Abstract

Under certain conditions, studies on visual thresholds as a function of luminance have indicated that the transition from cone to rod function occurs within a narrow range of luminances. This has suggested the possibility of establishing a “rod luminance scale” for lower intensities. Based on standard photopic and scotopic luminosity data, a correction curve for translating from cone to rod luminance specification has been calculated. This curve emphasizes the factors involved, but when applied to empirical data leaves residual discrepancies between rod functions determined at different wavelengths. An empirical determination of correction factors permits rectification of the luminance scale, except for a narrow transition region for each wavelength.

© 1952 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Optical Society of America, Committee on Colorimetry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 245–266 (1944).
  2. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278–291 (1949).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 6, 965–977 (1936).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  8. P. J. Bouma, Physical Aspects of Colour (N. V. Philips’ Gloeilampenfabrieken, Eindhoven, 1946), p. 50.
  9. A. Chapanis, “How We See: A Summary of Basic Principles,” Chapter I, pp. 3–60, in Human Factors in Undersea Warfare (Committee on Undersea Warfare, National Research Council, Washington, D. C., 1949). (Issued separately by USN Special Devices Center as Report No. 116-I-85.)
  10. A. König, Beiträge zur Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg (L. Voss, Hamburg, 1891), pp. 309–388.(Also appears in A. König, Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur physiologischen Optik (Barth, Leipzig, 1903), pp. 144–213.)
  11. J. E. Purkinje (Purkyně), Beobachtungen und Versuche zur Physiologie der Sinne. Band I (Prag,1819, 1825), Band II (Berlin, 1825).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1926).
  14. T. W. T. Walsh, Trans. Ilium. Eng. Soc. (London) 6, 117–120 (1941).
  15. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 36–43 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. D. Wright, Photometry and the Eye (Hatton Press Ltd., London, 1949).
  17. International Commission on Illumination, , Stockholm1951,J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 734 (1951).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. A. H. Taylor, Ilium. Eng. 38, 89–98 (1943).
  20. P. G. Nutting, Outlines of Applied Optics (P. Blakiston’s Son and Company, Philadelphia, 1912).
  21. P. G. Nutting, Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 235–238 (1911).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 173 (1928).
  23. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).
  24. C. S. Bridgman, “The luminosity curve as affected by the relation between rod and cone adaptation,” in preparation.
  25. H. W. Leibowitz, “Photometric scales and the duplicity theory of vision,” Am. J. Psychol. (to be published).
  26. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 199 (1935).
  27. Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935–1936).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of preadapting light upon subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. Psychol. (to be published).
  29. S. Hecht and Yun Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 261–267 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Chapanis, J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).
  31. R. T. Brooke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 1010–1016 (1951).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1951 (1)

1949 (1)

1947 (1)

A. Chapanis, J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).

1945 (1)

1944 (1)

1943 (1)

A. H. Taylor, Ilium. Eng. 38, 89–98 (1943).

1942 (1)

Shlaer, Smith, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553–569 (1942).

1941 (1)

T. W. T. Walsh, Trans. Ilium. Eng. Soc. (London) 6, 117–120 (1941).

1938 (2)

M. Luckiesh and A. H. Taylor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 237 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).

1937 (1)

1936 (1)

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 6, 965–977 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

1931 (1)

A. Kohlrausch, Handbuch der Normalen und Pathologischen Physiologie XII, (2), 1570–1593 (1931).

1928 (1)

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 173 (1928).

1922 (1)

Kohlrausch, Arch. Gesamte Physiol. (Pflüger’s) 196, 113–117 (1922).
[CrossRef]

1917 (1)

L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1–33 (1917).
[CrossRef]

1911 (1)

P. G. Nutting, Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 235–238 (1911).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, P. J.

P. J. Bouma, Physical Aspects of Colour (N. V. Philips’ Gloeilampenfabrieken, Eindhoven, 1946), p. 50.

Bridgman, C. S.

C. S. Bridgman, “The luminosity curve as affected by the relation between rod and cone adaptation,” in preparation.

Brooke, R. T.

Chapanis, A.

A. Chapanis, J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).

A. Chapanis, “How We See: A Summary of Basic Principles,” Chapter I, pp. 3–60, in Human Factors in Undersea Warfare (Committee on Undersea Warfare, National Research Council, Washington, D. C., 1949). (Issued separately by USN Special Devices Center as Report No. 116-I-85.)

Chase,

Shlaer, Smith, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553–569 (1942).

Haig,

Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935–1936).
[CrossRef]

Hecht,

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).

Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935–1936).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, S.

Hsia, Yun

Kohlrausch,

Kohlrausch, Arch. Gesamte Physiol. (Pflüger’s) 196, 113–117 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Kohlrausch, A.

A. Kohlrausch, Handbuch der Normalen und Pathologischen Physiologie XII, (2), 1570–1593 (1931).

König, A.

A. König, Beiträge zur Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg (L. Voss, Hamburg, 1891), pp. 309–388.(Also appears in A. König, Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur physiologischen Optik (Barth, Leipzig, 1903), pp. 144–213.)

Leibowitz, H. W.

H. W. Leibowitz, “Photometric scales and the duplicity theory of vision,” Am. J. Psychol. (to be published).

Luckiesh, M.

Mote, F. A.

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of preadapting light upon subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. Psychol. (to be published).

Nutting, P. G.

P. G. Nutting, Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 235–238 (1911).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Nutting, Outlines of Applied Optics (P. Blakiston’s Son and Company, Philadelphia, 1912).

Patt,

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).

Peskin,

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).

Purkinje (Purkyne), J. E.

J. E. Purkinje (Purkyně), Beobachtungen und Versuche zur Physiologie der Sinne. Band I (Prag,1819, 1825), Band II (Berlin, 1825).

Riopelle, A. J.

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of preadapting light upon subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. Psychol. (to be published).

Shlaer,

Shlaer, Smith, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553–569 (1942).

Shlaer, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 6, 965–977 (1936).
[CrossRef]

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 199 (1935).

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 173 (1928).

Smith,

Shlaer, Smith, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553–569 (1942).

Taylor, A. H.

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1–33 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Wald,

Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935–1936).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. W. T.

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1926).

Walsh, T. W. T.

T. W. T. Walsh, Trans. Ilium. Eng. Soc. (London) 6, 117–120 (1941).

Weaver, K. S.

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Photometry and the Eye (Hatton Press Ltd., London, 1949).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

Arch. Gesamte Physiol. (Pflüger’s) (1)

Kohlrausch, Arch. Gesamte Physiol. (Pflüger’s) 196, 113–117 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Bur. Standards (1)

P. G. Nutting, Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 235–238 (1911).
[CrossRef]

Handbuch der Normalen und Pathologischen Physiologie (1)

A. Kohlrausch, Handbuch der Normalen und Pathologischen Physiologie XII, (2), 1570–1593 (1931).

Ilium. Eng. (1)

A. H. Taylor, Ilium. Eng. 38, 89–98 (1943).

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1–33 (1917).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Physiol. (5)

Shlaer, Smith, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553–569 (1942).

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 6, 965–977 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).

Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935–1936).
[CrossRef]

A. Chapanis, J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

Psychol. Monog. (1)

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 173 (1928).

Trans. Ilium. Eng. Soc. (London) (1)

T. W. T. Walsh, Trans. Ilium. Eng. Soc. (London) 6, 117–120 (1941).

Other (12)

P. G. Nutting, Outlines of Applied Optics (P. Blakiston’s Son and Company, Philadelphia, 1912).

W. D. Wright, Photometry and the Eye (Hatton Press Ltd., London, 1949).

International Commission on Illumination, , Stockholm1951,J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 734 (1951).

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1926).

P. J. Bouma, Physical Aspects of Colour (N. V. Philips’ Gloeilampenfabrieken, Eindhoven, 1946), p. 50.

A. Chapanis, “How We See: A Summary of Basic Principles,” Chapter I, pp. 3–60, in Human Factors in Undersea Warfare (Committee on Undersea Warfare, National Research Council, Washington, D. C., 1949). (Issued separately by USN Special Devices Center as Report No. 116-I-85.)

A. König, Beiträge zur Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg (L. Voss, Hamburg, 1891), pp. 309–388.(Also appears in A. König, Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur physiologischen Optik (Barth, Leipzig, 1903), pp. 144–213.)

J. E. Purkinje (Purkyně), Beobachtungen und Versuche zur Physiologie der Sinne. Band I (Prag,1819, 1825), Band II (Berlin, 1825).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

C. S. Bridgman, “The luminosity curve as affected by the relation between rod and cone adaptation,” in preparation.

H. W. Leibowitz, “Photometric scales and the duplicity theory of vision,” Am. J. Psychol. (to be published).

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, “The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of preadapting light upon subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye,” J. Gen. Physiol. Psychol. (to be published).

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Figures (5)

F. 1
F. 1

The data of Hecht and Shlaer (see reference 3) on critical fusion frequency for various regions of the spectrum.

F. 2
F. 2

The data of Hecht, Peskin, and Patt (see reference 4) on contrast discrimination for various regions of the spectrum. B, G, Y, O, and R designate restricted spectral regions with maximum luminance at wavelengths 450, 535, 575, 605, and 670 mµ, respectively.

F. 3
F. 3

The data of Kohlrausch (see reference 6) on dark adaptation for spectral regions designated as Red 1, Red 2, Red 3, Orange, White, Green, and Blue.

F. 4
F. 4

Relative luminance for rods in an equal luminance spectrum for cones. This curve represents log(Rλ/Cλ) plotted against λ, where Rλ and Cλ are the relative luminosity coefficients for rods and for cones.

F. 5
F. 5

Hecht and Shlaer’s critical fusion frequency data for SS (see reference 3) replotted to give the best fit to a single-valued function for the rods. The open circles represent the cone data for all wavelengths and the rod data for 535 mµ as originally plotted. The solid circles represent the positions of the individual points after each of the other rod segments was shifted on the log intensity scale to give the best fit to the rod segment for 535 mµ.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison of predicted and observed correction factors for transforming from cone to rod luminance.