Abstract

Under certain conditions, studies on visual thresholds as a function of luminance have indicated that the transition from cone to rod function occurs within a narrow range of luminances. This has suggested the possibility of establishing a “rod luminance scale” for lower intensities. Based on standard photopic and scotopic luminosity data, a correction curve for translating from cone to rod luminance specification has been calculated. This curve emphasizes the factors involved, but when applied to empirical data leaves residual discrepancies between rod functions determined at different wavelengths. An empirical determination of correction factors permits rectification of the luminance scale, except for a narrow transition region for each wavelength.

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  1. Optical Society of America, Committee on Colorimetry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 245–266 (1944).
  2. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278–291 (1949).
  3. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 6, 965–977 (1936).
  4. Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).
  5. Kohlrausch, Arch. Gesamte Physiol. (Pflüger's) 196, 113–117 (1922).
  6. A. Kohlrausch, Handbuch der Normalen und Pathologischen Physiologie XII, (2), 1570–1593 (1931).
  7. Shlaer, Smith, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553–569 (1942).
  8. P. J. Bouma, Physical Aspects of Colour (N. V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken, Eindhoven, 1946), p. 50.
  9. A. Chapanis, "How We See: A Summary of Basic Principles," Chapter I, pp. 3–60, in Human Factors in Undersea Waifare (Committee on Undersea Warfare, National Research Council, Washington, D. C., 1949). (Issued separately by USN Special Devices Center as Report No. 116-I-85.)
  10. A. König, Beiträge zur Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg (L. Voss, Hamburg, 1891), pp. 309–388. (Also appears in A. König, Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur physiologischen Optik (Barth, Leipzig, 1903), pp. 144–213.)
  11. J. E. Purkinje (Purkyně), Beobachtungen und Versuche zur Physiologie der Sinne. Band I (Prag, 1819, 1825), Band II (Berlin, 1825).
  12. L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1–33 (1917).
  13. J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1926).
  14. J. W. T. Walsh, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 6, 117–120 (1941).
  15. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 36–43 (1937).
  16. W. D. Wright, Photometry and the Eye (Hatton Press Ltd., London, 1949).
  17. International Commission on Illumination, Report of Session XII, Stockholm 1951, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 734 (1951).
  18. M. Luckiesh and A. H. Taylor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 237 (1938).
  19. A. H. Taylor, Ilum. Eng. 38, 89–98 (1943).
  20. P. G. Nutting, Outlines of Applied Optics (P. Blakiston's Son and Company, Philadelphia, 1912).
  21. P. G. Nutting, Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 235–238 (1911).
  22. L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 173 (1928).
  23. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).
  24. C. S. Bridgman, "The luminosity curve as affected by the relation between rod and cone adaptation," in preparation.
  25. H. W. Leibowitz, "Photometric scales and the duplicity theory of vision," Am. J. Psychol. (to be published).
  26. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 199 (1935).
  27. Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935–1936).
  28. F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, "The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of preadapting light upon subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye," J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. (to be published).
  29. S. Hecht and Yun Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 261–267 (1945).
  30. A. Chapanis, J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).
  31. R. T. Brooke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 1010–1016 (1951).

Bouma, P. J.

P. J. Bouma, Physical Aspects of Colour (N. V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken, Eindhoven, 1946), p. 50.

Bridgman, C. S.

C. S. Bridgman, "The luminosity curve as affected by the relation between rod and cone adaptation," in preparation.

Brooke, R. T.

R. T. Brooke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 1010–1016 (1951).

Chapanis, A.

A. Chapanis, J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).

A. Chapanis, "How We See: A Summary of Basic Principles," Chapter I, pp. 3–60, in Human Factors in Undersea Waifare (Committee on Undersea Warfare, National Research Council, Washington, D. C., 1949). (Issued separately by USN Special Devices Center as Report No. 116-I-85.)

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 6, 965–977 (1936).

S. Hecht and Yun Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 261–267 (1945).

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 199 (1935).

Hsia, Yun

S. Hecht and Yun Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 261–267 (1945).

Kohlrausch, A.

A. Kohlrausch, Handbuch der Normalen und Pathologischen Physiologie XII, (2), 1570–1593 (1931).

König, A.

A. König, Beiträge zur Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg (L. Voss, Hamburg, 1891), pp. 309–388. (Also appears in A. König, Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur physiologischen Optik (Barth, Leipzig, 1903), pp. 144–213.)

Leibowitz, H. W.

H. W. Leibowitz, "Photometric scales and the duplicity theory of vision," Am. J. Psychol. (to be published).

Luckiesh, M.

M. Luckiesh and A. H. Taylor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 237 (1938).

Mote, F. A.

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, "The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of preadapting light upon subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye," J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. (to be published).

Nutting, P. G.

P. G. Nutting, Outlines of Applied Optics (P. Blakiston's Son and Company, Philadelphia, 1912).

P. G. Nutting, Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 235–238 (1911).

Purkinje, J. E.

J. E. Purkinje (Purkyně), Beobachtungen und Versuche zur Physiologie der Sinne. Band I (Prag, 1819, 1825), Band II (Berlin, 1825).

Riopelle, A. J.

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, "The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of preadapting light upon subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye," J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. (to be published).

Shlaer, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 199 (1935).

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 6, 965–977 (1936).

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 173 (1928).

Taylor, A. H.

M. Luckiesh and A. H. Taylor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 237 (1938).

A. H. Taylor, Ilum. Eng. 38, 89–98 (1943).

Troland, L. T.

L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1–33 (1917).

Walsh, J. W. T.

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1926).

J. W. T. Walsh, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 6, 117–120 (1941).

Weaver, K. S.

K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 36–43 (1937).

K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278–291 (1949).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

W. D. Wright, Photometry and the Eye (Hatton Press Ltd., London, 1949).

Other (31)

Optical Society of America, Committee on Colorimetry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 245–266 (1944).

K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278–291 (1949).

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Gen. Physiol. 6, 965–977 (1936).

Hecht, Peskin, and Patt, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 7–19 (1938).

Kohlrausch, Arch. Gesamte Physiol. (Pflüger's) 196, 113–117 (1922).

A. Kohlrausch, Handbuch der Normalen und Pathologischen Physiologie XII, (2), 1570–1593 (1931).

Shlaer, Smith, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 553–569 (1942).

P. J. Bouma, Physical Aspects of Colour (N. V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken, Eindhoven, 1946), p. 50.

A. Chapanis, "How We See: A Summary of Basic Principles," Chapter I, pp. 3–60, in Human Factors in Undersea Waifare (Committee on Undersea Warfare, National Research Council, Washington, D. C., 1949). (Issued separately by USN Special Devices Center as Report No. 116-I-85.)

A. König, Beiträge zur Psychol. u. Physiol. d. Sinnesorg (L. Voss, Hamburg, 1891), pp. 309–388. (Also appears in A. König, Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur physiologischen Optik (Barth, Leipzig, 1903), pp. 144–213.)

J. E. Purkinje (Purkyně), Beobachtungen und Versuche zur Physiologie der Sinne. Band I (Prag, 1819, 1825), Band II (Berlin, 1825).

L. T. Troland, J. Exptl. Psychol. 2, 1–33 (1917).

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1926).

J. W. T. Walsh, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 6, 117–120 (1941).

K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 36–43 (1937).

W. D. Wright, Photometry and the Eye (Hatton Press Ltd., London, 1949).

International Commission on Illumination, Report of Session XII, Stockholm 1951, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 734 (1951).

M. Luckiesh and A. H. Taylor, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 237 (1938).

A. H. Taylor, Ilum. Eng. 38, 89–98 (1943).

P. G. Nutting, Outlines of Applied Optics (P. Blakiston's Son and Company, Philadelphia, 1912).

P. G. Nutting, Bull. Bur. Standards 7, 235–238 (1911).

L. L. Sloan, Psychol. Monog. 38, No. 173 (1928).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

C. S. Bridgman, "The luminosity curve as affected by the relation between rod and cone adaptation," in preparation.

H. W. Leibowitz, "Photometric scales and the duplicity theory of vision," Am. J. Psychol. (to be published).

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 199 (1935).

Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321–337 (1935–1936).

F. A. Mote and A. J. Riopelle, "The effect of varying the intensity and the duration of preadapting light upon subsequent dark adaptation in the human eye," J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. (to be published).

S. Hecht and Yun Hsia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 261–267 (1945).

A. Chapanis, J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).

R. T. Brooke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 1010–1016 (1951).

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