Abstract

A light pulsing above the critical flicker frequency (CFF) significantly elevates, and one pulsing below CFF significantly depresses, subsequent CFF measurements. The characteristics of these phenomena, their dependence upon the duration of fixation, the luminance of the measuring and the adaptation lights, and the duration of the after-effect are described in the present series of experiments. The effects are virtually as pronounced if the pulsing adaptation light is viewed with one eye and the measuring light with the other, as when both adapting and measuring lights are seen by the same eye. It is proposed that the driving is a direct consequence of a change in the frequency characteristics of the responses of cells in the visual system to photic stimulation. Measurements of the brightness of lights, pulsing at various rates immediately after viewing lights pulsing above and below the CFF, confirm certain predictions of this hypothesis.

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Sugiyama, Japan. J. Psychol. 25, 41 (1954). Also, S. Sugiyama, Proceedings of the 19th Meeting of the Japanese Psychological Association, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 1955.
  2. P. A. Snell, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 20, 367 (1933).
  3. E. Simonson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 47, 556 (1959).
  4. H. Arnold, Arbeitsphysiologie 15, 62 (1953).
  5. M. Alpern, D. B. Flitman, and R. H. Joseph, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 49, 1194 (1960).
  6. In the experiments on brightness enhancement it became necessary to place a dark field between the surround and the center. To accomplish this a field stop was mounted in front of the Maxwellian view lens. In these experiments the central flickering field was only about 1.25° in diameter; around it was a concentric dark annulus which had an outside diameter of 2° and around this was the 6° steady bright surround.
  7. H. Maheneke, Acta Ophthalmol. 35, 53 (1957).
  8. In this latter case it was not possible for the observer to decide whether this light was "steady" or, in fact, pulsing at a rate above the CFF.
  9. These experiments were begun in the spring of 1958, and have only recently been concluded. Not all of the subjects have been available for all experiments. In all 10, young adult males have served as subjects and the effects obtained were more or less consistently found for each subject tested.
  10. Tabular results have been deposited as Document Number 6823 with the ADI Auxiliary Publications Project, Photoduplication Service, Library of Congress, Washington 25, D. C. A copy may be secured by citing the Document number and by remitting $1.25 for photoprints or $1.25 for 35-mm microfilm. Advanced payment is required. Make checks or money orders payable to: Chief, Photoduplication Service, Library of Congress.
  11. W. M. Kincaid, Am. Math. Monthly 65, 551 (1958).
  12. S. Hecht and C. D. Verrijp, J. Gen. Physiol. 17, 269 (1933).
  13. S. Hecht and S. Schlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 965 (1936).
  14. S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979 (1936).
  15. T. L. Jahn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 76 (1946).
  16. L. A. Riggs, C. R. Cavonius, and E. P. Johnson, Nature 189, 383 (1961).
  17. R. M. Boynton, J. E. Sturr, and M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15, 196 (1961).
  18. In the case illustrated this was true 38 times in the 40 repetitions. Only with a very low probability (P < 0.00006) could this have occurred by chance.
  19. These cumulative measurement effects are emphasized in this kind of experiment, in which a number of successive measurements are made one after the other and plotted as a function of time.
  20. Apparatus limitations required the surround to be held fixed at 25 ft-L for all luminance levels equal to or higher than this value, in this experiment.
  21. R. H. Peckham and W. M. Hart, Science 130, 1256 (1959).
  22. O. J. Grüsser and O. Creutzfeldt, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger's 263, 688 (1957).
  23. R. L. DeValois, A. M. A. Arch. Opthalmol. 60, 784 (1958).
  24. S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 23, 313 (1938).
  25. S. H. Bartley, Psychol. Rev. 46, 337 (1939).
  26. W. C. Halstead, J. Exptl. Psychol. 28, 524 (1941).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, D. B. Flitman, and R. H. Joseph, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 49, 1194 (1960).

Arnold, H.

H. Arnold, Arbeitsphysiologie 15, 62 (1953).

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 23, 313 (1938).

S. H. Bartley, Psychol. Rev. 46, 337 (1939).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, J. E. Sturr, and M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15, 196 (1961).

Cavonius, C. R.

L. A. Riggs, C. R. Cavonius, and E. P. Johnson, Nature 189, 383 (1961).

Creutzfeldt, O.

O. J. Grüsser and O. Creutzfeldt, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger's 263, 688 (1957).

DeValois, R. L.

R. L. DeValois, A. M. A. Arch. Opthalmol. 60, 784 (1958).

Flitman, D. B.

M. Alpern, D. B. Flitman, and R. H. Joseph, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 49, 1194 (1960).

Grüsser, O. J.

O. J. Grüsser and O. Creutzfeldt, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger's 263, 688 (1957).

Halstead, W. C.

W. C. Halstead, J. Exptl. Psychol. 28, 524 (1941).

Hart, W. M.

R. H. Peckham and W. M. Hart, Science 130, 1256 (1959).

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht and C. D. Verrijp, J. Gen. Physiol. 17, 269 (1933).

S. Hecht and S. Schlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 965 (1936).

S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979 (1936).

Ikeda, M.

R. M. Boynton, J. E. Sturr, and M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15, 196 (1961).

Jahn, T. L.

T. L. Jahn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 76 (1946).

Johnson, E. P.

L. A. Riggs, C. R. Cavonius, and E. P. Johnson, Nature 189, 383 (1961).

Joseph, R. H.

M. Alpern, D. B. Flitman, and R. H. Joseph, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 49, 1194 (1960).

Kincaid, W. M.

W. M. Kincaid, Am. Math. Monthly 65, 551 (1958).

Maheneke, H.

H. Maheneke, Acta Ophthalmol. 35, 53 (1957).

Peckham, R. H.

R. H. Peckham and W. M. Hart, Science 130, 1256 (1959).

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs, C. R. Cavonius, and E. P. Johnson, Nature 189, 383 (1961).

Schlaer, S.

S. Hecht and S. Schlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 965 (1936).

Simonson, E.

E. Simonson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 47, 556 (1959).

Smith, E. L.

S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979 (1936).

Snell, P. A.

P. A. Snell, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 20, 367 (1933).

Sturr, J. E.

R. M. Boynton, J. E. Sturr, and M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15, 196 (1961).

Sugiyama, S.

S. Sugiyama, Japan. J. Psychol. 25, 41 (1954). Also, S. Sugiyama, Proceedings of the 19th Meeting of the Japanese Psychological Association, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 1955.

Verrijp, C. D.

S. Hecht and C. D. Verrijp, J. Gen. Physiol. 17, 269 (1933).

Other

S. Sugiyama, Japan. J. Psychol. 25, 41 (1954). Also, S. Sugiyama, Proceedings of the 19th Meeting of the Japanese Psychological Association, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 1955.

P. A. Snell, J. Soc. Motion Picture Engrs. 20, 367 (1933).

E. Simonson, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 47, 556 (1959).

H. Arnold, Arbeitsphysiologie 15, 62 (1953).

M. Alpern, D. B. Flitman, and R. H. Joseph, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 49, 1194 (1960).

In the experiments on brightness enhancement it became necessary to place a dark field between the surround and the center. To accomplish this a field stop was mounted in front of the Maxwellian view lens. In these experiments the central flickering field was only about 1.25° in diameter; around it was a concentric dark annulus which had an outside diameter of 2° and around this was the 6° steady bright surround.

H. Maheneke, Acta Ophthalmol. 35, 53 (1957).

In this latter case it was not possible for the observer to decide whether this light was "steady" or, in fact, pulsing at a rate above the CFF.

These experiments were begun in the spring of 1958, and have only recently been concluded. Not all of the subjects have been available for all experiments. In all 10, young adult males have served as subjects and the effects obtained were more or less consistently found for each subject tested.

Tabular results have been deposited as Document Number 6823 with the ADI Auxiliary Publications Project, Photoduplication Service, Library of Congress, Washington 25, D. C. A copy may be secured by citing the Document number and by remitting $1.25 for photoprints or $1.25 for 35-mm microfilm. Advanced payment is required. Make checks or money orders payable to: Chief, Photoduplication Service, Library of Congress.

W. M. Kincaid, Am. Math. Monthly 65, 551 (1958).

S. Hecht and C. D. Verrijp, J. Gen. Physiol. 17, 269 (1933).

S. Hecht and S. Schlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 965 (1936).

S. Hecht and E. L. Smith, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 979 (1936).

T. L. Jahn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 76 (1946).

L. A. Riggs, C. R. Cavonius, and E. P. Johnson, Nature 189, 383 (1961).

R. M. Boynton, J. E. Sturr, and M. Ikeda, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15, 196 (1961).

In the case illustrated this was true 38 times in the 40 repetitions. Only with a very low probability (P < 0.00006) could this have occurred by chance.

These cumulative measurement effects are emphasized in this kind of experiment, in which a number of successive measurements are made one after the other and plotted as a function of time.

Apparatus limitations required the surround to be held fixed at 25 ft-L for all luminance levels equal to or higher than this value, in this experiment.

R. H. Peckham and W. M. Hart, Science 130, 1256 (1959).

O. J. Grüsser and O. Creutzfeldt, Arch. ges. Physiol., Pflüger's 263, 688 (1957).

R. L. DeValois, A. M. A. Arch. Opthalmol. 60, 784 (1958).

S. H. Bartley, J. Exptl. Psychol. 23, 313 (1938).

S. H. Bartley, Psychol. Rev. 46, 337 (1939).

W. C. Halstead, J. Exptl. Psychol. 28, 524 (1941).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.