Abstract

From a series of ellipsometric measurements it is now possible to obtain uniquely all of the optical parameters of the system; absorbing substrate+nonabsorbing surface film. The method utilizes the fact that the reflectance of such a system at normal incidence remains essentially constant for a small but finite range of surface-film thicknesses. Furthermore, it hinges on the fact that the ellipsometric parameters Δ and ψ, measured on different film thicknesses grown on the same sample, are compatible with only one choice of the complex refractive index <i>n</i><sub>2</sub> +<i>ik</i><sub>2</sub> of the substrate and the refractive index <i>n</i><sub>1</sub> of the film. Measurements on chemically etched samples of silicon yield <i>n</i><sub>2</sub> = 4.05<sub>2</sub> and <i>k</i><sub>2</sub> = 0.02<sub>9</sub>, in agreement with the results of earlier workers. Measurements on cleaved samples of silicon, on the other hand, reveal that the true values are <i>n</i><sub>2</sub> = 4.14<sub>0</sub>±0.02 and <i>k</i><sub>2</sub> = 0.03<sub>4</sub>±0.01 for 5461 Å.

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  1. R. J. Archer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 970 (1962).
  2. R. J. Archer, in Ellipsometry in the Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg & J. Kruger, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stds. Misc. Publ. 256, U. S. Gov't Printing Off., Washington, 1964.
  3. D. K. Burge and H. E. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1428 (1964).
  4. R. J. Archer, J. Electrochem. Soc. 104, 619 (1957); R. J. Archer, Phys. Rev. 110, 354 (1958).
  5. K. H. Zaininger and A. G. Revesz, J. Phys. Radium 25, 208 (1964).
  6. K. Vedam, R. Rai, F. Lukes, and R. Srinivasan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 526 (1968).
  7. A. Vašíček, Optics of Thin Films (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam 1960); O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Butterworth's Scientific Publications, London, 1955).
  8. S. M. Fainshtein and V. I. Fistul, Sov. Phys.—Tech Phys. 1, 2099 (1957).
  9. A. Many and D. Herlich, Phys. Rev. 107, 404 (1957).
  10. G. W. Gobeli and F. G. Allen, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 14, 23 (1960); Phys. Rev. 127, 149 (1962).
  11. N. M. Bashara and D. W. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1320 (1966).
  12. In Ref. (6) which deals with the refractive index of thin films of SiO2 on silicon, the computations will have to be redone using the new values of the optical constants of silicon reported in this paper. This can influence the value of n1, evaluated as well.
  13. W. C. Dash and R. Newman, Phys. Rev. 99, 1151 (1955).
  14. R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, Phys. Rev. 109, 695 (1958).

Allen, F. G.

G. W. Gobeli and F. G. Allen, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 14, 23 (1960); Phys. Rev. 127, 149 (1962).

Archer, R. J.

R. J. Archer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 970 (1962).

R. J. Archer, in Ellipsometry in the Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg & J. Kruger, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stds. Misc. Publ. 256, U. S. Gov't Printing Off., Washington, 1964.

R. J. Archer, J. Electrochem. Soc. 104, 619 (1957); R. J. Archer, Phys. Rev. 110, 354 (1958).

Bashara, N. M.

N. M. Bashara and D. W. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1320 (1966).

Bennett, H. E.

D. K. Burge and H. E. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1428 (1964).

Braunstein, R.

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, Phys. Rev. 109, 695 (1958).

Burge, D. K.

D. K. Burge and H. E. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1428 (1964).

Dash, W. C.

W. C. Dash and R. Newman, Phys. Rev. 99, 1151 (1955).

Fainshtein, S. M.

S. M. Fainshtein and V. I. Fistul, Sov. Phys.—Tech Phys. 1, 2099 (1957).

Fistul, V. I.

S. M. Fainshtein and V. I. Fistul, Sov. Phys.—Tech Phys. 1, 2099 (1957).

Gobeli, G. W.

G. W. Gobeli and F. G. Allen, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 14, 23 (1960); Phys. Rev. 127, 149 (1962).

Herlich, D.

A. Many and D. Herlich, Phys. Rev. 107, 404 (1957).

Herman, F.

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, Phys. Rev. 109, 695 (1958).

Lukes, F.

K. Vedam, R. Rai, F. Lukes, and R. Srinivasan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 526 (1968).

Many, A.

A. Many and D. Herlich, Phys. Rev. 107, 404 (1957).

Moore, A. R.

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, Phys. Rev. 109, 695 (1958).

Newman, R.

W. C. Dash and R. Newman, Phys. Rev. 99, 1151 (1955).

Peterson, D. W.

N. M. Bashara and D. W. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1320 (1966).

Rai, R.

K. Vedam, R. Rai, F. Lukes, and R. Srinivasan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 526 (1968).

Revesz, A. G.

K. H. Zaininger and A. G. Revesz, J. Phys. Radium 25, 208 (1964).

Srinivasan, R.

K. Vedam, R. Rai, F. Lukes, and R. Srinivasan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 526 (1968).

Vašícek, A.

A. Vašíček, Optics of Thin Films (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam 1960); O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Butterworth's Scientific Publications, London, 1955).

Vedam, K.

K. Vedam, R. Rai, F. Lukes, and R. Srinivasan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 526 (1968).

Zaininger, K. H.

K. H. Zaininger and A. G. Revesz, J. Phys. Radium 25, 208 (1964).

Other

R. J. Archer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 970 (1962).

R. J. Archer, in Ellipsometry in the Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg & J. Kruger, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stds. Misc. Publ. 256, U. S. Gov't Printing Off., Washington, 1964.

D. K. Burge and H. E. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1428 (1964).

R. J. Archer, J. Electrochem. Soc. 104, 619 (1957); R. J. Archer, Phys. Rev. 110, 354 (1958).

K. H. Zaininger and A. G. Revesz, J. Phys. Radium 25, 208 (1964).

K. Vedam, R. Rai, F. Lukes, and R. Srinivasan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 526 (1968).

A. Vašíček, Optics of Thin Films (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam 1960); O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Butterworth's Scientific Publications, London, 1955).

S. M. Fainshtein and V. I. Fistul, Sov. Phys.—Tech Phys. 1, 2099 (1957).

A. Many and D. Herlich, Phys. Rev. 107, 404 (1957).

G. W. Gobeli and F. G. Allen, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 14, 23 (1960); Phys. Rev. 127, 149 (1962).

N. M. Bashara and D. W. Peterson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1320 (1966).

In Ref. (6) which deals with the refractive index of thin films of SiO2 on silicon, the computations will have to be redone using the new values of the optical constants of silicon reported in this paper. This can influence the value of n1, evaluated as well.

W. C. Dash and R. Newman, Phys. Rev. 99, 1151 (1955).

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, Phys. Rev. 109, 695 (1958).

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