Abstract

The meteorological satellite TIROS II carries a five-channel radiometer which scans the earth by rotation of the satellite. Two channels are sensitive to sunlight reflected from the earth and three are responsive to terrestrial infrared emission. The effect of the optical properties upon the measurements is indicated. Calculations, using model atmospheres, show the sources of outgoing terrestrial radiation and limb-darkening effects for two of the channels. A map of the radiation received by the channel sensitive in the window region (8–12 μ) is compared with a conventional weather chart.

© 1961 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. A. Hanel, Jet Propulsion 31(February, 1961).
  2. R. A. Hanel and W. G. Stroud, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69(January, 1960).
  3. W. R. Bandeen, R. A. Hanel, J. Licht, R. A. Stampfl, and W. G. Stroud, presented at the AMS meeting, New York, January, 1961, to be published in J. Geophys. Research.
  4. R. W. Astheimer, R. DeWaard, and E. A. Jackson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1386 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. M. Elsasser and M. F. Culbertson, Meteorol. Monographs 4, 23 (1960).
  6. D. Q. Wark, J. Geophys. Research 66, 77–82 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Q. Wark (unpublished).
  8. D. Q. Wark and G. Yamamoto (to be published).

1961 (3)

R. A. Hanel, Jet Propulsion 31(February, 1961).

D. Q. Wark, J. Geophys. Research 66, 77–82 (1961).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Astheimer, R. DeWaard, and E. A. Jackson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1386 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (2)

R. A. Hanel and W. G. Stroud, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69(January, 1960).

W. M. Elsasser and M. F. Culbertson, Meteorol. Monographs 4, 23 (1960).

Astheimer, R. W.

Bandeen, W. R.

W. R. Bandeen, R. A. Hanel, J. Licht, R. A. Stampfl, and W. G. Stroud, presented at the AMS meeting, New York, January, 1961, to be published in J. Geophys. Research.

Culbertson, M. F.

W. M. Elsasser and M. F. Culbertson, Meteorol. Monographs 4, 23 (1960).

DeWaard, R.

Elsasser, W. M.

W. M. Elsasser and M. F. Culbertson, Meteorol. Monographs 4, 23 (1960).

Hanel, R. A.

R. A. Hanel, Jet Propulsion 31(February, 1961).

R. A. Hanel and W. G. Stroud, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69(January, 1960).

W. R. Bandeen, R. A. Hanel, J. Licht, R. A. Stampfl, and W. G. Stroud, presented at the AMS meeting, New York, January, 1961, to be published in J. Geophys. Research.

Jackson, E. A.

Licht, J.

W. R. Bandeen, R. A. Hanel, J. Licht, R. A. Stampfl, and W. G. Stroud, presented at the AMS meeting, New York, January, 1961, to be published in J. Geophys. Research.

Stampfl, R. A.

W. R. Bandeen, R. A. Hanel, J. Licht, R. A. Stampfl, and W. G. Stroud, presented at the AMS meeting, New York, January, 1961, to be published in J. Geophys. Research.

Stroud, W. G.

R. A. Hanel and W. G. Stroud, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69(January, 1960).

W. R. Bandeen, R. A. Hanel, J. Licht, R. A. Stampfl, and W. G. Stroud, presented at the AMS meeting, New York, January, 1961, to be published in J. Geophys. Research.

Wark, D. Q.

D. Q. Wark, J. Geophys. Research 66, 77–82 (1961).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Wark (unpublished).

D. Q. Wark and G. Yamamoto (to be published).

Yamamoto, G.

D. Q. Wark and G. Yamamoto (to be published).

J. Geophys. Research (1)

D. Q. Wark, J. Geophys. Research 66, 77–82 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. (1)

R. A. Hanel and W. G. Stroud, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 69(January, 1960).

Jet Propulsion (1)

R. A. Hanel, Jet Propulsion 31(February, 1961).

Meteorol. Monographs (1)

W. M. Elsasser and M. F. Culbertson, Meteorol. Monographs 4, 23 (1960).

Other (3)

W. R. Bandeen, R. A. Hanel, J. Licht, R. A. Stampfl, and W. G. Stroud, presented at the AMS meeting, New York, January, 1961, to be published in J. Geophys. Research.

D. Q. Wark (unpublished).

D. Q. Wark and G. Yamamoto (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The scan patterns of the TIROS II medium resolution radiometers. The view is at 45° from the spin axis. Progress of the spin stabilized satellite in its orbit results in constantly changing scan patterns, from circular to hyperbola-like.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TIROS II satellite, showing a bottom view. Viewing ports for the five-channel radiometer are in the side (top of figure), and in the base adjacent to the mounting ring.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical configuration of a TIROS II medium resolution radiometer. Radiation from opposite directions is reflected by the prism-shaped mirror onto the chopper, thence through the filter and lens to the bolometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The terrestrial channels. In the upper portion are shown the effective filter functions for channels 1, 2, and 4, with the abscissa linear in cm−1. Filter, lens, and chopper reflectivity characteristics are included. In the lower portion are shown the principal absorption bands of the atmosphere, qualitatively, and blackbody radiance for 300°K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The reflected-solar-radiation channels. The effective filter functions for channels 3 and 5, with the abscissa linear in cm−1, are shown in the upper portion. Below are shown the solar spectral radiant flux received at the earth’s surface, with the atmospheric absorption bands shaded; the average response of the TIROS vidicons; and the relative effect of Rayleigh scattering (R.S.).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Upward radiation from a model atmosphere. On the left is the model, with temperature (°K) shown as a solid line, and water vapor mixing ratio (gm/kg), shown as a dashed line, versus logarithmic pressure. On the right are the normalized contributions to the vertical radiance from the top of the atmosphere for channels 1 and 2, versus linear pressure. These curves show the relative contributions to the total vertical radiance (per mb thickness) by the different layers of the atmosphere. The dashed line encloses unit area; the dimension of the abscissa is mb−1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Limb darkening for channels 1 and 2. The ratio of the radiance at zenith angle θ to the radiance in the vertical is drawn versus θ. T indicates a curve for a tropical atmosphere, A indicates an Arctic atmosphere.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Scan patterns for three sweeps of channel 2. The ordinate is proportional to the power received by the detector. Between the sweeps only space is viewed in this figure.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Surface weather chart over the Atlantic Ocean, 1200 GCT, November 25, 1960. The dashed line is the sub-satellite path.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

TIROS II radiation map for channel 2 (8–12 μ), pass 30, 1245 GCT, November 25, 1960. The isotherms are equivalent blackbody temperatures in °C. The weather fronts from Fig. 9 are included in this figure.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ W = [ ( W W R p W R c b f + p W W p W R c b f + c b W c b f + f W f + W F R p F R c m f + p F W p F R c m f + c m w c m f + f W f ) - ( W W R p W R c m f + p W W p W R c m f + c m W c m f + f W f + W F R p F R c b f + p F W p F R c b f + c b W c b f + f W f ) ] d λ .
Δ W = 0 [ W W ( λ ) - W F ( λ ) ] ϕ ( λ ) d λ ,
ϕ ( λ ) = R p ( R c m - R c b ) f = R p R c m ( 1 - R c b / R c m ) f .
d I I = 0 ϕ ( λ ) B ( λ , T ) d [ τ ( λ ) ] d λ 0 0 1 ϕ ( λ ) B ( λ , T ) d [ τ ( λ ) ] d λ ,