Abstract

A contact-lens technique was used to record eye movements made by two subjects attempting to maintain fixation at the center of concentric round targets of several sizes (1.9′–87.2′ diam) and luminances (2.8, 7.8, and 21.5 mL). Fixation of red, blue, and white 1.9′-diam targets was also examined. Analysis-of-variance designs were employed to remove variability arising from sources other than these stimulus variables. Statistically reliable differences in mean fixation position were found with targets of different size, luminance, and color. The largest difference observed was less than 4′ and under most conditions was less than 2′. The bivariate dispersion of the eye about its mean position varied in a complex manner with the size and luminance of the target object. No statistically reliable effects of stimulus variables were found on drifts. Saccade frequency was considerably reduced with the largest targets. Results are discussed in terms of a “fixed error-signal system” for the control of eye position.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 987 (1956).
  2. J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Atm. 49, 901 (1959).
  3. J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 761 (1961).
  4. K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).
  5. D. H. Fender, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 294 (1955).
  6. F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).
  7. R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. 119, 1 (1953).
  8. Approximately 6% of the records were measured twice. The second measurements were made throughout the several months of film reading without access to prior data. The variance attributable to measurement error is: SF, 0.074 saccades; mean horizontal position, 0.049′; mean vertical position, 0.012′; DM, 0.087′, and logAp, 0.001 (min arc)2.
  9. To illustrate, the standard deviation of the horizontal component of rotation might not be affected by changes in luminance while along some other meridian large effects do, in fact, occur. Since such directional nonuniformities along various meridians within and between individuals have been shown, a measure of dispersion which includes all directions of rotation was used.2,3.An alternative approach would be to find the meridian along which maximum and minimum treatment effects do occur for each subject.
  10. W. Cochran and G. Cox, Experimental Designs (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1957).
  11. These effects could be of two kinds: a somewhat mysterious effect of after-images of small targets which aids in the fixation of larger ones; or practice effects, relatively stable fixation of large targets requiring periodic trials with smaller ones.
  12. See R. M. Steinman, Ph.D. dissertation (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1964) for the complete analyses of variance and tabled data.
  13. J. Krauskopf, T. N. Cornsweet, and L. A. Riggs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 572 (1960).
  14. "Local sign" refers only to a signal which can be used to guide the direction and size of corrective eye movements. Such "motor local signs" may be related to other "local signs" which lead to the perceived direction or movement of an object in space relative to the observer. See J. Bruel and G. Albee, Psychol. Rev. 62, 391 (1955) for a discussion of the possible relationship of eye position and eye movements to the perception of direction and movement.
  15. S. L. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

Albee, G.

"Local sign" refers only to a signal which can be used to guide the direction and size of corrective eye movements. Such "motor local signs" may be related to other "local signs" which lead to the perceived direction or movement of an object in space relative to the observer. See J. Bruel and G. Albee, Psychol. Rev. 62, 391 (1955) for a discussion of the possible relationship of eye position and eye movements to the perception of direction and movement.

Bruel, J.

"Local sign" refers only to a signal which can be used to guide the direction and size of corrective eye movements. Such "motor local signs" may be related to other "local signs" which lead to the perceived direction or movement of an object in space relative to the observer. See J. Bruel and G. Albee, Psychol. Rev. 62, 391 (1955) for a discussion of the possible relationship of eye position and eye movements to the perception of direction and movement.

Cochran, W.

W. Cochran and G. Cox, Experimental Designs (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1957).

Cornsweet, T. N.

J. Krauskopf, T. N. Cornsweet, and L. A. Riggs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 572 (1960).

T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 987 (1956).

Cox, G.

W. Cochran and G. Cox, Experimental Designs (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1957).

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. 119, 1 (1953).

Fender, D. H.

D. H. Fender, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 294 (1955).

Gaarder, K.

K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).

Ginsborg, B. L.

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. 119, 1 (1953).

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, T. N. Cornsweet, and L. A. Riggs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 572 (1960).

Nachmias, J.

J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Atm. 49, 901 (1959).

J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 761 (1961).

Polyak, S. L.

S. L. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).

Riggs, L. A.

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).

J. Krauskopf, T. N. Cornsweet, and L. A. Riggs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 572 (1960).

Steinman, R. M.

See R. M. Steinman, Ph.D. dissertation (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1964) for the complete analyses of variance and tabled data.

Other

T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 987 (1956).

J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Atm. 49, 901 (1959).

J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 761 (1961).

K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).

D. H. Fender, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 294 (1955).

F. Ratliff and L. A. Riggs, J. Exptl. Psychol. 40, 687 (1950).

R. W. Ditchburn and B. L. Ginsborg, J. Physiol. 119, 1 (1953).

Approximately 6% of the records were measured twice. The second measurements were made throughout the several months of film reading without access to prior data. The variance attributable to measurement error is: SF, 0.074 saccades; mean horizontal position, 0.049′; mean vertical position, 0.012′; DM, 0.087′, and logAp, 0.001 (min arc)2.

To illustrate, the standard deviation of the horizontal component of rotation might not be affected by changes in luminance while along some other meridian large effects do, in fact, occur. Since such directional nonuniformities along various meridians within and between individuals have been shown, a measure of dispersion which includes all directions of rotation was used.2,3.An alternative approach would be to find the meridian along which maximum and minimum treatment effects do occur for each subject.

W. Cochran and G. Cox, Experimental Designs (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1957).

These effects could be of two kinds: a somewhat mysterious effect of after-images of small targets which aids in the fixation of larger ones; or practice effects, relatively stable fixation of large targets requiring periodic trials with smaller ones.

See R. M. Steinman, Ph.D. dissertation (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1964) for the complete analyses of variance and tabled data.

J. Krauskopf, T. N. Cornsweet, and L. A. Riggs, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 572 (1960).

"Local sign" refers only to a signal which can be used to guide the direction and size of corrective eye movements. Such "motor local signs" may be related to other "local signs" which lead to the perceived direction or movement of an object in space relative to the observer. See J. Bruel and G. Albee, Psychol. Rev. 62, 391 (1955) for a discussion of the possible relationship of eye position and eye movements to the perception of direction and movement.

S. L. Polyak, The Retina (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.