Abstract

The solar spectral irradiance outside the earth’s atmosphere was determined by Langley’s method of extrapolation to zero air mass, from measurements taken on Mount Lemmon at an elevation of 8025 ft near Tucson, Arizona, during October, 1951. The spectrum was produced and the energy scanned by a Leiss quartz double-monochromator, detected by a 1P21 photomultiplier, amplified, and presented on a strip chart recorder. About twenty-five spectra were recorded from sunrise to noon, with band widths ranging from 10 A at 3030 A to 170 A at 7000 A. The equipment was calibrated frequently by recording the spectrum of a standard tungsten lamp. Compared with earlier work performed in this field, our results agree best with those of Pettit. There is good agreement with the direct measurements from a rocket obtained by Purcell and Tousey in 1954 and with the Sacramento Peak ultraviolet observations by Stair and Johnston in 1955. The change of solar intensity with air mass showed that the attenuation of the atmosphere above Mount Lemmon was approximately 15% higher than that for a Rayleigh atmosphere in the region 3400 A to 4650 A, where there is no absorption due to ozone. A discussion is included which emphasizes the importance of clear and constant atmospheres which are necessary to obtain accurate values of solar spectral irradiance outside the earth’s atmosphere by the Langley method. The solar illuminance computed from spectral data was 12 700 lumens/ft<sup>2</sup>.

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  1. Johnson, Purcell, Tousey, and Wilson, Rocket Exploration of the Upper Atmosphere (Pergamon Press, London, 1954), pp. 279–288.
  2. Wilson, Tousey, Purcell, Johnson, and Moore, Astrophys. J. 19, 590 (1954).
  3. Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Smithsonian Misc. Collections 74, 7 (1923).
  4. C. G. Abbot, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 16, 4, 343 (1927).
  5. E. Pettit, Astrophys. J. 91, 159 (1940).
  6. Smithsonian Physical Tables, Ninth Revised Edition (1954), Table No. 812.
  7. R. Stair, J. Research Nat. Bur. Standards 40, 9 (1948).
  8. P. Hess, "Untersuchungen über die spektrale energieverteilung im sonnenspektrum von 350 µm bis 500 µm," Inaugural-Dissertation, Universität Frankfurt a.M. (1938).
  9. H. Reiner, Gerlands Betr. Geophys. 55, 2, 234 (1939).
  10. F. W. P. Götz and E. Schönmann, Helv. Phys. Acta 21, 151 (1948).
  11. R. Stair and W. O. Smith, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 30, 449 (1943).
  12. H. C. Hamaker, Thesis Utrecht (1934).
  13. A. G. Worthing, Phys. Rev. 10, 377 (1917); Phys. Rev. 25, 588 (1925); Z. Physik 22, 9 (1924).
  14. F. Hoffmann and H. Willenberg, Phys. Z. 35, 1, 713 (1934).
  15. J. C. Devos, Physica 20, 690 (1954).
  16. D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 879 (1952).
  17. See reference 6, Table No. 811.
  18. F. S. Johnson, J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954).
  19. Purcell and Tousey (private communications).
  20. R. Stair and R. G. Johnston, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 57, 205 (1956).
  21. R. Stair, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 227 (1952).
  22. Stair, Johnston, and Bagg, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 53, 113 (1954).
  23. R. V. Karandikar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 483 (1955).
  24. R. Tousey and E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 78 (1947).
  25. D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 473 (1951).
  26. Ny Tsi-Ze and Choong Shin-Piau, Compt. rend. 195, 309 (1932); 196, 916 (1933).
  27. A. Vassy and E. Vassy, J. Chem. Phys. 16, 1163 (1948).
  28. Operator's Manual for the Dobson Specirophotometer (R. and J. Beck, Ltd., London, England).
  29. D. Deirmendjian and Z. Sekera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 1158 (1953); 46, 565 (1956).
  30. L. Dunkelman and R. Scolnik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 876 (1952).

Abbot, C. G.

C. G. Abbot, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 16, 4, 343 (1927).

Deirmendjian, D.

D. Deirmendjian and Z. Sekera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 1158 (1953); 46, 565 (1956).

Devos, J. C.

J. C. Devos, Physica 20, 690 (1954).

Dunkelman, L.

L. Dunkelman and R. Scolnik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 876 (1952).

Götz, F. W. P.

F. W. P. Götz and E. Schönmann, Helv. Phys. Acta 21, 151 (1948).

Hamaker, H. C.

H. C. Hamaker, Thesis Utrecht (1934).

Hess, P.

P. Hess, "Untersuchungen über die spektrale energieverteilung im sonnenspektrum von 350 µm bis 500 µm," Inaugural-Dissertation, Universität Frankfurt a.M. (1938).

Hoffmann, F.

F. Hoffmann and H. Willenberg, Phys. Z. 35, 1, 713 (1934).

Hulburt, E. O.

R. Tousey and E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 78 (1947).

Johnson, F. S.

F. S. Johnson, J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954).

Johnston, R. G.

R. Stair and R. G. Johnston, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 57, 205 (1956).

Karandikar, R. V.

R. V. Karandikar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 483 (1955).

Lock, C.

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 879 (1952).

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 473 (1951).

Packer, D. M.

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 473 (1951).

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 879 (1952).

Pettit, E.

E. Pettit, Astrophys. J. 91, 159 (1940).

Reiner, H.

H. Reiner, Gerlands Betr. Geophys. 55, 2, 234 (1939).

Schönmann, E.

F. W. P. Götz and E. Schönmann, Helv. Phys. Acta 21, 151 (1948).

Scolnik, R.

L. Dunkelman and R. Scolnik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 876 (1952).

Sekera, Z.

D. Deirmendjian and Z. Sekera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 1158 (1953); 46, 565 (1956).

Shin-Piau, Choong

Ny Tsi-Ze and Choong Shin-Piau, Compt. rend. 195, 309 (1932); 196, 916 (1933).

Smith, W. O.

R. Stair and W. O. Smith, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 30, 449 (1943).

Stair, R.

R. Stair and W. O. Smith, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 30, 449 (1943).

R. Stair, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 227 (1952).

R. Stair, J. Research Nat. Bur. Standards 40, 9 (1948).

R. Stair and R. G. Johnston, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 57, 205 (1956).

Tousey, R.

R. Tousey and E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 78 (1947).

Tsi-Ze, Ny

Ny Tsi-Ze and Choong Shin-Piau, Compt. rend. 195, 309 (1932); 196, 916 (1933).

Vassy, A.

A. Vassy and E. Vassy, J. Chem. Phys. 16, 1163 (1948).

Vassy, E.

A. Vassy and E. Vassy, J. Chem. Phys. 16, 1163 (1948).

Willenberg, H.

F. Hoffmann and H. Willenberg, Phys. Z. 35, 1, 713 (1934).

Worthing, A. G.

A. G. Worthing, Phys. Rev. 10, 377 (1917); Phys. Rev. 25, 588 (1925); Z. Physik 22, 9 (1924).

Other (30)

Johnson, Purcell, Tousey, and Wilson, Rocket Exploration of the Upper Atmosphere (Pergamon Press, London, 1954), pp. 279–288.

Wilson, Tousey, Purcell, Johnson, and Moore, Astrophys. J. 19, 590 (1954).

Abbot, Fowle, and Aldrich, Smithsonian Misc. Collections 74, 7 (1923).

C. G. Abbot, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 16, 4, 343 (1927).

E. Pettit, Astrophys. J. 91, 159 (1940).

Smithsonian Physical Tables, Ninth Revised Edition (1954), Table No. 812.

R. Stair, J. Research Nat. Bur. Standards 40, 9 (1948).

P. Hess, "Untersuchungen über die spektrale energieverteilung im sonnenspektrum von 350 µm bis 500 µm," Inaugural-Dissertation, Universität Frankfurt a.M. (1938).

H. Reiner, Gerlands Betr. Geophys. 55, 2, 234 (1939).

F. W. P. Götz and E. Schönmann, Helv. Phys. Acta 21, 151 (1948).

R. Stair and W. O. Smith, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 30, 449 (1943).

H. C. Hamaker, Thesis Utrecht (1934).

A. G. Worthing, Phys. Rev. 10, 377 (1917); Phys. Rev. 25, 588 (1925); Z. Physik 22, 9 (1924).

F. Hoffmann and H. Willenberg, Phys. Z. 35, 1, 713 (1934).

J. C. Devos, Physica 20, 690 (1954).

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 879 (1952).

See reference 6, Table No. 811.

F. S. Johnson, J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954).

Purcell and Tousey (private communications).

R. Stair and R. G. Johnston, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 57, 205 (1956).

R. Stair, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 49, 227 (1952).

Stair, Johnston, and Bagg, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 53, 113 (1954).

R. V. Karandikar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 483 (1955).

R. Tousey and E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 78 (1947).

D. M. Packer and C. Lock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 473 (1951).

Ny Tsi-Ze and Choong Shin-Piau, Compt. rend. 195, 309 (1932); 196, 916 (1933).

A. Vassy and E. Vassy, J. Chem. Phys. 16, 1163 (1948).

Operator's Manual for the Dobson Specirophotometer (R. and J. Beck, Ltd., London, England).

D. Deirmendjian and Z. Sekera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 1158 (1953); 46, 565 (1956).

L. Dunkelman and R. Scolnik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 876 (1952).

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