Abstract

The history of ideas on the blue of the sky, the rainbow, and the visibility of distant objects is briefly sketched. In particular, it is shown that the theory of the horizontal visual range was largely rediscovered after about 175 years.

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  1. L. da Vinci, Trattato delta pittura, quoted by Pernter and Exner, Meteorologiscise Optik (1922), second edition, p. 614.
  2. H. B. de Saussure, Mem. Acad. Turin 4, 409–424 (1789).
  3. J. Chappuis, Compt. rend. 91, 985–986 (1880).
  4. E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 113–118 (1953).
  5. R. Clausius, Ann. Physik 16, 161–188 (1849).
  6. I. Newton, Opticks (1704), Book II, Pt. 3, Prop. 7.
  7. J. Tyndall, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 17, 223–233 (1869).
  8. J. D. Forbes, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 14, 371–374 (1840).
  9. J. D. Forbes, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 14, 375–391 (1840).
  10. Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 41, 107–120, 274–279 (1871), and many other papers. See Rayleigh, Collected Works.
  11. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950).
  12. W. Ostwald and F. Linke, Meteorol. Z. 45, 367–370 (1928).
  13. I. G. Priest, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1175–1209 (1923).
  14. For a very extensive history of man's ideas about the rain-bow, see C. B. Boyer, The Rainbow from Myth to Mathematics (Thomas Yoseleff, New York and London, 1959).
  15. A. M. Sayeli, Isis 30, 65–83 (1939).
  16. J. F. Scott, The Scientific Work of Réné Descartes (Taylor and Francis, London), n.d.
  17. Roger Bacon, Opus Majus, translated by R. B. Burke (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1928), Vol. 1, P. 235.
  18. See reference 17, Vol. 2, p. 592 ff.
  19. G. Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. III, Pt. i, p. 706.
  20. For a good account see reference 14, p. 110 ff.
  21. Descartes, Les Méteores, in Oeuvres de Descartes, VI, edited by Adam and Tannery, (Paris, 1897–1913), 12 Vols. and Suppl.
  22. See reference 6, Book I, Pt. 2, Prop. 9.
  23. T. Young, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 92, 387–397 (1802).
  24. G. B. Airy, Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 6, 379–403 (1838).
  25. For example, W. H. Miller, Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 70, 277–286 (1842).
  26. P. Bouguer, (a) Essai d'Optique sur la gradation de la lumière (Paris, 1729). (b) Traite d'Optique sur la gradation de la lumière, posthumous, edited by N. L. de la Caille (Paris, 1760).
  27. See F. Perrin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 72–74 (1948).
  28. See reference 26 (b), p. 82.
  29. See reference 26(b), p. 265 ƒƒ.
  30. E. Allard, Mentoire sur l'intensité et la portiée des phares (Dunod, Paris, 1876).
  31. Reference 26(b), p. 360.
  32. There were 20 leagues to the degree of latitude.
  33. The italics are mine. In view of the importance of this point, I give the original, "Mais si l'atmosphere est bien serein, la montagne sera couverte de toute la lumière aérienne renvoyée par la masse d'air comprise entre l'objet et l'oeil de l'observateur; et cette couleur sera exprimé par (2525/10000)q, pendant que celle de toute l'atmosphere, ou celle du ciel qu'on verra à côté, le sera par (2575/10000)q."
  34. H. Koschmieder, Beitr. Phys. freien Atmos. 12, 33–53 and 171–181 (1924).
  35. J. H. Lambert, Mem. Acad. Berlin, 74–80 (1774).
  36. M. Hugon, Sci. et ind. phot. 1, 161–168, 201–212 (1930). S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 179–191 (1948).
  37. H. B. le Saussure, Mem. Acad. Turin 4, 425–440 (1789).

Airy, G. B.

G. B. Airy, Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 6, 379–403 (1838).

Allard, E.

E. Allard, Mentoire sur l'intensité et la portiée des phares (Dunod, Paris, 1876).

Bacon, Roger

Roger Bacon, Opus Majus, translated by R. B. Burke (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1928), Vol. 1, P. 235.

Bouguer, P.

P. Bouguer, (a) Essai d'Optique sur la gradation de la lumière (Paris, 1729). (b) Traite d'Optique sur la gradation de la lumière, posthumous, edited by N. L. de la Caille (Paris, 1760).

Boyer, C. B.

For a very extensive history of man's ideas about the rain-bow, see C. B. Boyer, The Rainbow from Myth to Mathematics (Thomas Yoseleff, New York and London, 1959).

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950).

Chappuis, J.

J. Chappuis, Compt. rend. 91, 985–986 (1880).

Clausius, R.

R. Clausius, Ann. Physik 16, 161–188 (1849).

da Vinci, L.

L. da Vinci, Trattato delta pittura, quoted by Pernter and Exner, Meteorologiscise Optik (1922), second edition, p. 614.

de Saussure, H. B.

H. B. de Saussure, Mem. Acad. Turin 4, 409–424 (1789).

H. B. le Saussure, Mem. Acad. Turin 4, 425–440 (1789).

Forbes, J. D.

J. D. Forbes, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 14, 375–391 (1840).

J. D. Forbes, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 14, 371–374 (1840).

Hugon, M.

M. Hugon, Sci. et ind. phot. 1, 161–168, 201–212 (1930). S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 179–191 (1948).

Hulburt, E. O.

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 113–118 (1953).

Koschmieder, H.

H. Koschmieder, Beitr. Phys. freien Atmos. 12, 33–53 and 171–181 (1924).

Lambert, J. H.

J. H. Lambert, Mem. Acad. Berlin, 74–80 (1774).

Linke, F.

W. Ostwald and F. Linke, Meteorol. Z. 45, 367–370 (1928).

Miller, W. H.

For example, W. H. Miller, Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 70, 277–286 (1842).

Newton, I.

I. Newton, Opticks (1704), Book II, Pt. 3, Prop. 7.

Ostwald, W.

W. Ostwald and F. Linke, Meteorol. Z. 45, 367–370 (1928).

Perrin, F.

See F. Perrin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 72–74 (1948).

Priest, I. G.

I. G. Priest, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1175–1209 (1923).

Rayleigh, Lord

Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 41, 107–120, 274–279 (1871), and many other papers. See Rayleigh, Collected Works.

Sarton, G.

G. Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. III, Pt. i, p. 706.

Sayeli, A. M.

A. M. Sayeli, Isis 30, 65–83 (1939).

Scott, J. F.

J. F. Scott, The Scientific Work of Réné Descartes (Taylor and Francis, London), n.d.

Tyndall, J.

J. Tyndall, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 17, 223–233 (1869).

Young, T.

T. Young, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 92, 387–397 (1802).

Other (37)

L. da Vinci, Trattato delta pittura, quoted by Pernter and Exner, Meteorologiscise Optik (1922), second edition, p. 614.

H. B. de Saussure, Mem. Acad. Turin 4, 409–424 (1789).

J. Chappuis, Compt. rend. 91, 985–986 (1880).

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 113–118 (1953).

R. Clausius, Ann. Physik 16, 161–188 (1849).

I. Newton, Opticks (1704), Book II, Pt. 3, Prop. 7.

J. Tyndall, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 17, 223–233 (1869).

J. D. Forbes, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 14, 371–374 (1840).

J. D. Forbes, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 14, 375–391 (1840).

Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 41, 107–120, 274–279 (1871), and many other papers. See Rayleigh, Collected Works.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950).

W. Ostwald and F. Linke, Meteorol. Z. 45, 367–370 (1928).

I. G. Priest, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 1175–1209 (1923).

For a very extensive history of man's ideas about the rain-bow, see C. B. Boyer, The Rainbow from Myth to Mathematics (Thomas Yoseleff, New York and London, 1959).

A. M. Sayeli, Isis 30, 65–83 (1939).

J. F. Scott, The Scientific Work of Réné Descartes (Taylor and Francis, London), n.d.

Roger Bacon, Opus Majus, translated by R. B. Burke (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1928), Vol. 1, P. 235.

See reference 17, Vol. 2, p. 592 ff.

G. Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. III, Pt. i, p. 706.

For a good account see reference 14, p. 110 ff.

Descartes, Les Méteores, in Oeuvres de Descartes, VI, edited by Adam and Tannery, (Paris, 1897–1913), 12 Vols. and Suppl.

See reference 6, Book I, Pt. 2, Prop. 9.

T. Young, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 92, 387–397 (1802).

G. B. Airy, Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 6, 379–403 (1838).

For example, W. H. Miller, Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 70, 277–286 (1842).

P. Bouguer, (a) Essai d'Optique sur la gradation de la lumière (Paris, 1729). (b) Traite d'Optique sur la gradation de la lumière, posthumous, edited by N. L. de la Caille (Paris, 1760).

See F. Perrin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 72–74 (1948).

See reference 26 (b), p. 82.

See reference 26(b), p. 265 ƒƒ.

E. Allard, Mentoire sur l'intensité et la portiée des phares (Dunod, Paris, 1876).

Reference 26(b), p. 360.

There were 20 leagues to the degree of latitude.

The italics are mine. In view of the importance of this point, I give the original, "Mais si l'atmosphere est bien serein, la montagne sera couverte de toute la lumière aérienne renvoyée par la masse d'air comprise entre l'objet et l'oeil de l'observateur; et cette couleur sera exprimé par (2525/10000)q, pendant que celle de toute l'atmosphere, ou celle du ciel qu'on verra à côté, le sera par (2575/10000)q."

H. Koschmieder, Beitr. Phys. freien Atmos. 12, 33–53 and 171–181 (1924).

J. H. Lambert, Mem. Acad. Berlin, 74–80 (1774).

M. Hugon, Sci. et ind. phot. 1, 161–168, 201–212 (1930). S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 179–191 (1948).

H. B. le Saussure, Mem. Acad. Turin 4, 425–440 (1789).

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