Abstract

Phase shifts suffered by evanescent electromagnetic waves traversing an air gap between two glass prisms have been measured. Because the evanescent waves propagate parallel to the glass-to-air interface, they should be able to penetrate in a direction normal to the interface, without change of phase, although the amplitude is expected to decrease with depth of penetration. This has been confirmed by the experiment, which showed that the phase shifts are substantially independent of the width of the air gap.

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  1. G. Quincke, Ann. Phys. Chem. 127, 1 (1866).
  2. E. E. Hall, Phys. Rev. 15, 73 (1902).
  3. D. D. Coon, Am. J. Phys. 34, 240 (1966).
  4. R. N. Smartt, Appi. Opt. 9, 970 (1970).
  5. For example, see K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (March 1970).
  6. H. Nassenstein, Phys. Letters 28A, 249 (1968).
  7. O. Bryngdahl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1645 (1969).
  8. C. Schaefer and G. Gross, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 32, 648 (1910).
  9. W. Culshaw and D. S. Jones, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B66, 859 (1953).
  10. J. J. Brady, R. O. Brick, and M. D. Pearson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1080 (1960).
  11. H. D. Raker and G. R. Valenzuela, Trans. IRE MTT-10, 392 (1962).
  12. J. J. Taub, H. J. Hindin, O. F. Hinckelmann, and M. L. Wright, IEEE MTT-11, 338 (1963).
  13. R. G. Fellers, Proc. IEEE 55, 1003 (1967).
  14. C. J. Bouwkamp, Repts. Progr. Phys. 17, 39 (1954).
  15. E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 269 (1959).
  16. P. C. Clemmow, The Plane Wave Spectrum Representation of Electromagnetic Fields, 1st ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1966).
  17. G. C. Sherman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1160 (1967); 57, 1490 (1967).
  18. J. R. Shewell and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1596 (1968).
  19. E. Lalor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1235 (1968).
  20. A. Walther, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1256 (1968); 59, 1325 (1969).
  21. G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento 16, 61 (1960).
  22. R. Asby and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 52 (1971).
  23. C. Carniglia and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).
  24. A first account of this experiment was presented at the 1970 Spring Meeting of the Optical Society of America [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 738 A (1970)].
  25. See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 38.
  26. The notation used here is that of Ref. 23.
  27. For the purpose of setting up the basic equations, we take the dielectric constant of air to be unity, and choose our units so that the vacuum velocity of light c=1.
  28. It should be emphasized that, although the phase shift of the evanescent wave was measured by a holographic technique, the holograms were not produced by the evanescent waves, as in Refs. 6 and 7.
  29. For a discussion of surface layers on polished glass surfaces, see, for example, L. Holland, The Properties of Glass Surfaces, 1st ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1966).
  30. A. Vašíček, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 145, 979 (1947).

Asby, R.

R. Asby and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 52 (1971).

Born, M.

See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 38.

Bouwkamp, C. J.

C. J. Bouwkamp, Repts. Progr. Phys. 17, 39 (1954).

Brady, J. J.

J. J. Brady, R. O. Brick, and M. D. Pearson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1080 (1960).

Brick, R. O.

J. J. Brady, R. O. Brick, and M. D. Pearson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1080 (1960).

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1645 (1969).

Carniglia, C.

C. Carniglia and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).

Clemmow, P. C.

P. C. Clemmow, The Plane Wave Spectrum Representation of Electromagnetic Fields, 1st ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1966).

Coon, D. D.

D. D. Coon, Am. J. Phys. 34, 240 (1966).

Culshaw, W.

W. Culshaw and D. S. Jones, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B66, 859 (1953).

di Francia, G. Toraldo

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento 16, 61 (1960).

Drexhage, K. H.

For example, see K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (March 1970).

Fellers, R. G.

R. G. Fellers, Proc. IEEE 55, 1003 (1967).

Gross, G.

C. Schaefer and G. Gross, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 32, 648 (1910).

Hall, E. E.

E. E. Hall, Phys. Rev. 15, 73 (1902).

Hinckelmann, O. F.

J. J. Taub, H. J. Hindin, O. F. Hinckelmann, and M. L. Wright, IEEE MTT-11, 338 (1963).

Hindin, H. J.

J. J. Taub, H. J. Hindin, O. F. Hinckelmann, and M. L. Wright, IEEE MTT-11, 338 (1963).

Holland, L.

For a discussion of surface layers on polished glass surfaces, see, for example, L. Holland, The Properties of Glass Surfaces, 1st ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1966).

Jones, D. S.

W. Culshaw and D. S. Jones, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B66, 859 (1953).

Lalor, E.

E. Lalor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1235 (1968).

Mandel, L.

C. Carniglia and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).

Nassenstein, H.

H. Nassenstein, Phys. Letters 28A, 249 (1968).

Pearson, M. D.

J. J. Brady, R. O. Brick, and M. D. Pearson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1080 (1960).

Quincke, G.

G. Quincke, Ann. Phys. Chem. 127, 1 (1866).

Raker, H. D.

H. D. Raker and G. R. Valenzuela, Trans. IRE MTT-10, 392 (1962).

Schaefer, C.

C. Schaefer and G. Gross, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 32, 648 (1910).

Sherman, G. C.

G. C. Sherman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1160 (1967); 57, 1490 (1967).

Shewell, J. R.

J. R. Shewell and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1596 (1968).

Smartt, R. N.

R. N. Smartt, Appi. Opt. 9, 970 (1970).

Taub, J. J.

J. J. Taub, H. J. Hindin, O. F. Hinckelmann, and M. L. Wright, IEEE MTT-11, 338 (1963).

Valenzuela, G. R.

H. D. Raker and G. R. Valenzuela, Trans. IRE MTT-10, 392 (1962).

Vašícek, A.

A. Vašíček, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 145, 979 (1947).

Walther, A.

A. Walther, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1256 (1968); 59, 1325 (1969).

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 269 (1959).

R. Asby and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 52 (1971).

J. R. Shewell and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1596 (1968).

See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 38.

Wright, M. L.

J. J. Taub, H. J. Hindin, O. F. Hinckelmann, and M. L. Wright, IEEE MTT-11, 338 (1963).

Other (30)

G. Quincke, Ann. Phys. Chem. 127, 1 (1866).

E. E. Hall, Phys. Rev. 15, 73 (1902).

D. D. Coon, Am. J. Phys. 34, 240 (1966).

R. N. Smartt, Appi. Opt. 9, 970 (1970).

For example, see K. H. Drexhage, Sci. Am. 222, 108 (March 1970).

H. Nassenstein, Phys. Letters 28A, 249 (1968).

O. Bryngdahl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1645 (1969).

C. Schaefer and G. Gross, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 32, 648 (1910).

W. Culshaw and D. S. Jones, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B66, 859 (1953).

J. J. Brady, R. O. Brick, and M. D. Pearson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1080 (1960).

H. D. Raker and G. R. Valenzuela, Trans. IRE MTT-10, 392 (1962).

J. J. Taub, H. J. Hindin, O. F. Hinckelmann, and M. L. Wright, IEEE MTT-11, 338 (1963).

R. G. Fellers, Proc. IEEE 55, 1003 (1967).

C. J. Bouwkamp, Repts. Progr. Phys. 17, 39 (1954).

E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 74, 269 (1959).

P. C. Clemmow, The Plane Wave Spectrum Representation of Electromagnetic Fields, 1st ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1966).

G. C. Sherman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1160 (1967); 57, 1490 (1967).

J. R. Shewell and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1596 (1968).

E. Lalor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1235 (1968).

A. Walther, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1256 (1968); 59, 1325 (1969).

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cimento 16, 61 (1960).

R. Asby and E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 52 (1971).

C. Carniglia and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).

A first account of this experiment was presented at the 1970 Spring Meeting of the Optical Society of America [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 738 A (1970)].

See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 4th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 38.

The notation used here is that of Ref. 23.

For the purpose of setting up the basic equations, we take the dielectric constant of air to be unity, and choose our units so that the vacuum velocity of light c=1.

It should be emphasized that, although the phase shift of the evanescent wave was measured by a holographic technique, the holograms were not produced by the evanescent waves, as in Refs. 6 and 7.

For a discussion of surface layers on polished glass surfaces, see, for example, L. Holland, The Properties of Glass Surfaces, 1st ed. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1966).

A. Vašíček, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 145, 979 (1947).

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