Abstract

Since König, experiment has yielded 6 different sets of 3 “primary processes” for tricolor vision in the fovea. Their variation with test method, and conflict with other data, suggest only an indirect relation to the absorption curves of receptors. Blue and yellow in the retinal periphery, in the central fovea, and in transient effects, act as if coupled physiologically. Yellow proves independent of red and green, and blue has many characteristics of rod function.

To adjust the Helmholtz view of deficiency to modern observations, new mechanisms for white and hues are needed in the cortex. The Müller theory adds black and locates in the retina this inner zone; but likewise fails to assign it a physiological mechanism. Recent experiments confirm the retinal location of both yellow and black mechanisms; hence an opponents theory seems unavoidable. The psychophysical evidence calls for unsymmetric synaptic connections before the “primary processes,” and also after them to create hues and luminosity separately.

© 1951 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

S. A. Talbot, "Errata," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 989-989 (1952)
https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?uri=josa-42-12-989

References

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1962 (1)

1951 (1)

H. Hartridge, Nature 167, 76 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1950 (1)

E. N. Willmer, J. Exp. Psych. 2, 53 (1950).
[Crossref]

1949 (15)

S. A. Talbot, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 11, 245 (1949).
[Crossref]

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 291 (1949).
[PubMed]

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 466 (1949).

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 475 (1949).
[PubMed]

D. B. Judd, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 251 (1949).
[Crossref]

S. Hecht, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 289 (1949).
[Crossref]

F. H. G. Pitt, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 307 (1949).
[Crossref]

E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. 110, 422 (1949).

Quoted by D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 42, 1 (1949).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 42, 1 (1949).
[Crossref]

D. L. MacAdam, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 214 (1949).
[Crossref]

R. W. Burnham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 387 (1949).
[Crossref]

E. N. Willmer, Doc. Opthalmol. 3, 194 (1949).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949), Figs. 2, 5.
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, Doc. Opthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).
[Crossref]

1948 (8)

F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. 107, 187 (1948).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1095 (1948).

R. Granit and K. Tansley, J. Physiol. 107, 54 (1948).

W. R. Miles, Science 108, 683 (1948).

H. De Vries, Physica 14, 367 (1948).
[Crossref]

G. Szekeres, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 350 (1948).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. H. Prentice, J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 284 (1948); Review: see reference 1.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Schouten, quoted by H. De Vries, Physica 14, 367 (1948).
[Crossref]

J. F. Schouten, quoted by H. De Vries, Physica 14, 367 (1948).
[Crossref]

1947 (9)

S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 141 (1947).

M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 106, 25P (1947). Griffin, Hubbard, and Wald, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 546 (1947). H. De Vries, Experientia 4, 357 (1948).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Horner and E. T. Purslow, Nature 160, 23 (1947).
[Crossref]

L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Opthalmol. 30, 705 (1947).

W. Pitts and W. S. McColloch, Bull. Math. Biophys. 9, 127 (1947).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mandelbaum and L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 581 (1947). R. J. Lythgoe, Brit. J. Opthalmol. 24, 21 (1940).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Thompson, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

H. Hartridge, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 232, 519 (1947).
[Crossref]

L. C. Thompson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).

1946 (2)

H. De Vries, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 121 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Eccles, Ann. N. Y. Acad, Sci. 47, 375 (1946).

1945 (2)

1944 (3)

F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 161 (1944).

E. N. Willmer, Science 153, 774 (1944).

W. J. Crozier and E. Wolf, J. Gen. Psych. 27, 513 (1944).

1943 (5)

1942 (4)

H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 27 (1942).
[Crossref]

H. K. Hartline, Harvey Lect. 37, 39 (1942).

S. H. Bartley, J. Exp. Psychol. 30, 125 (1942); J. Toman, J. Neurophysiol. 4, 51 (1941).
[Crossref]

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biol. Sympos. 7, 117 (1942).

1941 (2)

J. Mandelbaum and E. V. Mintz, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1241 (1941).

D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 36, 336 (1941).

1940 (2)

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 2 (1940).
[Crossref]

S. A. Talbot and W. H. Marshall, Am. J. Physiol. 129, 478 (1940).

1939 (3)

J. F. Schouten and L. S. Ornstein, J. Opt. Soc, Am. 29, 168 (1939).
[Crossref]

W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (1939), Vol.  I, p. 937.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
[Crossref]

1937 (2)

W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B122, 106 (1937); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 122, 220 (1937).

D. L. Macadam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 294 (1937).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

S. Polyak, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 15, 477 (1936).
[Crossref]

1935 (3)

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bouma and G. Heller, Proc. Königl. Akad. Wet. 38, 148 (1935).

J. S. Schouten, Proc. Kgl. Akad. Wet,  38, 1 (1935).

1933 (3)

Munsell, Sloan, and Godlove, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 294 (1933).

G. Fry, Am. J. Psych. 45, 488 (1933).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).
[Crossref]

1932 (2)

T. Smith and J. Guild, Trans. Opt. Soc. London 33, 5 (1932).

F. Allen, Disc. Vision, Phys. Soc. London (1932), pp. 27–32.

1931 (1)

S. Hecht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 243 (1931).

1930 (4)

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 647 (1930).
[Crossref]

H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monog. # 183, 123 (1930).

D. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B106, 276 (1930).
[Crossref]

G. E. Müller, Z. Psych. Ergbd. 17, 18 (1930).

1928 (1)

G. Schubert, Arch. ges. Physiol. 220, 82 (1928).
[Crossref]

1927 (1)

D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psych. 38, 507 (1927).
[Crossref]

1925 (1)

E. Schrödinger, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Wien IIA 134, 471 (1925).

1924 (1)

L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 8, 393 (1924).

1923 (2)

E. Q. Adams, Psych. Rev. 30, 56 (1923).
[Crossref]

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards 19, 131 (1923).
[Crossref]

Adams, E. Q.

E. Q. Adams, Psych. Rev. 30, 56 (1923).
[Crossref]

Allen, F.

F. Allen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 383 (1962).
[Crossref]

F. Allen, Disc. Vision, Phys. Soc. London (1932), pp. 27–32.

Bartley, S. H.

S. H. Bartley, J. Exp. Psychol. 30, 125 (1942); J. Toman, J. Neurophysiol. 4, 51 (1941).
[Crossref]

Bouma, P. J.

P. J. Bouma and G. Heller, Proc. Königl. Akad. Wet. 38, 148 (1935).

Burnham, R. W.

Craik, K. J. W.

K. J. W. Craik, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London)B128, 232; Nature 145, 512 (1940).

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).
[Crossref]

Crozier, W. J.

W. J. Crozier and E. Wolf, J. Gen. Psych. 27, 513 (1944).

De Vries, H.

H. De Vries, Physica 14, 367 (1948).
[Crossref]

J. F. Schouten, quoted by H. De Vries, Physica 14, 367 (1948).
[Crossref]

H. De Vries, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 121 (1946).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duke-Elder, W. S.

W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (1939), Vol.  I, p. 937.

W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1939), Vol. 1.

Eccles, J. C.

J. C. Eccles, Ann. N. Y. Acad, Sci. 47, 375 (1946).

Erlanger, J.

J. Erlanger and H. S. Gasser, Electrical Signs of Nervous Activity (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1937).

Evans, R. M.

Flamant, F.

F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. 107, 187 (1948).

Fry, G.

G. Fry, Am. J. Psych. 45, 488 (1933).
[Crossref]

Gasser, H. S.

J. Erlanger and H. S. Gasser, Electrical Signs of Nervous Activity (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1937).

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards 19, 131 (1923).
[Crossref]

Godlove,

Munsell, Sloan, and Godlove, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 294 (1933).

Göthlin, G. F.

G. F. Göthlin, Am. J. Psych. 56, 537 (1943); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 147 (1944).
[Crossref]

Granit, R.

R. Granit and K. Tansley, J. Physiol. 107, 54 (1948).

R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 195 (1945).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1943).

Guild, J.

T. Smith and J. Guild, Trans. Opt. Soc. London 33, 5 (1932).

J. Guild, Discussion on Vision (Phys. Soc.Cambridge, 1932), p. 157.

Hartline, H. K.

H. K. Hartline, Harvey Lect. 37, 39 (1942).

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, Nature 167, 76 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hartridge, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 232, 519 (1947).
[Crossref]

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 289 (1949).
[Crossref]

S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 141 (1947).

S. Hecht, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 243 (1931).

S. Hecht, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934), Part 14: Vision.

Heller, G.

P. J. Bouma and G. Heller, Proc. Königl. Akad. Wet. 38, 148 (1935).

Horner, R. G.

R. G. Horner and E. T. Purslow, Nature 160, 23 (1947).
[Crossref]

Hsia, Y.

S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 141 (1947).

Judd, D. B.

Quoted by D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 42, 1 (1949).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 42, 1 (1949).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 251 (1949).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1095 (1948).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294 (1943).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 36, 336 (1941).

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 2 (1940).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 24 (1935).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 647 (1930).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psych. 38, 507 (1927).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, personal communication (1951); see reference 53.

Katz, D.

D. Katz, The World of Color (Trench, Traubner, London, 1935).

König, A.

A. König, Physiological Optics (Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig, 1903).

Kuffler, S. W.

S. W. Kuffler and S. A. Talbot, Current Observations, unpublished (1951).

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 214 (1949).
[Crossref]

D. L. Macadam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 294 (1937).
[Crossref]

Mandelbaum, J.

J. Mandelbaum and L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 581 (1947). R. J. Lythgoe, Brit. J. Opthalmol. 24, 21 (1940).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mandelbaum and E. V. Mintz, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1241 (1941).

Marshall, W. H.

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biol. Sympos. 7, 117 (1942).

S. A. Talbot and W. H. Marshall, Am. J. Physiol. 129, 478 (1940).

McColloch, W. S.

W. Pitts and W. S. McColloch, Bull. Math. Biophys. 9, 127 (1947).
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W. R. Miles, Science 108, 683 (1948).

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J. Mandelbaum and E. V. Mintz, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1241 (1941).

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K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 475 (1949).
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G. E. Müller, Z. Psych. Ergbd. 17, 18 (1930).

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Munsell, Sloan, and Godlove, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 294 (1933).

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J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
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B. O’Brien, this symposium.

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J. F. Schouten and L. S. Ornstein, J. Opt. Soc, Am. 29, 168 (1939).
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M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 106, 25P (1947). Griffin, Hubbard, and Wald, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 546 (1947). H. De Vries, Experientia 4, 357 (1948).
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F. H. G. Pitt, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 307 (1949).
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W. Pitts and W. S. McColloch, Bull. Math. Biophys. 9, 127 (1947).
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S. Polyak, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 15, 477 (1936).
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S. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

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W. C. H. Prentice, J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 284 (1948); Review: see reference 1.
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R. G. Horner and E. T. Purslow, Nature 160, 23 (1947).
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D. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B106, 276 (1930).
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J. F. Schouten, quoted by H. De Vries, Physica 14, 367 (1948).
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J. S. Schouten, Proc. Kgl. Akad. Wet,  38, 1 (1935).

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T. Smith and J. Guild, Trans. Opt. Soc. London 33, 5 (1932).

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W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949), Figs. 2, 5.
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S. A. Talbot, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 11, 245 (1949).
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W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biol. Sympos. 7, 117 (1942).

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S. W. Kuffler and S. A. Talbot, Current Observations, unpublished (1951).

Tansley, K.

R. Granit and K. Tansley, J. Physiol. 107, 54 (1948).

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L. C. Thompson, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

L. C. Thompson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).

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J. Trimmer, Response of Physical Systems (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1950).

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L. T. Troland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 8, 393 (1924).

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K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards 19, 131 (1923).
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G. Walls, personal communication (1951).

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H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 27 (1942).
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H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monog. # 183, 123 (1930).

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E. N. Willmer, J. Exp. Psych. 2, 53 (1950).
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E. N. Willmer, Retinal Structure and Color Vision (Cambridge University Press, London, 1946).

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W. J. Crozier and E. Wolf, J. Gen. Psych. 27, 513 (1944).

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W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B122, 106 (1937); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 122, 220 (1937).

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Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. Mandelbaum and L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 30, 581 (1947). R. J. Lythgoe, Brit. J. Opthalmol. 24, 21 (1940).
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J. Mandelbaum and E. V. Mintz, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 24, 1241 (1941).

Am. J. Opthalmol. (1)

L. L. Sloan, Am. J. Opthalmol. 30, 705 (1947).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

S. A. Talbot and W. H. Marshall, Am. J. Physiol. 129, 478 (1940).

Am. J. Psych. (3)

D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psych. 38, 507 (1927).
[Crossref]

G. Fry, Am. J. Psych. 45, 488 (1933).
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G. F. Göthlin, Am. J. Psych. 56, 537 (1943); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 147 (1944).
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Ann. N. Y. Acad, Sci. (1)

J. C. Eccles, Ann. N. Y. Acad, Sci. 47, 375 (1946).

Ann. Rev. Physiol. (1)

S. A. Talbot, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 11, 245 (1949).
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Arch. ges. Physiol. (1)

G. Schubert, Arch. ges. Physiol. 220, 82 (1928).
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Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (1)

S. Polyak, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 15, 477 (1936).
[Crossref]

Biol. Sympos. (1)

W. H. Marshall and S. A. Talbot, Biol. Sympos. 7, 117 (1942).

Bull. Math. Biophys. (1)

W. Pitts and W. S. McColloch, Bull. Math. Biophys. 9, 127 (1947).
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Disc. Vision, Phys. Soc. London (1)

F. Allen, Disc. Vision, Phys. Soc. London (1932), pp. 27–32.

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W. S. Stiles, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949), Figs. 2, 5.
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 251 (1949).
[Crossref]

S. Hecht, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 289 (1949).
[Crossref]

F. H. G. Pitt, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 307 (1949).
[Crossref]

D. L. MacAdam, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 214 (1949).
[Crossref]

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W. S. Stiles, Doc. Opthalmol. 3, 138 (1949).
[Crossref]

E. N. Willmer, Doc. Opthalmol. 3, 194 (1949).
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Harvey Lect. (1)

H. K. Hartline, Harvey Lect. 37, 39 (1942).

Illum. Eng. (1)

D. B. Judd, Illum. Eng. 36, 336 (1941).

J. Exp. Psych. (1)

E. N. Willmer, J. Exp. Psych. 2, 53 (1950).
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J. Exp. Psychol. (2)

W. C. H. Prentice, J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 284 (1948); Review: see reference 1.
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S. H. Bartley, J. Exp. Psychol. 30, 125 (1942); J. Toman, J. Neurophysiol. 4, 51 (1941).
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J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

S. Hecht and Y. Hsia, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 141 (1947).

J. Gen. Psych. (1)

W. J. Crozier and E. Wolf, J. Gen. Psych. 27, 513 (1944).

J. Neurophysiol. (4)

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 291 (1949).
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K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 466 (1949).

K. Motokawa, J. Neurophysiol. 12, 475 (1949).
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R. Granit, J. Neurophysiol. 8, 195 (1945).

J. Opt. Soc, Am. (1)

J. F. Schouten and L. S. Ornstein, J. Opt. Soc, Am. 29, 168 (1939).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (17)

J. Physiol. (6)

E. N. Willmer, J. Physiol. 110, 422 (1949).

M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. 106, 25P (1947). Griffin, Hubbard, and Wald, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 546 (1947). H. De Vries, Experientia 4, 357 (1948).
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R. Granit and K. Tansley, J. Physiol. 107, 54 (1948).

F. Flamant and W. S. Stiles, J. Physiol. 107, 187 (1948).

L. C. Thompson, J. Physiol. 106, 368 (1947).

L. C. Thompson, J. Physiol. 105, 316 (1947).

J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards (2)

Quoted by D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 42, 1 (1949).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 42, 1 (1949).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

R. G. Horner and E. T. Purslow, Nature 160, 23 (1947).
[Crossref]

H. Hartridge, Nature 167, 76 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physica (2)

H. De Vries, Physica 14, 367 (1948).
[Crossref]

J. F. Schouten, quoted by H. De Vries, Physica 14, 367 (1948).
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Proc. Kgl. Akad. Wet (1)

J. S. Schouten, Proc. Kgl. Akad. Wet,  38, 1 (1935).

Proc. Königl. Akad. Wet. (1)

P. J. Bouma and G. Heller, Proc. Königl. Akad. Wet. 38, 148 (1935).

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

J. H. Nelson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 50, 661 (1938).
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Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (6)

W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B122, 106 (1937); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 122, 220 (1937).

D. Roaf, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B106, 276 (1930).
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F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B132, 161 (1944).

H. V. Walters, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 27 (1942).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).
[Crossref]

Psych. Rev. (1)

E. Q. Adams, Psych. Rev. 30, 56 (1923).
[Crossref]

Psychol. Monog. (1)

H. A. Wentworth, Psychol. Monog. # 183, 123 (1930).

Sci. Papers Bur. Standards (1)

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Sci. Papers Bur. Standards 19, 131 (1923).
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Science (2)

W. R. Miles, Science 108, 683 (1948).

E. N. Willmer, Science 153, 774 (1944).

Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Wien IIA (1)

E. Schrödinger, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss., Wien IIA 134, 471 (1925).

Textbook of Ophthalmology (1)

W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (1939), Vol.  I, p. 937.

Trans. Opt. Soc. London (1)

T. Smith and J. Guild, Trans. Opt. Soc. London 33, 5 (1932).

Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

H. Hartridge, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 232, 519 (1947).
[Crossref]

Z. Psych. Ergbd. (1)

G. E. Müller, Z. Psych. Ergbd. 17, 18 (1930).

Other (44)

G. E. Müller, Typen der Farbenblindheit (Vanderhoek-Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1924).

See reference 53, p. 145.

L. L. Sloan, personal communication (1951).

See reference 52, p. 982.

See reference 53, p. 113.

See reference 53, p. 252.

See reference 52, Vol. I, p. 816.

See reference 53, p. 214.

J. Erlanger and H. S. Gasser, Electrical Signs of Nervous Activity (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1937).

See reference 52, Vol. 1, p. 968.

See reference 52, Vol. 1, p. 968.

See reference 53, p. 364.

See reference 52, Vol. I, p. 944.

See reference 53, Chapter 25.

G. Walls, Proc. Assn. Res. Ophthalmol. (in preparation).

D. B. Judd, personal communication (1951); see reference 53.

G. Walls, personal communication (1951).

See reference 7, Part VII.

See reference 53, p. 338.

See reference 52, p. 945.

See reference 53, part 6.

See reference 52, p. 966.

J. Trimmer, Response of Physical Systems (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1950).

K. J. W. Craik, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London)B128, 232; Nature 145, 512 (1940).

W. D. Wright, Color Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947), p. 139.

See reference 45, Fig. 14.

See reference 45, p. 147.

B. O’Brien, this symposium.

See reference 7, p. 199.

A. König, Physiological Optics (Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig, 1903).

See reference 7, p. 96.

See reference 7, p. 258.

See reference 7, p. 145.

J. Guild, Discussion on Vision (Phys. Soc.Cambridge, 1932), p. 157.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

D. Katz, The World of Color (Trench, Traubner, London, 1935).

S. Hecht, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (Clark University Press, Worcester, 1934), Part 14: Vision.

W. S. Duke-Elder, Textbook of Ophthalmology (C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1939), Vol. 1.

See reference 31, p. 183.

S. W. Kuffler and S. A. Talbot, Current Observations, unpublished (1951).

See reference 7, p. 81.

E. N. Willmer, Retinal Structure and Color Vision (Cambridge University Press, London, 1946).

S. Polyak, The Retina (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941).

R. Granit, Sensory Mechanisms of the Retina (Oxford University Press, London, 1943).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1-1
Fig. 1-1

Primary psychophysical processes, by the methods of König (D. B. Judd, Handbook of General Experimental Psychology (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951). Pitt, see reference 101. (Computed, see reference 14.)

Fig. 1-2
Fig. 1-2

Lines of constant hue (isocolors) for A. protanope. B. deuteranope. See reference 9.

Fig. 2-1
Fig. 2-1

Retinal connections for normal and deficient color vision. Based on Poliak, Willmer, Müller, and Adams (v. Sec. 15.)

Fig. 9-1
Fig. 9-1

ICI spectral locus in three dimensions. A. Plane of alychne. Y. Luminosity axis. D. L. MacAdam, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 326 (1949).

Fig. 9-2
Fig. 9-2

Theory of G. E. Müller: A. Mechanisms described in text. B. Equivalent mechanisms described in formula. C. Spectral sensitivities embodied in coefficients. D. B. Judd, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 282 (1949).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g Y ( - r B ) = 1 / 75 P 1 + 2 / 5 P 2 - 2 / 5 P 3 y R ( - b G ) = P 1 - P 2 . ( Approx )
r ( - g ) = y R - 2 / 3 g Y y ( - b ) = 1 / 6 y R + g Y .             ( Approx )
W = 1 / 150 P 1 + 1 / 5 P 2 × 1 / 800 P 3 × 1 / 25 y R + 1 / 800 g Y .             ( Approx )
S = 1 / 25 b G × 1 / 800 r B + lateral induction             ( Approx )