Abstract

Recovery curves were run following 1- and 5-min adaptation to wavelengths ranging from 595 to 670 mμ taken at 15-mμ intervals at a luminance of 100 ft-L. The effects of near-monochromatic and broad bandwidths were investigated. Recovery curves are in terms of time necessary to return to a predetermined dark-adapted threshold and to stated values above that threshold.

After one minute of adaptation to a light of 610 mμ, recovery is faster than after exposure to an equally bright light of 595 mμ. Lengthening the wavelength causes no further reduction in recovery time. After five minutes of similar adaptation, recovery time is progressively shortened by lengthening the wavelength to 640 mμ. Further increases in wavelength result in recovery times equivalent to those of the 640-mμ adaptation. Spreading the bandwidth from near monochromatic to 30 mμ has no effect on subsequent recovery, although further broadening the bandwidth to include the shorter wavelengths results in reduced sensitivity for the 595-mμ setting. These findings are consistent with luminosity theory.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 261 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Wald, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 633 (1960); W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 156, 166 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. M. Rowland and L. L. Sloan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 601 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 402 (1951); H. H. Ferguson and T. P. H. McKellar, Brit. J. Psychol. 34, 81 (1943–44); D. M. Polinsky and F. A. Young, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 118 (1956).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. An exception to this general procedure is found in Hulburt, Ref. 4. For three wavelengths in the visible spectrum, monochromatic light was used.
  6. S. W. Smith, A. Morris, and F. L. Dimmick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 502 (1955).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 269 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  8. The scotopic threshold which was measured following each dark-adaptation period and prior to the experimental runs was found to vary slightly for an observer from day to day. Since it is unreasonable to expect that, for example, following light exposure, an observer will recover to a level more sensitive than his original scotopic level, a relative threshold was considered most appropriate. The predetermined scotopic threshold for each session was taken as the most meaningful termination point and all such thresholds are considered psychologically equivalent, although there may be minor variations in absolute luminances. Therefore, the results given in Figs. 2–5 are expressed in terms of the time necessary to return to the termination point and to relative steps above this final threshold. The abscissa values are the differences between the wedge-setting at which the stimulus was seen and the final threshold wedge setting. Each wedge setting represents a change of approximately 0.125 log units.
  9. S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, Ref. 1, p. 263.
  10. F. A. Mote, G. E. Briggs, and K. M. Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 38, 69 (1954); S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  11. International Commission on Illumination Note, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 734 (1951); D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933).
    [Crossref]

1960 (1)

1955 (1)

1954 (1)

F. A. Mote, G. E. Briggs, and K. M. Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 38, 69 (1954); S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).
[Crossref]

1951 (2)

1945 (1)

1944 (1)

1938 (1)

Briggs, G. E.

F. A. Mote, G. E. Briggs, and K. M. Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 38, 69 (1954); S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).
[Crossref]

Dimmick, F. L.

Hecht, S.

Hsia, Y.

Hulburt, E. O.

Michels, K. M.

F. A. Mote, G. E. Briggs, and K. M. Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 38, 69 (1954); S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).
[Crossref]

Morris, A.

Mote, F. A.

F. A. Mote, G. E. Briggs, and K. M. Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 38, 69 (1954); S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).
[Crossref]

Rowland, W. M.

Shlaer, S.

Sloan, L. L.

Smith, S. W.

Wald, G.

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

F. A. Mote, G. E. Briggs, and K. M. Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 38, 69 (1954); S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

Other (3)

The scotopic threshold which was measured following each dark-adaptation period and prior to the experimental runs was found to vary slightly for an observer from day to day. Since it is unreasonable to expect that, for example, following light exposure, an observer will recover to a level more sensitive than his original scotopic level, a relative threshold was considered most appropriate. The predetermined scotopic threshold for each session was taken as the most meaningful termination point and all such thresholds are considered psychologically equivalent, although there may be minor variations in absolute luminances. Therefore, the results given in Figs. 2–5 are expressed in terms of the time necessary to return to the termination point and to relative steps above this final threshold. The abscissa values are the differences between the wedge-setting at which the stimulus was seen and the final threshold wedge setting. Each wedge setting represents a change of approximately 0.125 log units.

S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, Ref. 1, p. 263.

An exception to this general procedure is found in Hulburt, Ref. 4. For three wavelengths in the visible spectrum, monochromatic light was used.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the Hilger spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recovery curves after 1-min adaptation to wavelengths 595 mμ (●——●), 610 mμ (⊙– – — – –), 625 mμ (– –⊝– –), 640 mμ (+ –·–·–), 655 mμ (⋯×··), 670 mμ (— —▼), for three observers, MC (top), JK (middle), and SW (bottom).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recovery curves after 5-min adaptation to several wavelengths: 595 mμ (—— ●), 610 mμ (– – —⊙), 625 mμ (– –⊝– –), 640 mμ (—·— +), 655 mμ (⋯ × ··), 670 mμ (— —▼) for observers MC (left), JK (middle), and SW (right).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of bandwidths. Recovery curves for O MC after 5-min adaptation to the various wavelengths. Narrow bandwidth of 5 mμ (——) is compared against wider bandwidths as follows: 12 mμ (—··—), 28 mμ (—·—), 29 mμ (– – – –), 30.2 mμ (- - - - -), 31.6 (— —), 33.6 (⋯⋯), and 36.0 (—⋯—).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of bandwidths for three O’s, MC (left), JK (middle), and SW (right). Recovery curves after 1-min adaptation to 595 mμ, at the top, for bandwidths of 5 mμ (——), 12 mμ (— – —), 28 mμ (– – — – –) and Wratten filter # 106 (— — —); to 625 mμ, at the bottom, for bandwidths of 5 mμ (——), 30.2 mμ (– – – –), and Navy dark adaptation filter (— — —).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Cone–rod involvement ratios.