Abstract

When a glare beam enters the eye as a tiny pencil of light, we perceive the corneal scatter subjectively as a faint luminous veil, which is bordered by the screening effect of the iris.

Measurements of the luminance decrease at this shadow border indicated that the corneal share in entoptic scatter makes up some 30% between 30° and 70° angle of glare.

© 1963 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. W. DeMott and R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 120, (1958).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. J. Vos and M. A. Bouman, “Disability glare: theory and practice,” Proc. CIE Brussels (1959), p. 298.
  3. J. J. Vos, “On mechanisms of glare,” thesis, Utrecht, 1963.
  4. R. M. Boynton, J. M. Enoch, and W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 879 (1954).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. B122, 255 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 320 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. M. Boynton and F. J. J. Clarke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1326 (1962).
    [Crossref]

1962 (1)

R. M. Boynton and F. J. J. Clarke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1326 (1962).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

J. J. Vos and M. A. Bouman, “Disability glare: theory and practice,” Proc. CIE Brussels (1959), p. 298.

1958 (2)

D. W. DeMott and R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 120, (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 320 (1958).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

1937 (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. B122, 255 (1937).
[Crossref]

Bouman, M. A.

J. J. Vos and M. A. Bouman, “Disability glare: theory and practice,” Proc. CIE Brussels (1959), p. 298.

Boynton, R. M.

Bush, W. R.

Clarke, F. J. J.

R. M. Boynton and F. J. J. Clarke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1326 (1962).
[Crossref]

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. B122, 255 (1937).
[Crossref]

DeMott, D. W.

Enoch, J. M.

Leebeek, H. J.

P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 320 (1958).
[Crossref]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. B122, 255 (1937).
[Crossref]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos and M. A. Bouman, “Disability glare: theory and practice,” Proc. CIE Brussels (1959), p. 298.

J. J. Vos, “On mechanisms of glare,” thesis, Utrecht, 1963.

Walraven, P. L.

P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 320 (1958).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Proc. CIE Brussels (1)

J. J. Vos and M. A. Bouman, “Disability glare: theory and practice,” Proc. CIE Brussels (1959), p. 298.

Proc. Roy. Soc. (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. B122, 255 (1937).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

P. L. Walraven and H. J. Leebeek, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 320 (1958).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. J. Vos, “On mechanisms of glare,” thesis, Utrecht, 1963.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Slit lamp picture of the human eye. From the left to the right one sees lighting up in scattered light the cornea and the various shells of the crystalline lens. The anterior chamber and the vitreous are optically almost empty, by comparison. The small light spot, apparently located in the anterior chamber, is the corneal reflection of the slit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The translighting of the iris by the corneal scattering. The width of the pupil determines the size of the entoptic light circle on the retina, which corresponds with the angle of glare, ϑ in the visual field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The luminance distribution in the entoptic veil round the glare source (a). The jump at the shadow border is either compensated by the pattern (b), or imitated by the pattern (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The optical arrangement. The field of view consists of the lens L, providing the glare source in Maxwellian view, and the white screen, on which the imitation or compensation circles are projected from behind. With the cords, the subjects can give the projections small shaking movements, which imitate the effect of eye movements on the glare pattern.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

An example of the direct result of compensation experiments. The subject reports whether the glare pattern or the compensation pattern is seen dominant, or that he cannot make a decision. The transit through “equal” is taken as the matching value.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The equivalent luminance of the corneal contribution to the entoptic veil as a function of the angular distance to the glare source. As a comparison we drew the curve for the total entoptic veil according to the literature (see text) and—interruptedly—the course of the cornea component according to DeMott and Boynton (brought to the level of the experimental points).

Equations (1)

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E eff = luminous flux = 7 × 10 4 lm natural pupill area = 1 4 π × ( 6 × 10 3 ) 2 m 2 × 1 average luminous efficiency of the pupill 0.6 = 40 lx .