Abstract

This paper compares various measurements of the absolute quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate and tries to explain the discrepancies between the different determinations that range from 25–99%. The sensitivity of a phototube is commonly assumed to be independent of the angle of incidence. An experiment described here has demonstrated that this is far from true. Since the photocathode angular sensitivity probably varies from tube to tube, great prudence should be shown when using sodium salicylate for absolute intensity determinations. The described photomultiplier-tube effect might also be of significant importance in scintillation counters and other fluorescence studies. The problems discussed here have been carefully avoided by Allison et al. We therefore conclude that their value of the quantum efficiency, which is equal to 99% for layer thicknesses 2–4 mg/cm2, is the most reliable one.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. S. Johnson, K. Watanabe, and R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 702 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Watanabe and E. C. Y. Inn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 32 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. Dejardin and R. Schwegler, Rev. Opt. (Théor. Instrum.) 13, 313 (1934).
  4. R. A. Knapp, Appl. Opt. 2, 1334 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. J. Nygaard, Institute of Applied Physics Technical Report T. F. 61-1, Norges tekniske høgskole, Trondheim, Norway, November (1961).
  6. K. J. Nygaard, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 597 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. M. Smith, Ph.D. thesis, University of Rochester (1961).
  8. R. A. Knapp and A. M. Smith, Appl. Opt. 3, 637 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. Allison, J. Bums, and A. J. Tuzzolino, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 747 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  10. N. Kristianpoller and R. A. Knapp, Appl. Opt. 3, 915 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Inokuchi, Y. Harada, and T. Kondow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 842 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. Allison (private communication).
  13. N. Kristianpoller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1285 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. B. Birks, Scintillation Counters (Pergamon Press Ltd., London, 1954), p. 15.

1964 (6)

1963 (1)

1953 (1)

1951 (1)

1934 (1)

G. Dejardin and R. Schwegler, Rev. Opt. (Théor. Instrum.) 13, 313 (1934).

Allison, R.

Birks, J. B.

J. B. Birks, Scintillation Counters (Pergamon Press Ltd., London, 1954), p. 15.

Bums, J.

Dejardin, G.

G. Dejardin and R. Schwegler, Rev. Opt. (Théor. Instrum.) 13, 313 (1934).

Harada, Y.

Inn, E. C. Y.

Inokuchi, H.

Johnson, F. S.

Knapp, R. A.

Kondow, T.

Kristianpoller, N.

Nygaard, K. J.

K. J. Nygaard, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 597 (1964).
[Crossref]

K. J. Nygaard, Institute of Applied Physics Technical Report T. F. 61-1, Norges tekniske høgskole, Trondheim, Norway, November (1961).

Schwegler, R.

G. Dejardin and R. Schwegler, Rev. Opt. (Théor. Instrum.) 13, 313 (1934).

Smith, A. M.

R. A. Knapp and A. M. Smith, Appl. Opt. 3, 637 (1964).
[Crossref]

A. M. Smith, Ph.D. thesis, University of Rochester (1961).

Tousey, R.

Tuzzolino, A. J.

Watanabe, K.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Brit. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. J. Nygaard, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 597 (1964).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Rev. Opt. (Théor. Instrum.) (1)

G. Dejardin and R. Schwegler, Rev. Opt. (Théor. Instrum.) 13, 313 (1934).

Other (4)

K. J. Nygaard, Institute of Applied Physics Technical Report T. F. 61-1, Norges tekniske høgskole, Trondheim, Norway, November (1961).

A. M. Smith, Ph.D. thesis, University of Rochester (1961).

J. B. Birks, Scintillation Counters (Pergamon Press Ltd., London, 1954), p. 15.

R. Allison (private communication).

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Figures (2)

F. 1
F. 1

Photomultiplier in contact with fluorescent medium. ng, n0, nc, and nf represent the different refraction indices.

F. 2
F. 2

Relative angular sensitivity f(θ) of an EMI 6256 photomultiplier tube. θ is the angle of incidence on the photocathode surface.

Tables (1)

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Table I Measurements of absolute quantum efficiency.

Equations (1)

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A = 0 π / 2 2 π sin θ cos θ d θ / 0 π / 2 2 π sin θ cos θ f ( θ ) d θ .