Abstract

Measurements of the contrast threshold for peripheral vision for size d of the circular test spot between 4′ and 420′ and for flash time t between 0.02 and 1 sec are presented. Wavelengths for adapting field λ1 and test stimulus λ2 6500 and 5250A so that four λ1 − λ2 combinations were explored. The merits of theoretical speculations on the perception of contrast considering the statistical fluctuations in the number of incident quanta and nerve impulses are discussed.

It proved that the perception of red light is dominant over the stimulation of the rod system by the background and that the state of adaptation of the one eye and the perception of light via this eye is not affected or influenced by the actual stimulation or state of adaptation of the opposite eye when influences due to variations in pupil size are eliminated. Exception must be made for very high brightnesses of a green background.

© 1952 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 825 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. H. van Cittert, Physica 3, 181 (1923).
  3. C. G. Mueller, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 463 (1951).
  4. H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943);A. Rose, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 30, 295 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. A. Bouman, Documenta Ophthalomologica 4, 23 (1950);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 231 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. A. van der Velden, Nederland. Tijdschr. Natuurk. 15, 145 (1949);Abstract of Papers 11th session I.C.I. (1948), p. 4.
  7. M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 908 (1947).
    [PubMed]

1951 (1)

C. G. Mueller, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 463 (1951).

1950 (2)

M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 825 (1950).
[Crossref]

M. A. Bouman, Documenta Ophthalomologica 4, 23 (1950);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 231 (1948).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

H. A. van der Velden, Nederland. Tijdschr. Natuurk. 15, 145 (1949);Abstract of Papers 11th session I.C.I. (1948), p. 4.

1947 (1)

1943 (1)

H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943);A. Rose, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 30, 295 (1942).
[Crossref]

1923 (1)

P. H. van Cittert, Physica 3, 181 (1923).

Bouman, M. A.

de Vries, H.

H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943);A. Rose, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 30, 295 (1942).
[Crossref]

Mueller, C. G.

C. G. Mueller, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 463 (1951).

van Cittert, P. H.

P. H. van Cittert, Physica 3, 181 (1923).

van der Velden, H. A.

H. A. van der Velden, Nederland. Tijdschr. Natuurk. 15, 145 (1949);Abstract of Papers 11th session I.C.I. (1948), p. 4.

M. A. Bouman and H. A. van der Velden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 908 (1947).
[PubMed]

Documenta Ophthalomologica (1)

M. A. Bouman, Documenta Ophthalomologica 4, 23 (1950);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 231 (1948).
[Crossref]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

C. G. Mueller, J. Gen. Physiol. 34, 463 (1951).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Nederland. Tijdschr. Natuurk. (1)

H. A. van der Velden, Nederland. Tijdschr. Natuurk. 15, 145 (1949);Abstract of Papers 11th session I.C.I. (1948), p. 4.

Physica (2)

P. H. van Cittert, Physica 3, 181 (1923).

H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943);A. Rose, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs. 30, 295 (1942).
[Crossref]

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Figures (13)

F. 1
F. 1

Experimental arrangement.

F. 2
F. 2

The contrast sensitivity ΔB/B as a function of the adapting field intensity B or for flash time t = 0.1 sec, visual angle d of circular test spot 14′ and t = 0.9 sec, d = 230′. B and ΔB are brightnesses in millilamberts of a surface corresponding to the illumination of the retina when the pupil has the constant size of 2 mm. n ¯ is the average number of quanta incident in the eye per second and per area subtending a visual angle of 10−3 radian. Wavelengths of adapting field λ1 and of test stimulus λ2 = 5250A; both presented 7° nasal from the fovea in the observer’s right eye.

F. 3
F. 3

The contrast threshold 〈ΔNAv 60 percent as a function of the visual angle d of the test spot for various flash times t and background intensities. Wavelength of adapting field and test stimulus 6500A; both presented 7° nasal from the fovea in the observer’s right eye. 〈ΔNAv 60 percent is the total average number of quanta in the test flash and incident in the eye for a chance of observation of contrast 60 percent.

F. 4
F. 4

The contrast sensitivity ΔB/B as a function of B or n ¯ for various dt combinations. Wavelengths λ1 = λ2 = 6500A; both presented in the observer’s right eye.

F. 5
F. 5

The contrast threshold 〈ΔNAv 60 percent as a function of d for various t and B values. Wavelength of adapting field λ1 = 5250A, for test stimulus λ2 = 6500A; both presented in the observer’s right eye.

F. 6
F. 6

The contrast sensitivity 〈Δn/nAv. as a function of B or n ¯ n for various dt combinations. λ1 of adapting field 5250A, λ2 of test stimulus 6500A; both presented to the observer’s right eye.

F. 7
F. 7

The contrast threshold 〈ΔNAv 60 percent as a function of d for various t and B values. Wavelength of adapting field λ1 = 6500A, λ2 of test stimulus 5250A; both presented to the observer’s right eye.

F. 8
F. 8

The contrast sensitivity 〈Δn/nAv as a function of B or n ¯ for various dt combinations. Wavelength of adapting field λ1 = 6500A, λ2 of test stimulus 5250A; both presented to the observer’s right eye.

F. 9
F. 9

The value f/k2 deduced with the aid of formula (1) from the contrast data for d = 21′, t = 0.1 sec and d = 7′, t = 0.1 sec from Fig. 2. f is the effective fraction of the light incident in the eye for λ = 5250A, k is the efficiency ratio of the visual sense organ for λ1 = λ2 = 5250A.

F. 10
F. 10

The value f/k2 deduced with the aid of formula (1) from the data of Figs. 3 and 4 for d = 4′, t = 0.1 sec. f is the effective fraction of the light incident in the eye for λ = 6500A, k is the efficiency ratio of the visual sense organ for λ1 = λ2 = 6500A.

F. 11
F. 11

The value f22 · k−2 · 2f1−1 deduced with the aid of formula 2 from the data of the Figs. 7 and 8 for d = 14′ and 4′, 2 = 0.1 sec. f1, is the effective fraction of the light incident in the eye for λ1 of adapting field 6500A, f2 is this fraction for λ2 of test stimulus 5250A, k is the efficiency ratio for green (5250A) test flashes against a red (6500A) adapting field.

F. 12
F. 12

The contrast threshold 〈ΔNAv 60 percent as a function of d and t measured in the dark adapted right eye for various B values of the adapting field when this field is projected in the left eye; λ1 = λ2 = 5250A.

F. 13
F. 13

The contrast threshold 〈ΔNAv 60 percent as a function of d and t measured in the dark adapted right eye for various B values of the adapting field when this field is projected in the left eye. Wavelength of test stimulus of the right eye 6500A, wavelength of adapting field 5250A.

Equations (7)

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f ( Δ N ) Av = k [ 2 f n ¯ + f f ( Δ N ) Av ] 1 2
f 2 Δ N Av . = k ( 2 f 1 n ¯ ) 1 2
Δ n / n Av = ( [ α α ¯ ] 2 Av ) 1 2 / n ¯ · d n ¯ / d α .
Δ B / B 1 / ( n ¯ ) 1 2 .
Δ B / B = ( γ / T ) 1 2 .
Δ B f · t 1 / p · d 2 / p ,
f Δ N Av = p .