Abstract

We describe the results of an experiment designed to test the accuracy of the Helson-Judd formulation in predicting the perceived color of objects in two-primary projections. Five trained subjects gave color-naming responses for hue, lightness, and saturation of perceived color in computer-generated artificial images viewed in red and white projection. The averaged results indicate predictions that are 90% correct for hue, 81% for lightness and 61% for saturation at mesopic luminance levels, and 83% correct for hue, 67% for lightness, and 78% for saturation at photopic luminance levels.

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  1. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 2 (1940).
  2. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 254 (1960).
  3. E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 115 (1959).
  4. L. Wheeler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1058 (1962).
  5. L. Wheeler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 978 (1963).
  6. With the luminance contributions so adjusted, Eqs. (11), (15), and (16) take the simple form given at a later point in the text.
  7. E. H. Land, Amer. Sci. 52, 247 (1964).
  8. H. Helson, D. B. Judd, and M. H. Warren, Illum. Eng. 51, 329 (1956).
  9. A. H. Munsell, A Color Notation (Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, 1941).
  10. Munsell Book of Color, Cabinet Edition (Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, 1966).
  11. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).
  12. The UCS diagram hereafter referred to in this paper is that just cited.
  13. E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exptl. Psychol. 5, 39 (1922).
  14. W. T. Wintringham of these laboratories has called our attention to the fact that the measured densities might not be accurate for the projection system used in the experiment. Our measurement yielded diffuse density whereas the more appropriate parameter might be specular density. The ratio of the specular to diffuse density is known as the Callier-Q factor and is a function of photographic gamma and density. The effect of this factor is not a simple one to evaluate in terms of our experiment, but we are currently pursuing this aspect.
  15. E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 636 (1959).
  16. R. M. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 579 (1943).
  17. D. B. Judd, private communication.
  18. J. Mandelbaum and E. Nelson, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 93, 402 (1960).

Adams, E. Q.

E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exptl. Psychol. 5, 39 (1922).

Cobb, P. W.

E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exptl. Psychol. 5, 39 (1922).

Evans, R. M.

R. M. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 579 (1943).

Helson, H.

H. Helson, D. B. Judd, and M. H. Warren, Illum. Eng. 51, 329 (1956).

Judd, D. B.

H. Helson, D. B. Judd, and M. H. Warren, Illum. Eng. 51, 329 (1956).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 2 (1940).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 254 (1960).

D. B. Judd, private communication.

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).

Land, E. H.

E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 636 (1959).

E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 115 (1959).

E. H. Land, Amer. Sci. 52, 247 (1964).

Mandelbaum, J.

J. Mandelbaum and E. Nelson, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 93, 402 (1960).

Munsell, A. H.

A. H. Munsell, A Color Notation (Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, 1941).

Nelson, E.

J. Mandelbaum and E. Nelson, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 93, 402 (1960).

Warren, M. H.

H. Helson, D. B. Judd, and M. H. Warren, Illum. Eng. 51, 329 (1956).

Wheeler, L.

L. Wheeler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1058 (1962).

L. Wheeler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 978 (1963).

Other (18)

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 2 (1940).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 254 (1960).

E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 115 (1959).

L. Wheeler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1058 (1962).

L. Wheeler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 978 (1963).

With the luminance contributions so adjusted, Eqs. (11), (15), and (16) take the simple form given at a later point in the text.

E. H. Land, Amer. Sci. 52, 247 (1964).

H. Helson, D. B. Judd, and M. H. Warren, Illum. Eng. 51, 329 (1956).

A. H. Munsell, A Color Notation (Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, 1941).

Munsell Book of Color, Cabinet Edition (Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, 1966).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).

The UCS diagram hereafter referred to in this paper is that just cited.

E. Q. Adams and P. W. Cobb, J. Exptl. Psychol. 5, 39 (1922).

W. T. Wintringham of these laboratories has called our attention to the fact that the measured densities might not be accurate for the projection system used in the experiment. Our measurement yielded diffuse density whereas the more appropriate parameter might be specular density. The ratio of the specular to diffuse density is known as the Callier-Q factor and is a function of photographic gamma and density. The effect of this factor is not a simple one to evaluate in terms of our experiment, but we are currently pursuing this aspect.

E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 636 (1959).

R. M. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 579 (1943).

D. B. Judd, private communication.

J. Mandelbaum and E. Nelson, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 93, 402 (1960).

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