. Freund, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3734 (1969).
  27. M. A. Biondi, Phys. Rev. 82, 453 (1951).
  28. R. E. Lund and H. J. Oskam, Z. Physik 219, 131 (1968); J. Chem. Phys. 48, 114 (1968).
  29. D. H. Stedman and D. W. Setser, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 2256 (1968).
  30. A. R. De Monchy, G. N. Hays, C. J. Tracy, and H. J. Oskam, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 15, 428 (1970).
  31. E. C. Zipf, Can. J. Chem. 47, 1863 (1969).
  32. K. L. Wray, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 623 (1966).
  33. H. H. Brömer and K. Fette, Z. Physik 168, 411 (1962).
  34. C. H. Dugan, Z. Chem. Phys. 47, 1512 (1967). See S.-L. Chen and J. M. Goodings, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4335 (1969).
  35. C. Papaliolios, Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1965.
  36. I. R. Hurle, J. Chem. Phys. 41, 3592 (1964).
  37. B. Brocklehurst and R. W. Nicholls, Nature 223, 824 (1969).
  38. C. N. Hinshelwood, Kinetics of Chemical Change (Clarendon, Oxford, 1940), p. 144.
  39. S. Glasstone, K. J. Laidler, and H. Eyring, Theory of Rate Processes (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1941), Fig. 41.
  40. B. Cary, Phys. Fluids 8, 26 (1965).
  41. R. J. Strutt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A85, 219 (1911).
  42. Y. Tanaka and A. S. Jursa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1239 (1961).
  43. A. B. Prag and K. C. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 799 (1963).
  44. R. A. Young, Can. J. Chem. 44, 1171 (1966).
  45. R. A. Young and A. S. Gilbert, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 895 (1968).
  46. D. I. Walton, M. J. McEwan, and L. F. Phillips, Can. J. Chem. 43, 3095 (1965).
  47. R. W. B. Pearse and A. G. Gaydon, Identification of Molecular Spectra, 3rd ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1963), plate 3.
  48. A. E. Grün, Z. Naturforsch. 9A, 55, 1017 (1954).
  49. G. Herzberg, Z. Physik 49, 526 (1928).
  50. M. Peyron, L. T. My, and M. Jaccaud, IEEE. QE6, 179 (1969).
  51. S. W. Benson, unpublished results.

Bass, A. M.

A. M. Bass, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 695 (1964).

Bayes, K. D.

K. D. Bayes and G. B. Kistiakowsky, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 992 (1960).

Beale, G. E.

G. E. Beale and H. P. Broida, J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1030 (1959).

Benson, S. W.

S. W. Benson, unpublished results.

Biondi, M. A.

W. H. Kasner and M. A. Biondi, Phys. Rev. 137A, 317 (1965).

M. A. Biondi, Phys. Rev. 82, 453 (1951).

Briglia, D. D.

D. D. Briglia, unpublished results. See P. Warneck, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 396 (1969).

Brocklehurst, B.

B. Brocklehurst and R. W. Nicholls, Nature 223, 824 (1969).

Broida, H. P.

G. E. Beale and H. P. Broida, J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1030 (1959).

H. P. Broida and I. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 236 (1962).

Brömer, H. H.

H. H. Brömer and K. Fette, Z. Physik 168, 411 (1962).

H. H. Brömer and F. Döbler, Z. Naturforsch. 20A, 599 (1965); Z. Physik 185, 278 (1965).

Bryan, R. B.

R. B. Bryan, Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1951; R. B. Bryan, R. B. Holt, and O. Oldenberg, Phys. Rev. 106, 83 (1957).

Burch, D. S.

K. M. Evenson and D. S. Burch, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2450 (1966).

Carleton, N. P.

N. P. Carleton and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 3460 (1962).

D. E. Shemansky and N. P. Carleton, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 682 (1969).

Cary, B.

B. Cary, Phys. Fluids 8, 26 (1965).

Cermák, V.

V. Čermák and L. Herman, Coll. Czech. Chem. Comm. 30, 1343 (1965).

Clark, K. C.

C. F. Fairchild, A. B. Prag, and K. C. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 794 (1963).

A. B. Prag and K. C. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 799 (1963).

De Monchy, A. R.

A. R. De Monchy, G. N. Hays, C. J. Tracy, and H. J. Oskam, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 15, 428 (1970).

Döbler, F.

H. H. Brömer and F. Döbler, Z. Naturforsch. 20A, 599 (1965); Z. Physik 185, 278 (1965).

Dugan, C. H.

C. H. Dugan, Z. Chem. Phys. 47, 1512 (1967). See S.-L. Chen and J. M. Goodings, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4335 (1969).

Evenson, K. M.

K. M. Evenson and D. S. Burch, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2450 (1966).

Eyring, H.

S. Glasstone, K. J. Laidler, and H. Eyring, Theory of Rate Processes (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1941), Fig. 41.

Fairchild, C. F.

C. F. Fairchild, A. B. Prag, and K. C. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 794 (1963).

Fette, K.

H. H. Brömer and K. Fette, Z. Physik 168, 411 (1962).

Foner, S. N.

S. N. Foner and R. L. Hudson, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 40 (1966).

S. N. Foner and R. L. Hudson, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1662 (1962).

Gaydon, A. G.

R. W. B. Pearse and A. G. Gaydon, Identification of Molecular Spectra, 3rd ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1963), plate 3.

Gilbert, A. S.

R. A. Young and A. S. Gilbert, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 895 (1968).

Gilmore, F. R.

F. R. Gilmore, unpublished results.

Glasstone, S.

S. Glasstone, K. J. Laidler, and H. Eyring, Theory of Rate Processes (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1941), Fig. 41.

Grün, A. E.

A. E. Grün, Z. Naturforsch. 9A, 55, 1017 (1954).

Hays, G. N.

A. R. De Monchy, G. N. Hays, C. J. Tracy, and H. J. Oskam, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 15, 428 (1970).

Herman, L.

V. Čermák and L. Herman, Coll. Czech. Chem. Comm. 30, 1343 (1965).

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Z. Physik 49, 526 (1928).

Hinshelwood, C. N.

C. N. Hinshelwood, Kinetics of Chemical Change (Clarendon, Oxford, 1940), p. 144.

Hudson, R. L.

S. N. Foner and R. L. Hudson, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1662 (1962).

S. N. Foner and R. L. Hudson, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 40 (1966).

Hurle, I. R.

I. R. Hurle, J. Chem. Phys. 41, 3592 (1964).

Innes, F. R.

Y. Tanaka, F. R. Innes, A. S. Jursa, and M. Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 1183 (1965).

F. R. Innes and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 2427 (1962).

Jaccaud, M.

M. Peyron, L. T. My, and M. Jaccaud, IEEE. QE6, 179 (1969).

Jursa, A. S.

Y. Tanaka, F. R. Innes, A. S. Jursa, and M. Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 1183 (1965).

Y. Tanaka and A. S. Jursa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1239 (1961).

Kaplan, J.

J. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. 42, 807 (1932); 44, 947 (1933); 45, 675 (1934); 48, 800 (1935).

Kasner, W. H.

W. H. Kasner and M. A. Biondi, Phys. Rev. 137A, 317 (1965).

Kenty, C.

C. Kenty, in 17th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 190 (1965); R. S. Freund, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3734 (1969).

Kistiakowsky, G. B.

K. D. Bayes and G. B. Kistiakowsky, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 992 (1960).

Laidler, K. J.

S. Glasstone, K. J. Laidler, and H. Eyring, Theory of Rate Processes (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1941), Fig. 41.

Lund, R. E.

R. E. Lund and H. J. Oskam, Z. Physik 219, 131 (1968); J. Chem. Phys. 48, 114 (1968).

McEwan, M. J.

D. I. Walton, M. J. McEwan, and L. F. Phillips, Can. J. Chem. 43, 3095 (1965).

Morgan, J. E.

J. E. Morgan and H. I. Schiff, Can. J. Chem. 41, 903 (1963).

My, L. T.

M. Peyron, L. T. My, and M. Jaccaud, IEEE. QE6, 179 (1969).

Nakamura, M.

Y. Tanaka, F. R. Innes, A. S. Jursa, and M. Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 1183 (1965).

Nicholls, R. W.

B. Brocklehurst and R. W. Nicholls, Nature 223, 824 (1969).

Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 926 (1962).

Oldenberg, O.

F. R. Innes and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 2427 (1962).

O. Oldenberg, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Physical Sciences Research Papers, Nos. 323 (1967) and 390 (1969).

N. P. Carleton and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 3460 (1962).

O. Oldenberg, Phys. Rev. 90, 727 (1953).

Oskam, H. J.

R. E. Lund and H. J. Oskam, Z. Physik 219, 131 (1968); J. Chem. Phys. 48, 114 (1968).

A. R. De Monchy, G. N. Hays, C. J. Tracy, and H. J. Oskam, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 15, 428 (1970).

Papaliolios, C.

C. Papaliolios, Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1965.

Pearse, R. W. B.

R. W. B. Pearse and A. G. Gaydon, Identification of Molecular Spectra, 3rd ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1963), plate 3.

Peyron, M.

M. Peyron, L. T. My, and M. Jaccaud, IEEE. QE6, 179 (1969).

Phillips, L. F.

D. I. Walton, M. J. McEwan, and L. F. Phillips, Can. J. Chem. 43, 3095 (1965).

Prag, A. B.

A. B. Prag and K. C. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 799 (1963).

C. F. Fairchild, A. B. Prag, and K. C. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 794 (1963).

Schiff, H. I.

J. E. Morgan and H. I. Schiff, Can. J. Chem. 41, 903 (1963).

Setser, D. W.

D. H. Stedman and D. W. Setser, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 2256 (1968).

Sharpless, R. L.

R. A. Young, R. L. Sharpless, and R. J. Stringham, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 251 (1964).

Shemansky, D. E.

D. E. Shemansky, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 689 (1969).

D. E. Shemansky and N. P. Carleton, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 682 (1969).

Stedman, D. H.

D. H. Stedman and D. W. Setser, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 2256 (1968).

Stringham, R. J.

R. A. Young, R. L. Sharpless, and R. J. Stringham, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 251 (1964).

Strutt, R. J.

R. J. Strutt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A85, 219 (1911).

Tanaka, I.

H. P. Broida and I. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 236 (1962).

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka, F. R. Innes, A. S. Jursa, and M. Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 1183 (1965).

Y. Tanaka and A. S. Jursa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1239 (1961).

Tracy, C. J.

A. R. De Monchy, G. N. Hays, C. J. Tracy, and H. J. Oskam, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 15, 428 (1970).

Walton, D. I.

D. I. Walton, M. J. McEwan, and L. F. Phillips, Can. J. Chem. 43, 3095 (1965).

Wray, K. L.

K. L. Wray, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 623 (1966).

Young, R. A.

R. A. Young, R. L. Sharpless, and R. J. Stringham, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 251 (1964).

R. A. Young, Can. J. Chem. 44, 1171 (1966).

R. A. Young and A. S. Gilbert, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 895 (1968).

Zipf, E. C.

E. C. Zipf, Can. J. Chem. 47, 1863 (1969).

Other (51)

J. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. 42, 807 (1932); 44, 947 (1933); 45, 675 (1934); 48, 800 (1935).

K. D. Bayes and G. B. Kistiakowsky, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 992 (1960).

G. E. Beale and H. P. Broida, J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1030 (1959).

J. F. Noxon, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 926 (1962).

A. M. Bass, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 695 (1964).

Y. Tanaka, F. R. Innes, A. S. Jursa, and M. Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 1183 (1965).

C. F. Fairchild, A. B. Prag, and K. C. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 794 (1963).

S. N. Foner and R. L. Hudson, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 40 (1966).

J. E. Morgan and H. I. Schiff, Can. J. Chem. 41, 903 (1963).

H. P. Broida and I. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 236 (1962).

D. D. Briglia, unpublished results. See P. Warneck, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 396 (1969).

W. H. Kasner and M. A. Biondi, Phys. Rev. 137A, 317 (1965).

V. Čermák and L. Herman, Coll. Czech. Chem. Comm. 30, 1343 (1965).

F. R. Innes and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 2427 (1962).

R. A. Young, R. L. Sharpless, and R. J. Stringham, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 251 (1964).

K. M. Evenson and D. S. Burch, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2450 (1966).

O. Oldenberg, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Physical Sciences Research Papers, Nos. 323 (1967) and 390 (1969).

N. P. Carleton and O. Oldenberg, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 3460 (1962).

O. Oldenberg, Phys. Rev. 90, 727 (1953).

S. N. Foner and R. L. Hudson, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1662 (1962).

H. H. Brömer and F. Döbler, Z. Naturforsch. 20A, 599 (1965); Z. Physik 185, 278 (1965).

R. B. Bryan, Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1951; R. B. Bryan, R. B. Holt, and O. Oldenberg, Phys. Rev. 106, 83 (1957).

D. E. Shemansky and N. P. Carleton, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 682 (1969).

D. E. Shemansky, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 689 (1969).

F. R. Gilmore, unpublished results.

C. Kenty, in 17th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 190 (1965); R. S. Freund, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3734 (1969).

M. A. Biondi, Phys. Rev. 82, 453 (1951).

R. E. Lund and H. J. Oskam, Z. Physik 219, 131 (1968); J. Chem. Phys. 48, 114 (1968).

D. H. Stedman and D. W. Setser, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 2256 (1968).

A. R. De Monchy, G. N. Hays, C. J. Tracy, and H. J. Oskam, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 15, 428 (1970).

E. C. Zipf, Can. J. Chem. 47, 1863 (1969).

K. L. Wray, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 623 (1966).

H. H. Brömer and K. Fette, Z. Physik 168, 411 (1962).

C. H. Dugan, Z. Chem. Phys. 47, 1512 (1967). See S.-L. Chen and J. M. Goodings, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4335 (1969).

C. Papaliolios, Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1965.

I. R. Hurle, J. Chem. Phys. 41, 3592 (1964).

B. Brocklehurst and R. W. Nicholls, Nature 223, 824 (1969).

C. N. Hinshelwood, Kinetics of Chemical Change (Clarendon, Oxford, 1940), p. 144.

S. Glasstone, K. J. Laidler, and H. Eyring, Theory of Rate Processes (McGraw—Hill, New York, 1941), Fig. 41.

B. Cary, Phys. Fluids 8, 26 (1965).

R. J. Strutt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A85, 219 (1911).

Y. Tanaka and A. S. Jursa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1239 (1961).

A. B. Prag and K. C. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 799 (1963).

R. A. Young, Can. J. Chem. 44, 1171 (1966).

R. A. Young and A. S. Gilbert, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 895 (1968).

D. I. Walton, M. J. McEwan, and L. F. Phillips, Can. J. Chem. 43, 3095 (1965).

R. W. B. Pearse and A. G. Gaydon, Identification of Molecular Spectra, 3rd ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1963), plate 3.

A. E. Grün, Z. Naturforsch. 9A, 55, 1017 (1954).

G. Herzberg, Z. Physik 49, 526 (1928).

M. Peyron, L. T. My, and M. Jaccaud, IEEE. QE6, 179 (1969).

S. W. Benson, unpublished results.

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