Abstract

The Adams chromatic-value diagram has several advantages, including the small effect of Munsell value on the constant-chroma loci, permitting rapid interpolation between value levels; also, chromaticity-differences and Munsell notations may be determined directly from the tristimulus values X, Y, Z. But the disadvantages are that the constant-chroma loci of the Munsell Renotation colors, which yield the best data available to us, have an ovoid form; and the neutral-to-yellow radius is about 72 percent longer than the neutral-to-purple blue radius. The Hunter diagram and one recently proposed by Judd are badly flattened in the yellow region. Various transformations of the Adams variables to yield near-circular contours have now been investigated along with other transformations and more direct studies. The author is concerned mainly with rapid evaluation of color differences direct from X, Y, Z. Because of the noncongruity of the Renotation contours, compromises must be made to achieve optimum circularity, hue spacing, straightness of constant-hue lines, “linearity,” constancy of radii, and speed of transformation. For the best of the transformations studied, a table has been prepared to permit immediate reading off of new variables h and v. Two columns contain h for positive and negative values of Adams “H”=VXVY; six more contain values of v for values of Adams “V”=VZVY for three diagrams, one each “corrected” for colors of chroma 10, 6, and 3, respectively. These are used in the chroma ranges 0–4, 4–8, and 6–16, respectively. When two greatly different chromas are involved, a new color-difference formula has been derived and tested. While stressing circularity, straightness of hue lines and speed, fairly good results in respect to the other criteria of merit have been obtained. The method is illustrated by application to a series of fadings previously judged visually by a committee of 12 textile-mill men; and the improvement over the Adams method is shown.

© 1952 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Q. Adams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 168 (1942); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 683A (1943); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 717A (1946); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661A, 1094A (1948).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Nickerson, Textile Research 6, 505 (1936); Paper Trade J. 125, 153 (November6, 1947); Amer. Dyestuff Rptr. 39, 541 (August21, 1950); “Color Measurement,” U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. 580 (March1946), p. 52; J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 85 (1950); Nickerson and Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 85 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Nickerson, unpublished diagrams accompanying I.C.I. Tech. Comm. 7 correspondence, letter of D. N. to D. B. Judd, April17, 1951.
  5. R. S. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661A, 1094A (1948).
  6. D. B. Judd, Secretariat Report, Intern. Comm. Illum., Preprint, 12th meeting, Stockholm, June–July 1951.
  7. Newhall, Nickerson, and Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  8. I. H. Godlove, Amer. Dyestuff Rptr. 40, 549 (September3, 1951) and J. Opt. Soc. Am.,  41, 760 (1951).
  9. J. L. Saunderson and B. I. Milner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 36 (1946).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. Nickerson, Amer. Dyestuff Rptr. 39, 541 (August21, 1950).
  11. D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 85 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  12. F. J. O’Neil, chairman; C. J. Monego, Secretary.

1951 (1)

I. H. Godlove, Amer. Dyestuff Rptr. 40, 549 (September3, 1951) and J. Opt. Soc. Am.,  41, 760 (1951).

1950 (3)

1948 (1)

R. S. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661A, 1094A (1948).

1946 (1)

1943 (1)

1942 (1)

1936 (1)

D. Nickerson, Textile Research 6, 505 (1936); Paper Trade J. 125, 153 (November6, 1947); Amer. Dyestuff Rptr. 39, 541 (August21, 1950); “Color Measurement,” U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. 580 (March1946), p. 52; J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 85 (1950); Nickerson and Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550 (1944).
[Crossref]

Adams, E. Q.

Godlove, I. H.

I. H. Godlove, Amer. Dyestuff Rptr. 40, 549 (September3, 1951) and J. Opt. Soc. Am.,  41, 760 (1951).

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661A, 1094A (1948).

Judd,

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Secretariat Report, Intern. Comm. Illum., Preprint, 12th meeting, Stockholm, June–July 1951.

Milner, B. I.

Monego, C. J.

F. J. O’Neil, chairman; C. J. Monego, Secretary.

Newhall,

Nickerson,

Nickerson, D.

D. Nickerson, Amer. Dyestuff Rptr. 39, 541 (August21, 1950).

D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 85 (1950).
[Crossref]

D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 85 (1950).
[Crossref]

D. Nickerson, Textile Research 6, 505 (1936); Paper Trade J. 125, 153 (November6, 1947); Amer. Dyestuff Rptr. 39, 541 (August21, 1950); “Color Measurement,” U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. 580 (March1946), p. 52; J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 85 (1950); Nickerson and Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550 (1944).
[Crossref]

D. Nickerson, unpublished diagrams accompanying I.C.I. Tech. Comm. 7 correspondence, letter of D. N. to D. B. Judd, April17, 1951.

O’Neil, F. J.

F. J. O’Neil, chairman; C. J. Monego, Secretary.

Saunderson, J. L.

Amer. Dyestuff Rptr. (2)

I. H. Godlove, Amer. Dyestuff Rptr. 40, 549 (September3, 1951) and J. Opt. Soc. Am.,  41, 760 (1951).

D. Nickerson, Amer. Dyestuff Rptr. 39, 541 (August21, 1950).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

Textile Research (1)

D. Nickerson, Textile Research 6, 505 (1936); Paper Trade J. 125, 153 (November6, 1947); Amer. Dyestuff Rptr. 39, 541 (August21, 1950); “Color Measurement,” U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Publ. 580 (March1946), p. 52; J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 85 (1950); Nickerson and Stultz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 550 (1944).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

D. Nickerson, unpublished diagrams accompanying I.C.I. Tech. Comm. 7 correspondence, letter of D. N. to D. B. Judd, April17, 1951.

D. B. Judd, Secretariat Report, Intern. Comm. Illum., Preprint, 12th meeting, Stockholm, June–July 1951.

F. J. O’Neil, chairman; C. J. Monego, Secretary.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modified Adams chromaticity diagram for colors in the Munsell ten-chroma range. This diagram is for the 5-value Munsell renotation colors. It is obtained from the columns of Table I corresponding to Eqs. (1) and (2). Forty hues and alternate steps in chroma are shown. The diagram is recommended for use in the chroma range 8 to 10 or more.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modified Adams chromaticity diagram for colors in the Munsell six-chroma range. The remarks of Fig. 1 apply here too, except that the equations involved are (1) and (3) and the chroma range is 4 to 8.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modified Adams chromaticity diagram for colors in the Munsell three-chroma range. The remarks of Fig. 1 apply here too, except that the equations involved are (1) and (4) and the chroma range is 0 to 4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The “value effect” (effect of change of Munsell value) on the modified Adams variables, h and v, for colors of constant chromas six and twelve. The several symbols indicate the Munsell values: 9: ◃, 8: □, 7: ♢, 6: ▽, 5: ○, 4: △, 3: ●, 2: ▲.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Application to fadings. Comparison of visually “matched” and “rejected” samples with placement on the modified Adams chromaticity diagram. Twenty gas-fadings of dyeings on cellulose-acetate fabric were judged visually in 1949 by 12 AATCC committee members and by spectrophotometric measurements and placement with some “repeats” in 1951 on the modified Adams (and in 1949 on the original Adams) diagrams. Visually, 10 samples marked △ were “rejected” by zero to two committee members as too large in practice, 2 marked □ were rejected by five or six persons, and 8 marked ● were rejected by ten to twelve persons of the committee. Unrejected (“match”) samples were those in which there was practically no fading. Some samples measured and placed twice on the diagram are indicated by dashed lines joining two symbols. The abscissa show chromaticity placement on the modified Adams diagram (distance from “original” to “faded” point). The ordinates show total color change, on exposure, by a graphical method indicated in the text in the section “Illustration of Improvement in an Application,” where the poorer performance of the original Adams diagram and method is stated.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Transformation of Adams variables H, V to modified-Adams variables h, v.

Tables Icon

Table II Constants of near-circles.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

h = 0.085 H 3 2 + H ,
v 10 = 0.053 V 3 2 + 0.356 V + 0.007 U ,
v 6 = 0.07 V 3 2 + 0.368 V + 0.00735 U ,
v 3 = 0.1 V 3 2 + 0.37 V + 0.002 U ,
H = Adams chromatic value = V X - V Y ,
V = Adams chromatic value = V Z - V Y ,
U = 2 - V ,
a = 0.56691 b + 0.82378 a + 0.23438 , b = 0.82378 b - 0.56691 a + 0.14325 ,
( a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ) 2 - 4 c 2 b 2 = m 4 ,
h = a ± 0.0951 a 2             and             v = 0.391 ( b ± 0.1078 b 2 ) .
h = a ± 0.0714 a             and             v = 0.348 b ± 0.437 b .
h = 0.1 ( a / 1 - a ) ± a ,
v = v - 0.13 ( 4 - v ) ( v / 1 - v ) ,
v = b / 1 - b ± b .