Abstract

In order to answer a practical question as to the most effective red light to be used in military situations requiring dark adaptation, an experiment was undertaken to compare the effects of four “red” filters at constant brightness levels. It was obvious that with traditional methods of measuring dark adaptation, these effects could not be measured with sufficient accuracy to make comparisons. An application of the method of constant stimuli was developed which gave adequate accuracy of measurement.

The results show differences in the effects of adapting to light having dominant wavelengths of 601, 626, 640, 675, 690 mμ and neutral. The maximum sensitivity differences occurred early in dark adaptation (before two minutes). Dark adaptation proceeded most rapidly following adaptation to 626 mμ. The maximum difference between neutral and 626 mμ was 0.5 logμμL and differences between the various “red” conditions ranged from zero to 0.22 logμμL.

This application of the constant stimuli method gives results which may be more sensitive than the calibrations of standard instruments.

© 1955 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Crook, Hanson, McBridge, and Wolfeck, “A bibliography on dark adaptation,” Armed Forces-NRC Vision Committee, July, 1953.
  2. S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 261 (1945).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Allen, Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 79, 410 (1910).
  4. “Dark adaptation following exposure of the eyes to light of different colours, including red, orange, green and blue.” , 15February, 1943.
  5. “The uses of red and orange light in the services,” , 6June, 1945.
  6. “Note on the suitability of certain light filters for use in preadaptation goggles,” , 28April, 1942.
  7. “Effect of red, orange, and white light on rates of dark adaptation,” , 9October, 1942.
  8. “Effect on the dark adapted eye of two minutes’ exposure to red or orange or white light,” , 8October, 1942.
  9. “Dark adaptation following exposure to red, orange, and white light for different times and at different intensities.” .
  10. W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, “The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles,” U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 31August, 1944.
  11. W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, “The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles,” U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 19February, 1945.
  12. D. Farnsworth and B. Hillmann, , XII; No. 4, 2February, 1953.
  13. H. H. Ferguson and T. P. H. McKellar, Brit. J. Psychol. 34, 81 (1943–44).
  14. H. K. Hartline, “Relative merits of lights of different wavelengths in aircraft cockpit illumination,” National Research Council, CAM, Rept. No. 10, conf., June, 1941.
  15. E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 402 (1951).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. E. O. Hulburt, “Time of dark adaptation after stimulation by various brightnesses and colors,” U. S. Naval Research LaboratoryWashington, D. C., 1951.
  17. E. O. Hulburt, “Report on dark adaptation: time to become dark adapted after stimulation by various brightnesses and colors,” , 30March, 1943.
  18. W. C. Ives and C. W. Shilling, “Night adaptation after exposure to various colored lights,” , WcI/HSM, 13November, 1941.
  19. E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 619 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, “The effectiveness of colored versus neutral dark adaptation goggles,” U. S. N. Naval Air Station, Anacostia, D. C. n. d.
  21. R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, “Further studies of the advantage of red light in preadaptation, A. The effective dark adaptation afforded by red, orange, gray and black lenses.” Min. Proc. Army-Navy-OSRD Vision Committee, Seventh meeting, November, 1944.
  22. James C. Peskin and J. M. Bjornstad, “The effect of different wavelength on visual sensitivity,” , U. S. A. F. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, 15June, 1948.
  23. C. W. Shilling, “Report of test of six pairs of night adaptation goggles,” , 18May, 1942.
  24. F. O. Smith, J. Exptl. Psychol. 26, 124 (1940).
    [Crossref]
  25. Weinbach, Lee, Jones, and Brackett, “Preliminary report on the influence of brightness and color of preadaptation light on the course of dark adaptation,” U. S. Natl. Inst. Health, Div. Industr. Hyg., 5January, 1942.
  26. R. H. Lee, “Comparison of rates of dark adaptation under red illumination and in total darkness,” , 20December, 1943.
  27. W. R. Miles, Federation Proc. 2, 109 (1943).
  28. Mote, Briggs, and Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 69 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  30. E. P. Hunt and C. E. Palmer, “Medical Evaluation of Nutritional Status II. Measurement of visual dark adaptation with the adaptometer,” Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. XVIII, No. 4, October, 1940.
  31. F. L. Dimmick and A. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 868 (1951).
  32. Smith, Morris, and Dimmick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  33. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 269 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  34. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 359 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  35. D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis: A Statistical Treatment of the Sigmoid Response Curve (Macmillan Company, New York, 1947).

1954 (1)

Mote, Briggs, and Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 69 (1954).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

Smith, Morris, and Dimmick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872 (1952).
[Crossref]

1951 (2)

F. L. Dimmick and A. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 868 (1951).

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 402 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1945 (1)

1943 (2)

E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 619 (1943).
[Crossref]

W. R. Miles, Federation Proc. 2, 109 (1943).

1942 (1)

Weinbach, Lee, Jones, and Brackett, “Preliminary report on the influence of brightness and color of preadaptation light on the course of dark adaptation,” U. S. Natl. Inst. Health, Div. Industr. Hyg., 5January, 1942.

1940 (2)

F. O. Smith, J. Exptl. Psychol. 26, 124 (1940).
[Crossref]

E. P. Hunt and C. E. Palmer, “Medical Evaluation of Nutritional Status II. Measurement of visual dark adaptation with the adaptometer,” Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. XVIII, No. 4, October, 1940.

1939 (1)

S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

1933 (1)

1910 (1)

F. Allen, Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 79, 410 (1910).

Allen, F.

F. Allen, Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 79, 410 (1910).

Bjornstad, J. M.

James C. Peskin and J. M. Bjornstad, “The effect of different wavelength on visual sensitivity,” , U. S. A. F. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, 15June, 1948.

Brackett,

Weinbach, Lee, Jones, and Brackett, “Preliminary report on the influence of brightness and color of preadaptation light on the course of dark adaptation,” U. S. Natl. Inst. Health, Div. Industr. Hyg., 5January, 1942.

Briggs,

Mote, Briggs, and Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 69 (1954).
[Crossref]

Clark, W. B.

W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, “The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles,” U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 31August, 1944.

W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, “The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles,” U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 19February, 1945.

Crook,

Crook, Hanson, McBridge, and Wolfeck, “A bibliography on dark adaptation,” Armed Forces-NRC Vision Committee, July, 1953.

Dimmick,

Smith, Morris, and Dimmick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872 (1952).
[Crossref]

Dimmick, F. L.

F. L. Dimmick and A. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 868 (1951).

Farnsworth, D.

D. Farnsworth and B. Hillmann, , XII; No. 4, 2February, 1953.

Ferguson, H. H.

H. H. Ferguson and T. P. H. McKellar, Brit. J. Psychol. 34, 81 (1943–44).

Finney, D. J.

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis: A Statistical Treatment of the Sigmoid Response Curve (Macmillan Company, New York, 1947).

Hanson,

Crook, Hanson, McBridge, and Wolfeck, “A bibliography on dark adaptation,” Armed Forces-NRC Vision Committee, July, 1953.

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. Hartline, “Relative merits of lights of different wavelengths in aircraft cockpit illumination,” National Research Council, CAM, Rept. No. 10, conf., June, 1941.

Hecht, S.

Hillmann, B.

D. Farnsworth and B. Hillmann, , XII; No. 4, 2February, 1953.

Hsia, Y.

Hulburt, E. O.

E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 402 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. O. Hulburt, “Time of dark adaptation after stimulation by various brightnesses and colors,” U. S. Naval Research LaboratoryWashington, D. C., 1951.

E. O. Hulburt, “Report on dark adaptation: time to become dark adapted after stimulation by various brightnesses and colors,” , 30March, 1943.

Hunt, E. P.

E. P. Hunt and C. E. Palmer, “Medical Evaluation of Nutritional Status II. Measurement of visual dark adaptation with the adaptometer,” Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. XVIII, No. 4, October, 1940.

Ives, W. C.

W. C. Ives and C. W. Shilling, “Night adaptation after exposure to various colored lights,” , WcI/HSM, 13November, 1941.

Johnson, M. L.

W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, “The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles,” U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 19February, 1945.

W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, “The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles,” U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 31August, 1944.

Jones,

Weinbach, Lee, Jones, and Brackett, “Preliminary report on the influence of brightness and color of preadaptation light on the course of dark adaptation,” U. S. Natl. Inst. Health, Div. Industr. Hyg., 5January, 1942.

Judd, D. B.

Lee,

Weinbach, Lee, Jones, and Brackett, “Preliminary report on the influence of brightness and color of preadaptation light on the course of dark adaptation,” U. S. Natl. Inst. Health, Div. Industr. Hyg., 5January, 1942.

Lee, R. H.

R. H. Lee, “Comparison of rates of dark adaptation under red illumination and in total darkness,” , 20December, 1943.

Lowry, E. M.

Mandelbaum, J.

S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).
[Crossref]

McBridge,

Crook, Hanson, McBridge, and Wolfeck, “A bibliography on dark adaptation,” Armed Forces-NRC Vision Committee, July, 1953.

McKellar, T. P. H.

H. H. Ferguson and T. P. H. McKellar, Brit. J. Psychol. 34, 81 (1943–44).

Michels,

Mote, Briggs, and Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 69 (1954).
[Crossref]

Miles, W. R.

W. R. Miles, Federation Proc. 2, 109 (1943).

Morris,

Smith, Morris, and Dimmick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872 (1952).
[Crossref]

Morris, A.

F. L. Dimmick and A. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 868 (1951).

Mote,

Mote, Briggs, and Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 69 (1954).
[Crossref]

Older, H. J.

R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, “Further studies of the advantage of red light in preadaptation, A. The effective dark adaptation afforded by red, orange, gray and black lenses.” Min. Proc. Army-Navy-OSRD Vision Committee, Seventh meeting, November, 1944.

R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, “The effectiveness of colored versus neutral dark adaptation goggles,” U. S. N. Naval Air Station, Anacostia, D. C. n. d.

Palmer, C. E.

E. P. Hunt and C. E. Palmer, “Medical Evaluation of Nutritional Status II. Measurement of visual dark adaptation with the adaptometer,” Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. XVIII, No. 4, October, 1940.

Peckham, R. H.

R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, “Further studies of the advantage of red light in preadaptation, A. The effective dark adaptation afforded by red, orange, gray and black lenses.” Min. Proc. Army-Navy-OSRD Vision Committee, Seventh meeting, November, 1944.

R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, “The effectiveness of colored versus neutral dark adaptation goggles,” U. S. N. Naval Air Station, Anacostia, D. C. n. d.

Peskin, James C.

James C. Peskin and J. M. Bjornstad, “The effect of different wavelength on visual sensitivity,” , U. S. A. F. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, 15June, 1948.

Shilling, C. W.

C. W. Shilling, “Report of test of six pairs of night adaptation goggles,” , 18May, 1942.

W. C. Ives and C. W. Shilling, “Night adaptation after exposure to various colored lights,” , WcI/HSM, 13November, 1941.

Shlaer, S.

Smith,

Smith, Morris, and Dimmick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 872 (1952).
[Crossref]

Smith, F. O.

F. O. Smith, J. Exptl. Psychol. 26, 124 (1940).
[Crossref]

Weinbach,

Weinbach, Lee, Jones, and Brackett, “Preliminary report on the influence of brightness and color of preadaptation light on the course of dark adaptation,” U. S. Natl. Inst. Health, Div. Industr. Hyg., 5January, 1942.

Wolfeck,

Crook, Hanson, McBridge, and Wolfeck, “A bibliography on dark adaptation,” Armed Forces-NRC Vision Committee, July, 1953.

Brit. J. Psychol. (1)

H. H. Ferguson and T. P. H. McKellar, Brit. J. Psychol. 34, 81 (1943–44).

Federation Proc. (1)

W. R. Miles, Federation Proc. 2, 109 (1943).

J. Am. Med. Assoc. (1)

S. Hecht and J. Mandelbaum, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 112, 1910 (1939).
[Crossref]

J. Exptl. Psychol. (2)

Mote, Briggs, and Michels, J. Exptl. Psychol. 48, 69 (1954).
[Crossref]

F. O. Smith, J. Exptl. Psychol. 26, 124 (1940).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. (1)

E. P. Hunt and C. E. Palmer, “Medical Evaluation of Nutritional Status II. Measurement of visual dark adaptation with the adaptometer,” Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. XVIII, No. 4, October, 1940.

Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. (1)

F. Allen, Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 79, 410 (1910).

U. S. Natl. Inst. Health, Div. Industr. Hyg. (1)

Weinbach, Lee, Jones, and Brackett, “Preliminary report on the influence of brightness and color of preadaptation light on the course of dark adaptation,” U. S. Natl. Inst. Health, Div. Industr. Hyg., 5January, 1942.

Other (20)

R. H. Lee, “Comparison of rates of dark adaptation under red illumination and in total darkness,” , 20December, 1943.

H. K. Hartline, “Relative merits of lights of different wavelengths in aircraft cockpit illumination,” National Research Council, CAM, Rept. No. 10, conf., June, 1941.

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis: A Statistical Treatment of the Sigmoid Response Curve (Macmillan Company, New York, 1947).

Crook, Hanson, McBridge, and Wolfeck, “A bibliography on dark adaptation,” Armed Forces-NRC Vision Committee, July, 1953.

“Dark adaptation following exposure of the eyes to light of different colours, including red, orange, green and blue.” , 15February, 1943.

“The uses of red and orange light in the services,” , 6June, 1945.

“Note on the suitability of certain light filters for use in preadaptation goggles,” , 28April, 1942.

“Effect of red, orange, and white light on rates of dark adaptation,” , 9October, 1942.

“Effect on the dark adapted eye of two minutes’ exposure to red or orange or white light,” , 8October, 1942.

“Dark adaptation following exposure to red, orange, and white light for different times and at different intensities.” .

W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, “The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles,” U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 31August, 1944.

W. B. Clark and M. L. Johnson, “The course of dark adaptation after wearing orange dark adaptor goggles,” U. S. N. Air Training Base, Pensacola, Florida, School of Aviation Medicine, 19February, 1945.

D. Farnsworth and B. Hillmann, , XII; No. 4, 2February, 1953.

R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, “The effectiveness of colored versus neutral dark adaptation goggles,” U. S. N. Naval Air Station, Anacostia, D. C. n. d.

R. H. Peckham and H. J. Older, “Further studies of the advantage of red light in preadaptation, A. The effective dark adaptation afforded by red, orange, gray and black lenses.” Min. Proc. Army-Navy-OSRD Vision Committee, Seventh meeting, November, 1944.

James C. Peskin and J. M. Bjornstad, “The effect of different wavelength on visual sensitivity,” , U. S. A. F. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, 15June, 1948.

C. W. Shilling, “Report of test of six pairs of night adaptation goggles,” , 18May, 1942.

E. O. Hulburt, “Time of dark adaptation after stimulation by various brightnesses and colors,” U. S. Naval Research LaboratoryWashington, D. C., 1951.

E. O. Hulburt, “Report on dark adaptation: time to become dark adapted after stimulation by various brightnesses and colors,” , 30March, 1943.

W. C. Ives and C. W. Shilling, “Night adaptation after exposure to various colored lights,” , WcI/HSM, 13November, 1941.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Method of constant stimuli applied to dark adaptation. Plan of stimulus presentation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrophotometric curves of filters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample probit plot of frequency of seeing distribution for observer PO after adapting to dominant wavelength 626 mμ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Differences in the effects of various red adaptations plotted relative to a generalized dark-adaptation curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sensitivity gain of various red adaptions over neutral.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Characteristics of the filters.a

Tables Icon

Table II Sample frequency of seeing distribution for observer PO after adapting to dominant wavelength 626 mμ.

Tables Icon

Table III Limens and standard deviations of the limens for all observers and conditions (logμμL).

Tables Icon

Table IV Differences in sensitivity resulting from various red adaptation conditons. Averages for all observers.

Equations (1)

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σ L = σ [ probit [ 50 + 100 2 ( n + 1 ) 1 2 ] - 5 ] ,