Abstract

The optical constants of liquid mercury have been measured by ellipsometry at a wavelength of 5461 Å. The measured results are n = 1.485 and κ = 3.061. Discrepancies among values from the literature are discussed and the magnitude of the important sources of error are evaluated. The effects on the measured index of several different types of surface films between the mercury and several contact media have been calculated and compared. Errors in alignment are shown to cause large changes in the measured refractive index as well as an apparent dependence upon the angle of incidence.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Drude, Ann. Physik 272, 532 (1890).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. B. Winterbottom, Optical Studies of Metal Surfaces, The Royal Norwegian Scientific Society, Report No. 1 (F. Bruns, Trondheim, Norway, 1955).
  3. F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and J. Kruger, Eds., Ellipsometry in the Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films. Symposium Proceedings. NBS Misc. Publ. No. 256 (U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Wash. D. C., 1964).
  5. The program used for the calculations in this paper is given by F. L. McCrackin and J. Colson, NBS Tech. Note 242 (1964).
  6. W. Meier, Ann. Physik 31, 1017 (1910).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. A. Reeser, Arch. Néerland 6, 225 (1923).
  8. J. Ellerbroek, Arch Néerland 10, 42 (1927).
  9. L. Tronstad and C. G. P. Feachem, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A145, 115 (1934).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. M. Emberson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 443 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. G. Schulz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 64 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. G. Lelyuk, I. N. Shklyarevskii, and R. G. Yarovaya, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 16, 484 (1964); Translation-Opt. Spectry. 16, 263 (1964).
  13. J. N. Hodgson, Phil. Mag. 4, 183 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  14. Width of transmission band at half height was reported to be 4.0 Å; purchased from Thin Film Products, Cambridge, Mass. In all cases, reference to a company or product is made to specify experimental details and does not imply approval or recommendation of the product by the National Bureau of Standards.
  15. Note that this expression for the complex refractive index has been changed from that used in Ref. 3 since it has been found to permit a more direct interpretation of the effects of the various errors.
  16. International Critical Tables of Numerical Data (McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York.1926–30), Vol. V, p. 249.
  17. D. K. Burge and H. E. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1428 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  18. For a short discussion of strain-free optical materials see Primak in Ref. 4, p. 154

1964 (2)

L. G. Lelyuk, I. N. Shklyarevskii, and R. G. Yarovaya, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 16, 484 (1964); Translation-Opt. Spectry. 16, 263 (1964).

D. K. Burge and H. E. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1428 (1964).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

J. N. Hodgson, Phil. Mag. 4, 183 (1959).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

1936 (1)

1934 (1)

L. Tronstad and C. G. P. Feachem, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A145, 115 (1934).
[Crossref]

1927 (1)

J. Ellerbroek, Arch Néerland 10, 42 (1927).

1923 (1)

C. A. Reeser, Arch. Néerland 6, 225 (1923).

1910 (1)

W. Meier, Ann. Physik 31, 1017 (1910).
[Crossref]

1890 (1)

P. Drude, Ann. Physik 272, 532 (1890).
[Crossref]

Bennett, H. E.

Burge, D. K.

Colson, J.

The program used for the calculations in this paper is given by F. L. McCrackin and J. Colson, NBS Tech. Note 242 (1964).

Drude, P.

P. Drude, Ann. Physik 272, 532 (1890).
[Crossref]

Ellerbroek, J.

J. Ellerbroek, Arch Néerland 10, 42 (1927).

Emberson, R. M.

Feachem, C. G. P.

L. Tronstad and C. G. P. Feachem, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A145, 115 (1934).
[Crossref]

Hodgson, J. N.

J. N. Hodgson, Phil. Mag. 4, 183 (1959).
[Crossref]

Lelyuk, L. G.

L. G. Lelyuk, I. N. Shklyarevskii, and R. G. Yarovaya, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 16, 484 (1964); Translation-Opt. Spectry. 16, 263 (1964).

McCrackin, F. L.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
[Crossref]

The program used for the calculations in this paper is given by F. L. McCrackin and J. Colson, NBS Tech. Note 242 (1964).

Meier, W.

W. Meier, Ann. Physik 31, 1017 (1910).
[Crossref]

Passaglia, E.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
[Crossref]

Reeser, C. A.

C. A. Reeser, Arch. Néerland 6, 225 (1923).

Schulz, L. G.

Shklyarevskii, I. N.

L. G. Lelyuk, I. N. Shklyarevskii, and R. G. Yarovaya, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 16, 484 (1964); Translation-Opt. Spectry. 16, 263 (1964).

Steinberg, H. L.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
[Crossref]

Stromberg, R. R.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
[Crossref]

Tronstad, L.

L. Tronstad and C. G. P. Feachem, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A145, 115 (1934).
[Crossref]

Winterbottom, A. B.

A. B. Winterbottom, Optical Studies of Metal Surfaces, The Royal Norwegian Scientific Society, Report No. 1 (F. Bruns, Trondheim, Norway, 1955).

Yarovaya, R. G.

L. G. Lelyuk, I. N. Shklyarevskii, and R. G. Yarovaya, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 16, 484 (1964); Translation-Opt. Spectry. 16, 263 (1964).

Ann. Physik (2)

P. Drude, Ann. Physik 272, 532 (1890).
[Crossref]

W. Meier, Ann. Physik 31, 1017 (1910).
[Crossref]

Arch Néerland (1)

J. Ellerbroek, Arch Néerland 10, 42 (1927).

Arch. Néerland (1)

C. A. Reeser, Arch. Néerland 6, 225 (1923).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (1)

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 67A, 363 (1963).
[Crossref]

Opt. i Spektroskopiya (1)

L. G. Lelyuk, I. N. Shklyarevskii, and R. G. Yarovaya, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 16, 484 (1964); Translation-Opt. Spectry. 16, 263 (1964).

Phil. Mag. (1)

J. N. Hodgson, Phil. Mag. 4, 183 (1959).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

L. Tronstad and C. G. P. Feachem, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A145, 115 (1934).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and J. Kruger, Eds., Ellipsometry in the Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films. Symposium Proceedings. NBS Misc. Publ. No. 256 (U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Wash. D. C., 1964).

The program used for the calculations in this paper is given by F. L. McCrackin and J. Colson, NBS Tech. Note 242 (1964).

A. B. Winterbottom, Optical Studies of Metal Surfaces, The Royal Norwegian Scientific Society, Report No. 1 (F. Bruns, Trondheim, Norway, 1955).

Width of transmission band at half height was reported to be 4.0 Å; purchased from Thin Film Products, Cambridge, Mass. In all cases, reference to a company or product is made to specify experimental details and does not imply approval or recommendation of the product by the National Bureau of Standards.

Note that this expression for the complex refractive index has been changed from that used in Ref. 3 since it has been found to permit a more direct interpretation of the effects of the various errors.

International Critical Tables of Numerical Data (McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York.1926–30), Vol. V, p. 249.

For a short discussion of strain-free optical materials see Primak in Ref. 4, p. 154

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effect of misalignment on the apparent optical constant as a function of the angle of incidence. The optical constants of the substrate are assumed to be n = 1.485, κ = 3.061. The contact medium is air, n = 1.00. (a) —– Calculated for constant deviation of +0.50° in P from true value. - - - Data of Tronstad and Feachem, Ref. 9, as recalculated by A. C. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 911 (1965). (b) Calculated for constant deviation of +0.02° in P from true value; —– variation in n, …. variation in κ.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I The complex index of refraction (N = ninκ) of liquid mercury at 5461 Å.

Tables Icon

Table II Apparent optical constants of mercury measured under thin films. The assumed complex index of the substrate is n = 1.485, κ = 3.061; ϕ = 70°.