Abstract

Modulation of light at 3 and 6 kMc is achieved by applying a superimposed electrostatic and microwave field to a carbon-disulfide Kerr-cell which is incorporated within the high-electric-field region of a resonant cavity. The development of this light shutter requires the analysis of the Kerr effect under circumstances in which the transit time of light is appreciable. A Kerr cell whose length is such that the transit time of light is one-half the period of the modulating microwave field proves to have particular advantages over other designs. The light shutter is realized with a re-entrant microwave cavity with provision for the application of electrostatic as well as microwave fields. At about 26-kv dc and 10-kw pulsed 3-kMc ac power, the system modulates a light beam of several milliwatts radiant power up to 80%.

© 1961 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. S. Pershan and N. Bloembergen, “Microwave modulation of light,” Proceedings of Second Quantum Electronics Conference, Columbia University Press, New York (to be published).
  2. G. L. Clark, D. F. Holshouser, and H. M. Von Foerster, “The Kerr cell as an ultra-high frequency shutter,” Tech. Rept. No. 1–1, Air Force contract, March, 1955.
  3. G. L. Clark, doctoral thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, 1957.
  4. D. F. Holshouser, doctoral thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, 1958.
  5. G. L. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 125–129 (1956).
    [Crossref]

1956 (1)

G. L. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 125–129 (1956).
[Crossref]

Bloembergen, N.

P. S. Pershan and N. Bloembergen, “Microwave modulation of light,” Proceedings of Second Quantum Electronics Conference, Columbia University Press, New York (to be published).

Clark, G. L.

G. L. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 125–129 (1956).
[Crossref]

G. L. Clark, doctoral thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, 1957.

G. L. Clark, D. F. Holshouser, and H. M. Von Foerster, “The Kerr cell as an ultra-high frequency shutter,” Tech. Rept. No. 1–1, Air Force contract, March, 1955.

Holshouser, D. F.

G. L. Clark, D. F. Holshouser, and H. M. Von Foerster, “The Kerr cell as an ultra-high frequency shutter,” Tech. Rept. No. 1–1, Air Force contract, March, 1955.

D. F. Holshouser, doctoral thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, 1958.

Pershan, P. S.

P. S. Pershan and N. Bloembergen, “Microwave modulation of light,” Proceedings of Second Quantum Electronics Conference, Columbia University Press, New York (to be published).

Von Foerster, H. M.

G. L. Clark, D. F. Holshouser, and H. M. Von Foerster, “The Kerr cell as an ultra-high frequency shutter,” Tech. Rept. No. 1–1, Air Force contract, March, 1955.

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. L. Clark, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 125–129 (1956).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

P. S. Pershan and N. Bloembergen, “Microwave modulation of light,” Proceedings of Second Quantum Electronics Conference, Columbia University Press, New York (to be published).

G. L. Clark, D. F. Holshouser, and H. M. Von Foerster, “The Kerr cell as an ultra-high frequency shutter,” Tech. Rept. No. 1–1, Air Force contract, March, 1955.

G. L. Clark, doctoral thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, 1957.

D. F. Holshouser, doctoral thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, 1958.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical arrangement for Kerr cell light shutter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of light modulation for two operating modes (A) and (B) and for two choices of the electrical length of the Kerr cell: φ = 1 2 π and φ=π.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time variation of light transmission η for two Kerr cell lengths ( φ = 1 2 π and π) and two operating modes A and B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of average light transmission with mirror position for interference method of detection.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional sketches of π Kerr cavity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of the Kerr cavity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental arrangement for detection of microwave modulated light by interference.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Oscilloscope traces of photomultiplier outputs for several mirror positions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of calculated curve with experimental data in phase interference experiment.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I The comparison of π and 1 2 π Kerr Cells with same peak total field EM, and same light pulse frequency ωp; (γ=2πcBEm2/p).

Tables Icon

Table II Experimental data for phase interference experiment under conditions: δNE=0, E0=26 kv, λm=10.1 cm, approximately 10-kw pulsed microwave power, cavity Q of 180.

Equations (28)

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η = 1 2 - 1 2 cos δ ,
δ = δ N E + δ E .
δ E = 2 π B - L / 2 + L / 2 E 2 ( s ) d s ,
E = E 0 + E 1 sin φ m φ m = ω m t ,
d s = ( c / n ) d t = ( c / n ω m ) d φ m ,
L = ( c / ω m n ) Φ ,
A = ( 2 π c B / n ω m ) 1 2 ,
0 = A E 0
1 = A E 1 .
δ E = φ - 1 2 Φ φ + 1 2 Φ ( 0 + 1 sin φ m ) 2 d φ m ,
δ E = Φ ( 0 2 + 1 2 ) + 4 0 1 sin 1 2 Φ sin φ - 1 2 1 2 sin Φ cos 2 φ .
δ = δ 0 + δ 1 cos 2 φ ,
δ 0 = δ N E + 1 4 π 1 2             and             δ 1 = 1 2 1 2 .
Case A , for which             δ 0 = δ 0 A = ( m + 1 2 ) π ,
Case B , for which             δ 0 = δ 0 B = 2 m π ,
Δ η A = sin 1 2 1 2 .
Δ η B = sin 2 1 4 1 2 .
δ = δ 0 + δ 1 sin φ
δ 0 = δ N E + π 0 2 + 1 2 π 1 2
δ 1 = 4 0 1 .
Δ η A = sin 4 0 1 .
Δ η B = sin 2 2 0 1 .
η ¯ = 1 2 π 0 2 π η ( φ ) d φ ,
η ¯ = 1 2 - 1 2 cos δ 0 · J 0 ( δ 1 ) ,
η 1 2 π = 1 2 + 1 2 cos 2 ( δ 0 + δ 1 cos φ 1 sin φ )
η π = 1 2 + 1 2 cos 2 ( δ 0 + δ 1 cos 2 φ 1 cos 2 φ )
φ 1 = 2 π s / λ m .
η ¯ = 1 2 + 1 2 cos 2 δ 0 · J 0 [ 2 δ 1 cos ( 2 π 2 s / Φ λ m ) ] .