Abstract

Equations are provided for the transformation of skin tone and foliage colorimetric data from one CIE reference light source to another. The resultant data represent the colorimetric shift due to illuminant change only and do not incorporate any color-adaptation effects.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. W. Burnham, R. M. Evans, and S. M. Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 35 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. J. Bartleson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 73 (1960).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. E. A. Edwards and S. Q. Duntley, Science 90, 235 (1939).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. B. Buck and H. C. Froelich, Ilium. Engr. 43, 27 (1948).
  5. D. L. MacAdam, Proc. IRE 42, 166 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. D. Wright, The Measurement of Colour (D. Van Nostrand & Co., Inc., Princeton, N. J., 1964), 3rd ed., p. 217.
  7. D. Nickerson, K. L. Kelly, and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 297 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. J. Breneman, Phot. Sci. Eng. 1, 74 (1957).

1960 (1)

1957 (2)

1954 (1)

D. L. MacAdam, Proc. IRE 42, 166 (1954).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

G. B. Buck and H. C. Froelich, Ilium. Engr. 43, 27 (1948).

1945 (1)

1939 (1)

E. A. Edwards and S. Q. Duntley, Science 90, 235 (1939).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartleson, C. J.

Breneman, E. J.

E. J. Breneman, Phot. Sci. Eng. 1, 74 (1957).

Buck, G. B.

G. B. Buck and H. C. Froelich, Ilium. Engr. 43, 27 (1948).

Burnham, R. W.

Duntley, S. Q.

E. A. Edwards and S. Q. Duntley, Science 90, 235 (1939).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edwards, E. A.

E. A. Edwards and S. Q. Duntley, Science 90, 235 (1939).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, R. M.

Froelich, H. C.

G. B. Buck and H. C. Froelich, Ilium. Engr. 43, 27 (1948).

Kelly, K. L.

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, Proc. IRE 42, 166 (1954).
[Crossref]

Newhall, S. M.

Nickerson, D.

Stultz, K. F.

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, The Measurement of Colour (D. Van Nostrand & Co., Inc., Princeton, N. J., 1964), 3rd ed., p. 217.

Ilium. Engr. (1)

G. B. Buck and H. C. Froelich, Ilium. Engr. 43, 27 (1948).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Phot. Sci. Eng. (1)

E. J. Breneman, Phot. Sci. Eng. 1, 74 (1957).

Proc. IRE (1)

D. L. MacAdam, Proc. IRE 42, 166 (1954).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. A. Edwards and S. Q. Duntley, Science 90, 235 (1939).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

W. D. Wright, The Measurement of Colour (D. Van Nostrand & Co., Inc., Princeton, N. J., 1964), 3rd ed., p. 217.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral reflection characteristics of six human skins. Curve #12 is the “average” Caucasian skin of Buck and Froelich.4

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral reflection characteristics of 11 preferred skin-tone reproductions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Skin-tone chromaticities. CIE chromaticities of the 17 objects used. Solid clots (●) are measured chromaticities of human skin: Open clots (○) are measured chromaticities of “excellent” skin reproductions5 and points of arrows are “predicted chromaticities” calculated from measured source A data by Eq. (1). Measured and calculated points agree to ±0.0015 when no arrow is shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Skin-tone variations. CIE chromaticities of (●) person-to-person variations of forehead chromaticity5; (X) point-to-point variations of facial skin tones of the same person6; and (○) point-to-point variations of reproduced skin tones of “excellent” reproductions. Points of arrows represent “predicted chromaticities” of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Chromaticities of foliage samples. Open dots (○) are the 16 foliages used to derive the equations, doubly circled dots are average or typical foliage. Points of arrows are “predicted chromaticities” calculated from measured source A data by Eq. (3). Measured and calculated points agree to ±0.0015 when no arrow is shown. Source C luminous reflectances ranged from 7.02%–21.04% with an average value of 11.3%.

Equations (5)

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X C = c 1 X A + c 2 Y A + c 3 Z A + c 4 , Y C = c 5 X A + c 6 Y A + c 7 Z A + c 80 , and Z C = c 9 X A + c 10 Y A + c 11 Z A + c 12 ,
X C = 0.45378 X A + 0.36062 Y A + 0.35782 Z A 0.00831 Y C = 0.30651 X A + 1.25630 Y A + 0.21438 Z A + 0.00462 Z C = 0.02400 X A 0.00998 Y A + 3.31654 Z A 0.01859 }
X A = 1.78619 X C 0.46949 Y C 0.16613 Z C + 0.01756 Y A = 0.44789 X C + 0.67080 Y C 0.09206 Z C 0.00075 Z A = 0.03329 X C + 0.02653 Y C + 0.30195 Z C + 0.00635 } .
X C = 0.53688 X A + 0.23795 Y A + 0.41283 Z A + 0.00072 Y C = 0.33524 X A + 1.29001 Y A + 0.22520 Z A 0.00034 Z C = 0.05031 X A 0.001287 Y A + 3.49498 Z A + 0.00090 }
X A = 1.58044 X C 0.25073 Y C 0.16535 Z C 0.00119 Y A = 0.42256 X C + 0.69750 Y C 0.09400 Z C + 0.00002 Z A = 0.00857 X C + 0.01106 Y C + 0.28535 Z C 0.00028 } .