Abstract

A color-television monitor with some peripheral equipment is used as an appropriate device for generating stimuli of different wave forms. The chromaticity of the screen is alternated sinusoidally in time around a fixed yellow reference color. The chromatic fusion point depended on the magnitude of the chromatic differences of the flickering components. The critical color flicker frequency ccff as a function of the chromatic contrast in the stimulus is determined at seven retinal illuminances between 220 and 0.5 td. Even at the highest illuminance, none of the characteristics showed any resonance qualities, as is a well-known phenomenon in the de Lange curves on brightness flicker. Two main relationships are deduced from the records. First, the variation of the ccff with the logarithm of the illuminance F=a logI+b, as formulated in the Ferry–Porter equation; Second, the dependence of the chromatic threshold contrast ΔC on retinal illuminance, ΔC=kI-12. This relationship is predicted by the fluctuation theory of visual threshold behavior, which takes into account the essentially random numbers of incident photons on the retina. Using sine, square, and triangular waveforms it is demonstrated that the contrast-transmission system for chromatic flicker operates practically in a linear manner up to a ccff of 7 Hz.

© 1969 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 33, 360 (1917).
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    [Crossref]
  5. L. T. Troland, J. Franklin Inst. 181, 853 (1916).
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  7. Y. Galifret and H. Piéron, Année Psychol. 45, 1 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Galifret and H. Piéron, Rev. Opt. 28, 154 (1949).
  9. C. V. Truss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 1130 (1957).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. de Lange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 784 (1958).
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  11. P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, and M. A. Bouman, Optica Acta 5, 1 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 940 (1962).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. J. C. van der Horst, C. M. M. de Weert, and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1260 (1967).
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  14. A. C. S. van Heel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 237 (1946).
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  15. G. J. C. van der Horst and M. A. Bouman, Vision Res. 7, 1027 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, and P. L. Walraven, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 121 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. F. L. van Nes, J. J. Koenderink, H. Nas, and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1082 (1967).
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  19. F. L. van Nes, thesis (Utrecht, 1968).
  20. H. E. Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 254 (1922).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. de Lange, Physica 18, 935 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. de Lange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 380 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. de Lange, thesis, Techn. Univ. Delft (Delft, 1957).
  24. H. de Lange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 78 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (3)

1964 (1)

1963 (1)

1962 (1)

1961 (1)

1958 (3)

1957 (1)

1954 (1)

1952 (1)

H. de Lange, Physica 18, 935 (1952).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

Y. Galifret and H. Piéron, Rev. Opt. 28, 154 (1949).

1948 (1)

Y. Galifret and H. Piéron, Année Psychol. 45, 1 (1948).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

1923 (1)

1922 (1)

1917 (1)

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 33, 360 (1917).

1916 (3)

L. T. Troland, J. Franklin Inst. 181, 853 (1916).
[Crossref]

L. T. Troland, J. Franklin Inst. 182, 261 (1916).
[Crossref]

H. E. Ives, J. Franklin Inst. 182, 542 (1916).
[Crossref]

1914 (1)

H. E. Ives and E. F. Kingsbury, Phil. Mag. 28, 708 (1914).

Bouman, M. A.

de Lange, H.

de Weert, C. M. M.

Galifret, Y.

Y. Galifret and H. Piéron, Rev. Opt. 28, 154 (1949).

Y. Galifret and H. Piéron, Année Psychol. 45, 1 (1948).
[Crossref]

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 363 (1923).
[Crossref]

H. E. Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 254 (1922).
[Crossref]

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 33, 360 (1917).

H. E. Ives, J. Franklin Inst. 182, 542 (1916).
[Crossref]

H. E. Ives and E. F. Kingsbury, Phil. Mag. 28, 708 (1914).

Kelly, D. H.

Kingsbury, E. F.

H. E. Ives and E. F. Kingsbury, Phil. Mag. 28, 708 (1914).

Koenderink, J. J.

Leebeek, H. J.

P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 78 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, and M. A. Bouman, Optica Acta 5, 1 (1958).
[Crossref]

Nas, H.

Piéron, H.

Y. Galifret and H. Piéron, Rev. Opt. 28, 154 (1949).

Y. Galifret and H. Piéron, Année Psychol. 45, 1 (1948).
[Crossref]

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, J. Franklin Inst. 181, 853 (1916).
[Crossref]

L. T. Troland, J. Franklin Inst. 182, 261 (1916).
[Crossref]

Truss, C. V.

van der Horst, G. J. C.

van Heel, A. C. S.

van Nes, F. L.

Vos, J. J.

Walraven, P. L.

Année Psychol. (1)

Y. Galifret and H. Piéron, Année Psychol. 45, 1 (1948).
[Crossref]

J. Franklin Inst. (3)

H. E. Ives, J. Franklin Inst. 182, 542 (1916).
[Crossref]

L. T. Troland, J. Franklin Inst. 181, 853 (1916).
[Crossref]

L. T. Troland, J. Franklin Inst. 182, 261 (1916).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (13)

Optica Acta (1)

P. L. Walraven, H. J. Leebeek, and M. A. Bouman, Optica Acta 5, 1 (1958).
[Crossref]

Phil. Mag. (2)

H. E. Ives, Phil. Mag. 33, 360 (1917).

H. E. Ives and E. F. Kingsbury, Phil. Mag. 28, 708 (1914).

Physica (1)

H. de Lange, Physica 18, 935 (1952).
[Crossref]

Rev. Opt. (1)

Y. Galifret and H. Piéron, Rev. Opt. 28, 154 (1949).

Vision Res. (1)

G. J. C. van der Horst and M. A. Bouman, Vision Res. 7, 1027 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

F. L. van Nes, thesis (Utrecht, 1968).

H. de Lange, thesis, Techn. Univ. Delft (Delft, 1957).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The spectral emission curves of the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) color-television phosphors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CIE chromaticity diagram. R and G are the chromaticity coordinates of the red and green phosphors. Measurements were made at the reference color Y.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Chromatic threshold-contrast modulation, dependent on flicker frequency. Reference color Y. Retinal illuminances: 220 (○), 48 (×), 20, 4.6, 1.6, 0.95, and 0.53 td.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Critical color-flicker frequency, dependent on retinal illuminance, illustrating the Ferry–Porter law. Curves are plotted for three chromatic threshold-contrast values,

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relation between the chromatic-threshold contrast and retinal illuminance at four flicker frequencies 0.5, 2, 4, and 6 Hz. Solid lines with slopes of −0.5 and 0 are drawn through the experimental data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Chromatic threshold-contrast modulation dependent on the flicker frequency for square wave (□), sine wave (○) and triangular wave (△) forms. Reference color Y. Illuminance, 220 td. The ratios sine wave vs square wave (□) and sine wave vs triangular wave (△) are plotted at the lower part of the figure. The bars show the standard deviations. Solid horizontal lines are drawn corresponding to the ratios 1.27 and 0.81.

Equations (9)

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red phosphor :             I ( R ) = I r · ( 1 + 0.37 M · sin 2 π f t ) , green phosphor : I ( G ) = I g · ( 1 - 0.064 M · sin 2 π f t ) ,
Δ C = [ ( Δ x ) 2 + ( Δ y ) 2 ] 1 2 = [ ( x - x 0 ) 2 + ( y - y 0 ) 2 ] 1 2 .
Δ C = 0.041 · M .
F = a · log I + b .
Δ C = k / I
Δ C = const .
f ( t ) = 4 / π ( sin ω t + sin 3 ω t / 3 + sin 5 ω t / 5 ) , 4 / π = 1.27.
f ( t ) = 8 / π 2 ( cos ω t + cos 3 ω t / 9 + cos 5 ω t / 25 ) , 8 / π 2 = 0.81.
Δ C = [ ( Δ x ) 2 + ( Δ y ) 2 ] 1 2 = 0.40 ,