Abstract

Using a testfield subtending a visual angle of 5 degrees, dark adaptation functions were obtained with six test-exposures (1.0, 0.5, 0.1, 0.04, 0.02, and 0.01 sec) both from the central retina, and from the temporal parafovea. The functions for both retinal locations were found to vary systematically in relation to duration of testflash. With increasing test-exposure time, the final cone levels as well as the final rod levels are at lower threshold brightnesses. The sensitivity for a given test-exposure time is greater in the central retina than in the parafovea for the photopic range of vision, whereas the sensitivity for the scotopic range is greater in the parafovea than in the central retina.

© 1951 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Piper, Z. Psychol. und Physiol. d. Sinnesorgane 31, 161 (1903).
  2. Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321 (1935).
  3. A. Kohlrausch, Arch. ges. Physiol. 196, 113 (1922); M. Schultze, Arch. f. mikrosk. Anat. II. S.175 (1866).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Zigler, Wolf, and King (to be published).
  5. Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).
  6. E. Wolf and M. J. Zigler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 211 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Wolf, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otol.1949, p. 400.
  8. W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 341 (1939).

1950 (1)

1949 (1)

E. Wolf, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otol.1949, p. 400.

1939 (1)

W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 341 (1939).

1937 (1)

Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).

1935 (1)

Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321 (1935).

1922 (1)

A. Kohlrausch, Arch. ges. Physiol. 196, 113 (1922); M. Schultze, Arch. f. mikrosk. Anat. II. S.175 (1866).
[CrossRef]

1903 (1)

H. Piper, Z. Psychol. und Physiol. d. Sinnesorgane 31, 161 (1903).

Chase,

Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).

Crozier, W. J.

W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 341 (1939).

Haig,

Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).

Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321 (1935).

Hecht,

Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).

Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321 (1935).

Holway, A. H.

W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 341 (1939).

King,

Zigler, Wolf, and King (to be published).

Kohlrausch, A.

A. Kohlrausch, Arch. ges. Physiol. 196, 113 (1922); M. Schultze, Arch. f. mikrosk. Anat. II. S.175 (1866).
[CrossRef]

Piper, H.

H. Piper, Z. Psychol. und Physiol. d. Sinnesorgane 31, 161 (1903).

Wald,

Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321 (1935).

Wolf,

Zigler, Wolf, and King (to be published).

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf and M. J. Zigler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 211 (1950).
[CrossRef]

E. Wolf, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otol.1949, p. 400.

Zigler,

Zigler, Wolf, and King (to be published).

Zigler, M. J.

Arch. ges. Physiol. (1)

A. Kohlrausch, Arch. ges. Physiol. 196, 113 (1922); M. Schultze, Arch. f. mikrosk. Anat. II. S.175 (1866).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Physiol. (3)

Hecht, Haig, and Wald, J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 321 (1935).

Hecht, Haig, and Chase, J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 831 (1937).

W. J. Crozier and A. H. Holway, J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 341 (1939).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otol. (1)

E. Wolf, Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otol.1949, p. 400.

Z. Psychol. und Physiol. d. Sinnesorgane (1)

H. Piper, Z. Psychol. und Physiol. d. Sinnesorgane 31, 161 (1903).

Other (1)

Zigler, Wolf, and King (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dark adaptation functions for two observers obtained with six durations of test-exposure when a 5 degree testfield was presented in the central retina. Data for MJZ on left, for EW on right. Test-exposure times are indicated at the right for each curve. As testflash duration is increased from 0.01 to 1.0 sec., the cone and rod segments reach lower levels. For description see text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dark adaptation functions for two observers with six durations of test-exposure when a 5 degree testfield was presented in the temporal parafovea 6 degrees from the foveal center. As testflash duration is increased from 0.01 to 0.1 sec., the cone and rod segments assume lower levels. For description see text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log. brightness values of final cone and rod levels presented in Figs. 1 and 2 are plotted against the logarithms of exposure time. Open circles denote central, closed circles parafoveal presentation of testfield. The upper pair of curves represents the final cone levels, the lower pair the final rod levels.