Abstract

Foveal increment thresholds, with particular reference to the blue, were investigated when the retina was in the process of recovery from preadaptation to high and medium luminance fields of long wavelengths.

While confirming Wald and Auerbach’s finding of an inflection in the blue recovery from adaptation to very high luminance, and Stiles’s observation of an initial rise of threshold, over the light-adapted value, the results also indicated (1) that the inflection could not readily be related to any of the π1, π2, and π3 receptors, and (2) that the maximum of the π2 sensitivity in the blue region could not lie at wavelengths longer than 470 mμ.

© 1964 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy Soc (London) B127, 64 (1939).
  2. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B133, 418 (1946).
  3. W. S. Stiles, Rev. Opt. 28(4), 215 (1949).
  4. W. S. Stiles, Union Internationale de Physique Pure et Appliquée, Coloquio Sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision, Madrid, 65 (1953).
  5. S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 651 (1940).
  6. J. Mandelbaum and E. U. Mintz, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1241 (1941).
  7. G. Wald and E. Auerbach, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 124 (1955).
  8. W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 45, 100 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London)B134, 283 (1947).
  11. W. A. H. Rushton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53104 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 798 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 98 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. D. Baker, M. D. Doran, and K. E. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1065 (1959).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. R. M. Boynton, G. Kandel, and J. W. Onley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 654 (1959).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1963 (2)

1959 (3)

1955 (1)

G. Wald and E. Auerbach, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 124 (1955).

1953 (2)

W. S. Stiles, Union Internationale de Physique Pure et Appliquée, Coloquio Sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision, Madrid, 65 (1953).

H. D. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 798 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1949 (2)

W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, Rev. Opt. 28(4), 215 (1949).

1947 (1)

H. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London)B134, 283 (1947).

1946 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B133, 418 (1946).

1941 (1)

J. Mandelbaum and E. U. Mintz, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1241 (1941).

1940 (1)

S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 651 (1940).

1939 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy Soc (London) B127, 64 (1939).

Auerbach, E.

G. Wald and E. Auerbach, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 124 (1955).

Baker, H. D.

Boynton, R. M.

Crawford, H. H.

H. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London)B134, 283 (1947).

Doran, M. D.

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 651 (1940).

Kandel, G.

Mandelbaum, J.

J. Mandelbaum and E. U. Mintz, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1241 (1941).

S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 651 (1940).

Miller, K. E.

Mintz, E. U.

J. Mandelbaum and E. U. Mintz, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1241 (1941).

Onley, J. W.

Rushton, W. A. H.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 45, 100 (1959).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, Union Internationale de Physique Pure et Appliquée, Coloquio Sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision, Madrid, 65 (1953).

W. S. Stiles, Rev. Opt. 28(4), 215 (1949).

W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B133, 418 (1946).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy Soc (London) B127, 64 (1939).

Wald, G.

G. Wald and E. Auerbach, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 124 (1955).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. Mandelbaum and E. U. Mintz, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1241 (1941).

G. Wald and E. Auerbach, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 39, 124 (1955).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, Am. J. Physiol. 130, 651 (1940).

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 45, 100 (1959).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy Soc (London) (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy Soc (London) B127, 64 (1939).

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (2)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B133, 418 (1946).

H. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London)B134, 283 (1947).

Rev. Opt. (1)

W. S. Stiles, Rev. Opt. 28(4), 215 (1949).

Union Internationale de Physique Pure et Appliquée, Coloquio Sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision, Madrid (1)

W. S. Stiles, Union Internationale de Physique Pure et Appliquée, Coloquio Sobre Problemas Opticos de la Vision, Madrid, 65 (1953).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Foveal increment threshold versus retinal field illuminance (600 mμ) for three test wavelengths. Field scale correct for all the curves. Curves are arbitrarily displaced vertically.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dark recovery from adapting retinal illuminance: 1.86×106 trolands. Dominant wavelength of field: 600 mμ. Curves arbitrarily displaced vertically.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dark recovery from 600-mμ adapting field, retinal illuminance: 30 000 trolands. Curves arbitrarily displaced vertically.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Short time dark recovery. Curves arbitrarily displaced vertically.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Curves showing sensitivity variation with wavelength at different times after extinction of the adapting field. Adapting field retinal illuminance: 30 000 trolands. ×, field-on threshold (t=0); ○, t=3 sec; △, t=9 sec; □, t=30 sec; ●, absolute threshold (t=∞).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Curves showing the difference △ between the log(threshold) at two particular times after extinction and the log(threshold) with the adapting field on, for various test wavelengths. Stiles’s values obtained from data plotted in Ref. 8, p. 161, Fig. 15.