Abstract

A photoelectric scanning instrument is described which gives granularity values in terms that can be converted into the graininess values that would be obtained by an observer viewing a magnified image of the sample under standard conditions. The procedure is to determine the critical scanning aperture that results in a signal corresponding to the threshold-gradient sensitivity of the eye for the density of the sample. The techniques for making two types of routine graininess measurements are described in detail. Class I measurements give the graininess of samples at a density of 0.8. Class II measurements give granularity numbers that indicate the relative graininess to be expected of matched prints made from the negatives.

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  1. L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35,435 (1945).
  2. L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 203 (1946).
  3. L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 217 (1947).
  4. L. A. Jones anl G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. An. 38,398 (1948).
  5. L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 41 (1951).
  6. L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 64 (1951).
  7. L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41,192 (1951).
  8. Jones, Higgins, and Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 107 (1955).
  9. H. Zweig, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 805, 812 (1956).
  10. R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 799 (1955).
  11. A. Marriage and E. Pitts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1019 (1956).
  12. J. H. Altman and K. F. Stultz, Rev. Sci. Instr. 27, 1033 (1956).
  13. J. H. Altman and K. F. Stultz, Phot. Sci. Tech. (to be published).
  14. M. H. Sweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 432 (1947); Electronics 19,105 (November, 1946).
  15. N. R. Gunderson, U. S. Patent 2,454,871 (1948).
  16. J. G. Clarke, Electronics 17, 138 (November, 1944). The type of differentiator used is illustrated by his Fig. 6.
  17. L. A. Jones and N. Deisch, J. Franklin Inst. 190, 657 (1920).
  18. E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 65 (1936).
  19. L. A. Jones, J. Franklin Inst. 190, 39 (1920), p. 50.
  20. Processing Chemicals and Formulas for Black-and-White Potography (Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, 1954), fifth edition, p. 40.

Altman, J. H.

J. H. Altman and K. F. Stultz, Rev. Sci. Instr. 27, 1033 (1956).

J. H. Altman and K. F. Stultz, Phot. Sci. Tech. (to be published).

Clarke, J. G.

J. G. Clarke, Electronics 17, 138 (November, 1944). The type of differentiator used is illustrated by his Fig. 6.

Deisch, N.

L. A. Jones and N. Deisch, J. Franklin Inst. 190, 657 (1920).

Gunderson, N. R.

N. R. Gunderson, U. S. Patent 2,454,871 (1948).

Higgins, G. C.

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35,435 (1945).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 203 (1946).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 217 (1947).

L. A. Jones anl G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. An. 38,398 (1948).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 41 (1951).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 64 (1951).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41,192 (1951).

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41,192 (1951).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 64 (1951).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 41 (1951).

L. A. Jones anl G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. An. 38,398 (1948).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 217 (1947).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 203 (1946).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35,435 (1945).

L. A. Jones and N. Deisch, J. Franklin Inst. 190, 657 (1920).

L. A. Jones, J. Franklin Inst. 190, 39 (1920), p. 50.

Jones, R. Clark

R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 799 (1955).

Lowry, E. M.

E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 65 (1936).

Marriage, A.

A. Marriage and E. Pitts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1019 (1956).

Pitts, E.

A. Marriage and E. Pitts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1019 (1956).

Stultz, K. F.

J. H. Altman and K. F. Stultz, Phot. Sci. Tech. (to be published).

J. H. Altman and K. F. Stultz, Rev. Sci. Instr. 27, 1033 (1956).

Sweet, M. H.

M. H. Sweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 432 (1947); Electronics 19,105 (November, 1946).

Zweig, H.

H. Zweig, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 805, 812 (1956).

Other (20)

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35,435 (1945).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 203 (1946).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 217 (1947).

L. A. Jones anl G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. An. 38,398 (1948).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 41 (1951).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 64 (1951).

L. A. Jones and G. C. Higgins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41,192 (1951).

Jones, Higgins, and Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 107 (1955).

H. Zweig, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 805, 812 (1956).

R. Clark Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 799 (1955).

A. Marriage and E. Pitts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1019 (1956).

J. H. Altman and K. F. Stultz, Rev. Sci. Instr. 27, 1033 (1956).

J. H. Altman and K. F. Stultz, Phot. Sci. Tech. (to be published).

M. H. Sweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 432 (1947); Electronics 19,105 (November, 1946).

N. R. Gunderson, U. S. Patent 2,454,871 (1948).

J. G. Clarke, Electronics 17, 138 (November, 1944). The type of differentiator used is illustrated by his Fig. 6.

L. A. Jones and N. Deisch, J. Franklin Inst. 190, 657 (1920).

E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 65 (1936).

L. A. Jones, J. Franklin Inst. 190, 39 (1920), p. 50.

Processing Chemicals and Formulas for Black-and-White Potography (Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, 1954), fifth edition, p. 40.

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