Abstract

Two sets of experiments are described which indicate that Wood’s diffraction-grating anomalies are a local phenomenon, associated with the action of a single grating line and its interaction with nearest neighbors. The first set shows that the character of an anomaly, irrespective of its appearance, remains virtually unaffected by very drastic phase and amplitude distortions of the incident wavefronts, suggesting that anomalous behavior may be observable with only a few lines. The second set of experiments confirms this hypothesis, and shows that gratings with only two or three lines exhibit almost the same anomalous behavior as a many-line grating of the same profile.

© 1968 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. H. Palmer, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Quasi-Optics, Jerome Fox, Ed. (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1964; John Wiley Sons, Inc., N. Y., Distr.)
  2. C. H. Palmer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1005 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Hessel and A. A. Oliner, Appl. Opt. 4, 1275 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  4. V. Twersky, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 407 (1952); IRE Trans. AP-4, 330 (1956); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 145 (1962) (especially Sec. 1.2 and 3.1).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. C. Evering, Appl. Opt. 5, 1313 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

1963 (1)

1952 (1)

V. Twersky, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 407 (1952); IRE Trans. AP-4, 330 (1956); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 145 (1962) (especially Sec. 1.2 and 3.1).
[Crossref]

Evering, F. C.

Hessel, A.

Oliner, A. A.

Palmer, C. H.

C. H. Palmer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1005 (1963).
[Crossref]

C. H. Palmer, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Quasi-Optics, Jerome Fox, Ed. (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1964; John Wiley Sons, Inc., N. Y., Distr.)

Twersky, V.

V. Twersky, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 407 (1952); IRE Trans. AP-4, 330 (1956); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 145 (1962) (especially Sec. 1.2 and 3.1).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Twersky, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 407 (1952); IRE Trans. AP-4, 330 (1956); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 145 (1962) (especially Sec. 1.2 and 3.1).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (1)

C. H. Palmer, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Quasi-Optics, Jerome Fox, Ed. (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1964; John Wiley Sons, Inc., N. Y., Distr.)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Irradiance profile in the plane of the grating under test produced by an auxiliary coarse transmission grating interposed in the incident beam. Solid line, P polarization; dashed line, S polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Grating T2S spectra, order −1, S polarization. Curves ×, +, and ● correspond to the three maxima occurring with irradiance as in Fig. 1 (see text); curve △ is for normal, uniform irradiance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fresnel diffraction pattern of off-centered slit, 40 cm wide. Solid curve measured; dashed curve calculated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fresnel diffraction pattern of off-centered slit, 20 cm wide. Solid curve measured; dashed curve calculated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Anomalous behavior of grating T2S irradiated by asymmetrical Fresnel diffraction patterns of Fig. 3 (×), Fig. 4 (●), and full symmetrical aperture (+).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of number of ruled lines on anomalous behavior for grating FP-1, rectangular profile, grating space 2.99λ. Measurements in the S polarization were made for 0 and +1 spectral orders for gratings with 8 lines ——, 6 lines — - —, 4 lines — —, 3 lines – – – –, and 2 lines — - - —.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of number of ruled lines on anomalous behavior for a 30°-blaze sawtooth-profile grating, grating space 2.835λ. Measurements in the P polarization for order + 1 shown. Curves are for 8 lines +, 6 lines △, 4 lines ×, and 3 lines ●.