Abstract

The goal of this experiment was to obtain difference limens at several combinations of background brightness and retinal eccentricity. Background brightnesses were 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ft-L; retinal locations were the fovea and 2°, 6°, and 10° in the nasal portion. Monocular difference limens were determined using a 1° test stimulus superimposed at the center of a 27° background. The technique of threshold determination was the ascending series of the Method of Limits. The findings suggest that the curve describing log ΔB vs log background brightness becomes steeper as retinal eccentricity increases. At the three higher background brightnesses log ΔB increased as a function of eccentricity; at the three lower brightnesses log ΔB decreased with increasing eccentricity. In both cases the curves were negatively accelerated. It is suggested that the rising functions represent cone and the falling ones, rod thresholds. It appeared that the slopes of the curves relating ΔB to eccentricity were not as great at intermediate background brightnesses as they were at extreme values. This finding suggests a gradual rather than a sudden transition from rod to cone activity as brightness increases.

© 1958 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Wulfeck, Crook, and McBride, United States Air Force, Rome Air Development Center,Griffiss Air Force Base, Rome, New York, Contract No. AF 30(602)-199, final report, Oct.1954.
  2. Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7 (1938).
  3. J. Steinhardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185 (1936).
  4. J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 26, 203 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 1077 (1950).
    [PubMed]
  6. H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monographs 40,(1930).
  7. A. J. Riopelle and W. Bevan, Am. J. Psychol. 66, 73 (1953).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. W. Kravkov, Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 127, 86 (1931).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B113, 496 (1933).
  10. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B116, 55 (1934).
  11. Johannsen, McBride, and Wulfeck, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 67 (1956).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Reference 11, p., 266.
  13. H. R. Blackwell and O. T. Law, The Armed Forces, National Research Council, Vision Committee, Minutes 31st Meeting, 43 (1952).
  14. Østerberg, Acta Ophthalmol. 6, 1 (1935).
  15. S. L. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).
  16. G. Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269 (1938).
  17. A. H. Holway and L. M. Hurvich, Am. J. Psychol. 51, 687 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monographs 38, No. 1 (1928).
  19. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby, St. Louis, 1947).

1956 (1)

1953 (1)

A. J. Riopelle and W. Bevan, Am. J. Psychol. 66, 73 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

H. R. Blackwell and O. T. Law, The Armed Forces, National Research Council, Vision Committee, Minutes 31st Meeting, 43 (1952).

1950 (1)

L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 1077 (1950).
[PubMed]

1941 (1)

J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 26, 203 (1941).
[CrossRef]

1938 (3)

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7 (1938).

G. Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269 (1938).

A. H. Holway and L. M. Hurvich, Am. J. Psychol. 51, 687 (1938).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

J. Steinhardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185 (1936).

1935 (1)

Østerberg, Acta Ophthalmol. 6, 1 (1935).

1934 (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B116, 55 (1934).

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B113, 496 (1933).

1931 (1)

S. W. Kravkov, Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 127, 86 (1931).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monographs 40,(1930).

1928 (1)

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monographs 38, No. 1 (1928).

Bevan, W.

A. J. Riopelle and W. Bevan, Am. J. Psychol. 66, 73 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blackwell, H. R.

H. R. Blackwell and O. T. Law, The Armed Forces, National Research Council, Vision Committee, Minutes 31st Meeting, 43 (1952).

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B116, 55 (1934).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B113, 496 (1933).

Crook,

Wulfeck, Crook, and McBride, United States Air Force, Rome Air Development Center,Griffiss Air Force Base, Rome, New York, Contract No. AF 30(602)-199, final report, Oct.1954.

Hecht,

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7 (1938).

Holway, A. H.

A. H. Holway and L. M. Hurvich, Am. J. Psychol. 51, 687 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Hurvich, L. M.

A. H. Holway and L. M. Hurvich, Am. J. Psychol. 51, 687 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Johannsen,

Kravkov, S. W.

S. W. Kravkov, Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 127, 86 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Law, O. T.

H. R. Blackwell and O. T. Law, The Armed Forces, National Research Council, Vision Committee, Minutes 31st Meeting, 43 (1952).

Mandelbaum, J.

J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 26, 203 (1941).
[CrossRef]

McBride,

Johannsen, McBride, and Wulfeck, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 67 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wulfeck, Crook, and McBride, United States Air Force, Rome Air Development Center,Griffiss Air Force Base, Rome, New York, Contract No. AF 30(602)-199, final report, Oct.1954.

Østerberg,

Østerberg, Acta Ophthalmol. 6, 1 (1935).

Patt,

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7 (1938).

Peskin,

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7 (1938).

Polyak, S. L.

S. L. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

Riopelle, A. J.

A. J. Riopelle and W. Bevan, Am. J. Psychol. 66, 73 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 1077 (1950).
[PubMed]

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monographs 38, No. 1 (1928).

Steinhardt, J.

J. Steinhardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185 (1936).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B116, 55 (1934).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B113, 496 (1933).

Wald, G.

G. Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269 (1938).

Wentworth, H. A.

H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monographs 40,(1930).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby, St. Louis, 1947).

Wulfeck,

Johannsen, McBride, and Wulfeck, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 67 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wulfeck, Crook, and McBride, United States Air Force, Rome Air Development Center,Griffiss Air Force Base, Rome, New York, Contract No. AF 30(602)-199, final report, Oct.1954.

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

Østerberg, Acta Ophthalmol. 6, 1 (1935).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 33, 1077 (1950).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Psychol. (2)

A. H. Holway and L. M. Hurvich, Am. J. Psychol. 51, 687 (1938).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Riopelle and W. Bevan, Am. J. Psychol. 66, 73 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 26, 203 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. W. Kravkov, Graefe’s Arch. Ophthalmol. 127, 86 (1931).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Physiol. (3)

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7 (1938).

J. Steinhardt, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 185 (1936).

G. Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 21, 269 (1938).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (2)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B113, 496 (1933).

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B116, 55 (1934).

Psychol. Monographs (2)

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monographs 38, No. 1 (1928).

H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monographs 40,(1930).

The Armed Forces, National Research Council, Vision Committee, Minutes 31st Meeting (1)

H. R. Blackwell and O. T. Law, The Armed Forces, National Research Council, Vision Committee, Minutes 31st Meeting, 43 (1952).

Other (4)

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby, St. Louis, 1947).

S. L. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

Reference 11, p., 266.

Wulfeck, Crook, and McBride, United States Air Force, Rome Air Development Center,Griffiss Air Force Base, Rome, New York, Contract No. AF 30(602)-199, final report, Oct.1954.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Log median ΔB as a function of log B for each of four retinal locations. Data for DJC

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log median ΔB as a function of log B for each of four retinal locations. Data for RLG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log median ΔB as a function of retinal eccentricity for each of six background brightnesses. Data for DJC.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log median ΔB as a function of retinal eccentricity for each of six background brightnesses. Data for RLG.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Median ΔB and log median ΔB as a function of retinal eccentricity for six background brightnesses and two observers.

Tables Icon

Table II Difference in ΔB values between various retinal locations as a function of background brightness.