Abstract

Light sources for many problems in agriculture and industry require good color rendering; standards are needed for both special and general purpose lamps. Target standards are discussed, and color, relative spectral distributions, and lumen efficiency data are provided for typical incandescent and fluorescent lamps. Data for color samples calculated for triads of light sources studied by an I.E.S. Subcommittee on Color Rendition of Light Sources are used to demonstrate the comparative size and direction of color differences involved in common situations. Problems raised by chromatic adaptation are discussed, as are specifications and standards for sources used for color work in various specialized industries, and the progress being made by I.E.S. and CIE committees on color rendering.

© 1960 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. J. Bouma, Physical Aspects of Colour (Philips Industries, Netherlands, 1947), English translation, 312 pp.
  2. B. T. Barnes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 448–452 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 1–9 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Nickerson, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 34, 1233–1253 (1939).
  5. D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 36, 373–399 (1941).
  6. D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 43, 416–464 (1948).
    [PubMed]
  7. D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 458–466 (1948).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).
  9. Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 74, 7, 2714 (1923).
  10. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Handbook of Colorimetry, edited by Hardy (Technology Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936), 87 pp.
  11. “Recommended lighting practice for the color appraisal of reflection-type materials in graphic arts,” published simultaneously by Illuminating Engineering Society [Illum. Eng.52, 493–500 (1957)], and by Research and Engineering Council of the Graphic Arts Industry, Washington, D. C., September, 1957, 11 pp.
  12. C. W. Jerome and D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 48, 259–267 (1953).
  13. Otto H. Schade, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Eng. 67, 301–319 (1958).
  14. I.E.S. Lighting Handbook (Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, 1959), third edition.
  15. C. W. Jerome, Illum. Eng. 53, 41–46 (1958).
  16. Barr, Clark, and Hessler, Illum. Eng. 47, 649–656 (1952).
  17. D. Nickerson and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550–570 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 53, 77–90 (1958).
  19. Helson, Judd, and Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221–233 (1952).
  20. Helson, Judd, and Wilson, Illum. Eng. 51, 329–346 (1956).
  21. Burnham, Evans, and Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 597–605 (1952).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Burnham, Evans, and Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 35–42 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. W. Burnham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 254–263 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. L. MacAdam, J. Soc. Television Motion Picture Eng. 65, 455 (1956).
  25. Kelly, Gibson, and Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am.33, 355–376; J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (RP 1549) 31, 55–76 (1943).
  26. D. Nickerson and M. H. Wilson, Illum. Eng. 45, 507–517 (1950).

1959 (1)

1958 (3)

Otto H. Schade, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Eng. 67, 301–319 (1958).

C. W. Jerome, Illum. Eng. 53, 41–46 (1958).

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 53, 77–90 (1958).

1957 (1)

1956 (2)

Helson, Judd, and Wilson, Illum. Eng. 51, 329–346 (1956).

D. L. MacAdam, J. Soc. Television Motion Picture Eng. 65, 455 (1956).

1953 (1)

C. W. Jerome and D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 48, 259–267 (1953).

1952 (3)

Burnham, Evans, and Newhall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 597–605 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helson, Judd, and Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221–233 (1952).

Barr, Clark, and Hessler, Illum. Eng. 47, 649–656 (1952).

1950 (1)

D. Nickerson and M. H. Wilson, Illum. Eng. 45, 507–517 (1950).

1948 (2)

1944 (1)

1941 (1)

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 36, 373–399 (1941).

1940 (1)

K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).

1939 (3)

1923 (1)

Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 74, 7, 2714 (1923).

Abbot,

Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 74, 7, 2714 (1923).

Aldrich,

Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 74, 7, 2714 (1923).

Barnes, B. T.

Barr,

Barr, Clark, and Hessler, Illum. Eng. 47, 649–656 (1952).

Bouma, P. J.

P. J. Bouma, Physical Aspects of Colour (Philips Industries, Netherlands, 1947), English translation, 312 pp.

Burnham,

Burnham, R. W.

Clark,

Barr, Clark, and Hessler, Illum. Eng. 47, 649–656 (1952).

Evans,

Fowle,

Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 74, 7, 2714 (1923).

Gibson,

Kelly, Gibson, and Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am.33, 355–376; J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (RP 1549) 31, 55–76 (1943).

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).

Helson,

Helson, Judd, and Wilson, Illum. Eng. 51, 329–346 (1956).

Helson, Judd, and Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221–233 (1952).

Hessler,

Barr, Clark, and Hessler, Illum. Eng. 47, 649–656 (1952).

Jerome, C. W.

C. W. Jerome, Illum. Eng. 53, 41–46 (1958).

C. W. Jerome and D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 48, 259–267 (1953).

Judd,

Helson, Judd, and Wilson, Illum. Eng. 51, 329–346 (1956).

Helson, Judd, and Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221–233 (1952).

Judd, D. B.

C. W. Jerome and D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 48, 259–267 (1953).

Kelly,

Kelly, Gibson, and Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am.33, 355–376; J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (RP 1549) 31, 55–76 (1943).

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, J. Soc. Television Motion Picture Eng. 65, 455 (1956).

Newhall,

Nickerson,

Kelly, Gibson, and Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am.33, 355–376; J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (RP 1549) 31, 55–76 (1943).

Nickerson, D.

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 53, 77–90 (1958).

D. Nickerson and M. H. Wilson, Illum. Eng. 45, 507–517 (1950).

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 43, 416–464 (1948).
[PubMed]

D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 458–466 (1948).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nickerson and K. F. Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550–570 (1944).
[Crossref]

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 36, 373–399 (1941).

D. Nickerson, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 34, 1233–1253 (1939).

D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 1–9 (1939).
[Crossref]

Schade, Otto H.

Otto H. Schade, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Eng. 67, 301–319 (1958).

Stultz, K. F.

Warren,

Helson, Judd, and Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221–233 (1952).

Wilson,

Helson, Judd, and Wilson, Illum. Eng. 51, 329–346 (1956).

Wilson, M. H.

D. Nickerson and M. H. Wilson, Illum. Eng. 45, 507–517 (1950).

Illum. Eng. (9)

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 36, 373–399 (1941).

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 43, 416–464 (1948).
[PubMed]

C. W. Jerome and D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 48, 259–267 (1953).

D. Nickerson, Illum. Eng. 53, 77–90 (1958).

Helson, Judd, and Warren, Illum. Eng. 47, 221–233 (1952).

Helson, Judd, and Wilson, Illum. Eng. 51, 329–346 (1956).

C. W. Jerome, Illum. Eng. 53, 41–46 (1958).

Barr, Clark, and Hessler, Illum. Eng. 47, 649–656 (1952).

D. Nickerson and M. H. Wilson, Illum. Eng. 45, 507–517 (1950).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (8)

J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Eng. (1)

Otto H. Schade, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Eng. 67, 301–319 (1958).

J. Soc. Television Motion Picture Eng. (1)

D. L. MacAdam, J. Soc. Television Motion Picture Eng. 65, 455 (1956).

Smithsonian Misc. Coll. (1)

Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 74, 7, 2714 (1923).

Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (1)

D. Nickerson, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 34, 1233–1253 (1939).

Other (5)

I.E.S. Lighting Handbook (Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, 1959), third edition.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Handbook of Colorimetry, edited by Hardy (Technology Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936), 87 pp.

“Recommended lighting practice for the color appraisal of reflection-type materials in graphic arts,” published simultaneously by Illuminating Engineering Society [Illum. Eng.52, 493–500 (1957)], and by Research and Engineering Council of the Graphic Arts Industry, Washington, D. C., September, 1957, 11 pp.

Kelly, Gibson, and Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am.33, 355–376; J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (RP 1549) 31, 55–76 (1943).

P. J. Bouma, Physical Aspects of Colour (Philips Industries, Netherlands, 1947), English translation, 312 pp.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative spectral energy curves for light sources in daylight range, with CIE standards A, B, and C, for comparison.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative spectral energy curves, 2500 to 3500 K, that include the color range of incandescent lamps.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative spectral energy curves for four white fluorescent lamps in current production. Cross-hatched areas indicate the narrow range of spectral differences for lamps of different manufacturers in this series of high lumen output lamps.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative spectral energy curves for fluorescent lamps designed to provide improved color rendition. Cross-hatched areas indicate the wide range in spectral quality of lamps made by different manufacturers for this series.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Industry standards and tolerances for color of white fluorescent lamps. The curve represents the Planckian locus from approximately 3000 to 8000 K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Size and direction of color differences for 18 samples under three lamps at 3000 K on a CIE (x,y) diagram.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Size and direction of color differences for 18 samples under three lamps at 3000 K on an RUGS diagram.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Size and direction of color differences for 18 samples under three lamps at 3000 K on a Farnsworth diagram.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Size and direction of color differences for 18 samples under nine lamps, three each at 3000 K, 4500 K, 6500 K (coded A, B, C respectively) on an Adams’ chromatic-value diagram.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Color shift for 18 Munsell samples for a triad of light sources at 3000 K; standard reference source (□), two fluorescent lamps one a standard type (X), the other deluxe (○), on a Munsell hue-chroma diagram.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Predictions of chromatic adaptation under Source A, in terms of Source C by formulas based on three sets of primaries, shown on a Munsell hue-chroma diagram. Squares represent daylight color, A represents color predicted by formula for CIE data, H for Helson data, and B for Burnham data.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Abbot-Gibson data for spectral energy distributions of skylight, 6100 K to limit-blue-sky.

Tables Icon

Table II Chromaticity data for standards and sources in Fig. 1.

Tables Icon

Table III Approximate life, color, and light output of general service incandescent filament lamps commonly available for operation on 115–125 v circuits.

Tables Icon

Table IV Approximate life, color, and light output of seven white fluorescent lamps currently produced by most large lamp manufacturers.

Tables Icon

Table V Color differences calculated for 18 samples under a standard reference lamp and two fluorescent lamps, deluxe and standard, for three lamps color-matched at 6500 K.

Equations (1)

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Δ E n = ( C / 5 ) ( 2 Δ H ) + 6 Δ V + 3 Δ C .