Abstract

Thresholds for the perception of red and green or for blue and yellow, presented in two-color mixtures, were measured at exposure durations of 20, 50, 100, and 300 msec at the fovea and 6° above the fovea, at a constant luminance of 0.12 ft-L. Median foveal thresholds for red and green were constant from 300 to 50 msec and decreased slightly at 20 msec; at 6°, sensitivity to both red and green declined with decreasing exposure time. Median thresholds for blue deteriorated as exposure time decreased from 300 to 100 msec, but improved with further reductions in stimulus duration. The median yellow thresholds declined as exposure time was reduced below 100 msec. The results are compared with previous data obtained as a function of retinal position and luminance and with similar thresholds measured under conditions of constant brightness. The results are also discussed in relation to various estimates of the “risetimes” of different colors.

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  1. J. C. Maxwell, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 150, 57 (1860).
  2. M. Charpentier, Lumiere Electrique 21, 165 (1886).
  3. S. S. Stevens, Am. J. Psychol. 46, 70 (1934).
  4. M. M. Connors and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 81 (1962).
  5. S. Weissman and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 74 (1965).
  6. S. Weissman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 884 (1965).
  7. A. Broca and D. Sulzer, Compt. Rend. 137, 944, 977, 1046 (1903).
  8. M . Bills, Psychol. Mono. 28, 1 (1920).
  9. C. Ferree and G. Rand, Trans. I.E.S. 18, 174 (1923).
  10. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 589 (1950).
  11. The curves for BR are also somewhat anomalous in that his red thresholds are lower at 300 and 100 msec than at 50 or 20 msec; but since they are also lower than the respective green thresholds (indicating more green light in the red thresholds than in the green threshold itself), he may have been having criterion difficulties. He, in fact, reported that at the longer durations he almost always saw a red spot surrounded by a green annulus rather than the usual gray or yellow. It is conceivable, then, that his criterion for green was the smallest possible annulus around a predominantly red field while the criterion for red was the smallest red field in the center of the green annulus. At shorter exposures, or in the periphery, such a subtle judgment may have been impossible, forcing him to judge only the general impression of color.
  12. W. H. Stainton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 26 (1928).
  13. S. L. Guth, Vision Res. 4, 567 (1964).
  14. J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 738 (1965).
  15. J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 731 (1965).
  16. See Ref. 7, p. 978.
  17. F. J. J. Clarke, Opt. Acta 7, 355 (1960).
  18. R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. Neun, Science 146, 666 (1964).

Bills, M .

M . Bills, Psychol. Mono. 28, 1 (1920).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. Neun, Science 146, 666 (1964).

Broca, A.

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, Compt. Rend. 137, 944, 977, 1046 (1903).

Charpentier, M.

M. Charpentier, Lumiere Electrique 21, 165 (1886).

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, Opt. Acta 7, 355 (1960).

Connors, M. M.

M. M. Connors and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 81 (1962).

Ferree, C.

C. Ferree and G. Rand, Trans. I.E.S. 18, 174 (1923).

Guth, S. L.

S. L. Guth, Vision Res. 4, 567 (1964).

Kinney, J. A. S.

J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 738 (1965).

J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 731 (1965).

M. M. Connors and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 81 (1962).

S. Weissman and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 74 (1965).

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 589 (1950).

Maxwell, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 150, 57 (1860).

Neun, M.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. Neun, Science 146, 666 (1964).

Rand, G.

C. Ferree and G. Rand, Trans. I.E.S. 18, 174 (1923).

Schafer, W.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. Neun, Science 146, 666 (1964).

Stainton, W. H.

W. H. Stainton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 26 (1928).

Stevens, S. S.

S. S. Stevens, Am. J. Psychol. 46, 70 (1934).

Sulzer, D.

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, Compt. Rend. 137, 944, 977, 1046 (1903).

Weissman, S.

S. Weissman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 884 (1965).

S. Weissman and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 74 (1965).

Other (18)

J. C. Maxwell, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 150, 57 (1860).

M. Charpentier, Lumiere Electrique 21, 165 (1886).

S. S. Stevens, Am. J. Psychol. 46, 70 (1934).

M. M. Connors and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 81 (1962).

S. Weissman and J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 74 (1965).

S. Weissman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 884 (1965).

A. Broca and D. Sulzer, Compt. Rend. 137, 944, 977, 1046 (1903).

M . Bills, Psychol. Mono. 28, 1 (1920).

C. Ferree and G. Rand, Trans. I.E.S. 18, 174 (1923).

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 589 (1950).

The curves for BR are also somewhat anomalous in that his red thresholds are lower at 300 and 100 msec than at 50 or 20 msec; but since they are also lower than the respective green thresholds (indicating more green light in the red thresholds than in the green threshold itself), he may have been having criterion difficulties. He, in fact, reported that at the longer durations he almost always saw a red spot surrounded by a green annulus rather than the usual gray or yellow. It is conceivable, then, that his criterion for green was the smallest possible annulus around a predominantly red field while the criterion for red was the smallest red field in the center of the green annulus. At shorter exposures, or in the periphery, such a subtle judgment may have been impossible, forcing him to judge only the general impression of color.

W. H. Stainton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 26 (1928).

S. L. Guth, Vision Res. 4, 567 (1964).

J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 738 (1965).

J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 731 (1965).

See Ref. 7, p. 978.

F. J. J. Clarke, Opt. Acta 7, 355 (1960).

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. Neun, Science 146, 666 (1964).

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