Abstract

In this first paper of several on the design and production of diffraction gratings of high resolving power, an outline is given of the development and present status of mechanically controlled ruling engines. Gratings having notable performance are described, and problems involved in producing on a reflecting surface large numbers of parallel equidistant grooves of constant or controlled form, with position tolerances of one micro-inch or better, are analyzed. Distinctive features of the engines of Rowland, Michelson, Gale, Anderson, Babcock, Siegbahn, and others are discussed. It is pointed out that the low productivity of many ruling engines in the past should not discourage present-day experimenters, as improved surfaces for ruling, superior ruling tools, alloys less susceptible to wear, warpage, creep, and fatigue, better methods of lubrication, and servo-mechanisms capable or making a ruling engine self-correcting, are all now available. Much can be learned by studying the strong points and weaknesses of previous engine designs. A current trend in the use of gratings appears to be away from the concave and toward the plane form. Succeeding papers will deal with a suggested method for obtaining improved gratings having high resolving power, and with the modification and testing of a 14-inch ruling engine, originally designed and partially built at the University of Chicago by Gale and O’Donnell, and recently transferred to M.I.T.

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  1. T. D. Cope, J. Franklin Inst. 214, 99 (1932).
  2. J. Fraunhofer, Ann. d. Physik 74, 337 (1823).
  3. Herr Nobert, whose gratings served for the experiments of Lord Rayleigh and others, kept the details of his ruling process secret. See John Mayall, Jr., J. Soc. Arts, May 8, 1885.
  4. The gratings of L. M. Rutherfurd (ca. 1870) are frequently referred to by Rowland, Michelson, and others, but without citation of published works. Rutherfurd was a lawyer interested in astronomy as a hobby; an observatory at Columbia University is named after him. See C. Peirce, Am. J. Math. 2 (1879), and A. M. Meyer, Appleton's American Cyclopedia, "Spectrum," 15 (1876).
  5. H. A. Rowland, Physical Papers (Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1902); Phil. Mag. 13, 469 (1882); Nature 26, 211 (1882); Phil. Mag. 16, 297 (1883).
  6. A. A. Michelson, Nature, 362 (January 11, 1912).
  7. A. A. Michelson, Univ. Chicago Mag. 7, 141 (1915); Proc. Am. Phys. Soc. 54, 137 (1915); J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785 (1916); Studies in Optics (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1927), p. 99.
  8. H. G. Gale, J. Sci. Inst. 12 (Zeeman Memorial Volume), 32 (1935).
  9. J. A. Anderspn, Glazebrook's Dictionary of Applied Physics, "The manufacture and testing of diffraction gratings," p. 30; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 434 (1922).
  10. Harold D. Babcock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 1 (1944) and personal communications.
  11. M. Siegbahn, Zeits. f. Physik 62, 435 (1930); Kosmos 8, 186 (1930); M. Siegbahn and T. Magnusson, Zeits. f. Physik 95, 133 (1935); M. Siegbahn, K. Svenska Vetens Kapsa Kademiens Årbok, (1940), p. 151.
  12. W. A. Scoble, Collected Researches National Phys. Lab. 8, 213 (1912).
  13. H. J. Grayson, Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria 30, 44 (1917): W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 1 (1934); 14, 8 (1937).
  14. W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 241 (1934); ibid. 14, 309 (1937).
  15. To quote Michelson: "When the accumulation of difficulties seems to be insurmountable, a perfect grating is produced, the problem is considered solved, and the event celebrated with much rejoicing, only to find the next trial a failure.... One comes to regard the machine as having a personality...requiring humoring, coaxing, cajoling, even threatening!" Nature, 362 (January 11, 1912).
  16. John Strong, Phys, Rev. 43, 498 (1933); Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).
  17. Lord Rayleigh, Scientific Papers, Vol. 1, 1869 to 1881 (Cambridge University Press, London, 1899), p. 458.
  18. H. A. Rowland, Phil. Mag. 35, 397 (1893); Astronomy and Astro-Physics 12, 129 (1893); See reference 5, p. 525; C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).
  19. T. Lyman, Phys. Rev. 12, 1 (1901); ibid. 16, 257 (1903); W. F. Meggers and C. C. Kiess, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 417 (1922); Carl Runge, ibid. p. 429; J. A. Anderson, ibid. p. 434. Rowland and Lyman ghosts, and design of ruling engines.
  20. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 4, 396 (1902); ibid. 12, 585 (1906); ibid. 14, 477 (1907); ibid. 20, 770 (1910); ibid. 23, 310 (1912): A. Trowbridge and R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 886 and 898 (1910).
  21. J. A. Anderson and C. M. Sparrow, Astrophys. J. 33, 338 (1911).
  22. H. M. Randall, J. App. Phys. 10, 768 (1939).
  23. R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 509 (1944).
  24. R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 715 (1946).
  25. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924); George R. Harrison, Proceedings Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and its Applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New-York, 1940).
  26. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924).
  27. Physical Papers of Henry A. Rowland (Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1902), p. 691.
  28. Article "Screw," Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th Ed., Vol, 21; See reference 5, p. 506.
  29. A. A. Michelson, Nature 88, 362 (1912); J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785(1916).
  30. M. Siegbahn, Kosmos 8, 186 (1930).
  31. John Strong, ONR Report, Nov. 11, 1948.
  32. The first Hopkins grating on Al went to the Dominion Observatory in 1935; see Reference 63.
  33. E. Gehrke and G. Leithaüser, Ber. d. D. Phys. Ges. 11, 310 (1909); T. Lyman, Astrophys. J. 60, 11 (1924); J. Strong, Astronom. Soc. Pac. 46, 10 (1934).
  34. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 507 (1924).
  35. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 770 (1910).
  36. George R. Harrison, See reference 25, p. 58. Harrison, Lord, and Loufbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1948), p. 98.
  37. Lord Rayleigh, see reference 17, p. 210 et seq.
  38. H. S. Allen, Phil. Mag. 3, 92 (1902); ibid. 6, 559 (1903).
  39. A. A. Michelson, J. Frank. Inst. 181, 785 (1916).
  40. H. G. Gale, Astrophys. J. 86, 437 (1937).
  41. C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).
  42. D. Richardson and R. B. Tackaberry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 662 (1948).
  43. W. Kinder, Zeiss. Nachtrichten 3, 91 (1937).
  44. R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 715 (1946).
  45. Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 47, 81, and 193 (1874); ibid. 11, 196 (1881). Experiments with and theory of diffraction gratings.
  46. A. Mallock, Report of Meeting of British Association for Advancement of Science, p. 466 (1882). Ruling engine for 6″ × 6″ gratings described. See also: Am. Machinist 18, 241 (1895); ibid. 41, 813 (1914); J. E. Watkins, Smithson. Inst. Report, p. 721 (1890); K. Scheel, Zeits. f. Instr’knde 16, 321 (1916); W. A. Rogers, Am. J. Sci. 19, 54 (1880).
  47. K. Stöckl, Beiblatt zur Zeits. fur Instr'knde 22, 217 (1903). Suggested improvements in engines.
  48. A. S. King, Astrophys. J. 17, 239 (1903). Ruling errors.
  49. A. B. Porter, Phil. Mag. 11, 154 (1906). Refers to rulings by Max Levy, founder of a firm which has long produced half-tone plates by ruling.
  50. A. A. Michelson, Astrophys. J. 18, 278 (1903). Grating errors.
  51. Lord Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. Soc. A79, 399 (1907). Dynamical theory of gratings.
  52. R. W. Wood, Astrophys. J. 21, 173 (1905); Physik. Zeits. 6, 238 (1905). Intensity of spectra.
  53. A. Trowbridge and I. B. Crandall, Phil. Mag. 22, 534 (1911). Experimental study of groove shape in echelettes.
  54. F. Biske, Physik. Zeits. 15, 327 (1914). Theory of groove form.
  55. A. Trowbridge, Phys. Rev. 8, 485 (1916). Echelettes.
  56. W. M. Holmes, Industrial Australian and Mining Std., Melbourne 64, 63 (1920). Testing and ruling of gratings.
  57. L. C. Glaser, Zeits. f. Tech. Physik. 7, 31 (1926). Comparison of fourteen gratings.
  58. R. W. Wood and T. Lyman, Phil. Mag. 2, 310 (1926). Gratings in extreme ultraviolet.
  59. E. Buchwald, Ann. d. Physik. 80, 279 (1926). Ghosts arising from aperiodic errors.
  60. J. E. Rosenthal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 87 (1930). Theoretical treatment of groove form.
  61. C. H. Cartwright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 785 (1931). Experiments with Jaminary grating production.
  62. P. Lacroute, Comptes Rendus 194, 1803 (1932). Study of ghosts.
  63. R. W. Ditchburn, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. 44A, 123 (1938). Effects of omitting certain grooves.
  64. R. C. Williams, Nature 141, 329 (1938). Ruling in metallic films.
  65. C. S. Beals and A. McKellar, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 32, 369 (1938). Use of aluminum-on-glass gratings.
  66. R. W. Wood, Nature 140, 723 (1937); ibid. 147, 750 (1941); Popular Astronomy 50, 146 (1942). Gratings and replicas for astronomy.
  67. R. F. Stamm and J. J. Whalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 2 (1946). Calculation of energy distribution with Rowland's formulas.
  68. G. K. T. Conn, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 43, 240 (1947). Theory of the echelette.
  69. John Strong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 320 (1949). Improvement of echelettes.

Allen, H. S.

H. S. Allen, Phil. Mag. 3, 92 (1902); ibid. 6, 559 (1903).

Anderson, J. A.

J. A. Anderson and C. M. Sparrow, Astrophys. J. 33, 338 (1911).

Anderspn, J. A.

J. A. Anderspn, Glazebrook's Dictionary of Applied Physics, "The manufacture and testing of diffraction gratings," p. 30; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 434 (1922).

Babcock, Harold D.

Harold D. Babcock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 1 (1944) and personal communications.

Beals, C. S.

C. S. Beals and A. McKellar, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 32, 369 (1938). Use of aluminum-on-glass gratings.

Biske, F.

F. Biske, Physik. Zeits. 15, 327 (1914). Theory of groove form.

Buchwald, E.

E. Buchwald, Ann. d. Physik. 80, 279 (1926). Ghosts arising from aperiodic errors.

Cartwright, C. H.

C. H. Cartwright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 785 (1931). Experiments with Jaminary grating production.

Conn, G. K. T.

G. K. T. Conn, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 43, 240 (1947). Theory of the echelette.

Cope, T. D.

T. D. Cope, J. Franklin Inst. 214, 99 (1932).

Crandall, I. B.

A. Trowbridge and I. B. Crandall, Phil. Mag. 22, 534 (1911). Experimental study of groove shape in echelettes.

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. 44A, 123 (1938). Effects of omitting certain grooves.

Fraunhofer, J.

J. Fraunhofer, Ann. d. Physik 74, 337 (1823).

Gale, H. G.

H. G. Gale, J. Sci. Inst. 12 (Zeeman Memorial Volume), 32 (1935).

H. G. Gale, Astrophys. J. 86, 437 (1937).

Gehrke, E.

E. Gehrke and G. Leithaüser, Ber. d. D. Phys. Ges. 11, 310 (1909); T. Lyman, Astrophys. J. 60, 11 (1924); J. Strong, Astronom. Soc. Pac. 46, 10 (1934).

Glaser, L. C.

L. C. Glaser, Zeits. f. Tech. Physik. 7, 31 (1926). Comparison of fourteen gratings.

Grayson, H. J.

H. J. Grayson, Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria 30, 44 (1917): W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 1 (1934); 14, 8 (1937).

Harrison, George R.

George R. Harrison, See reference 25, p. 58. Harrison, Lord, and Loufbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1948), p. 98.

Holmes, W. M.

W. M. Holmes, Industrial Australian and Mining Std., Melbourne 64, 63 (1920). Testing and ruling of gratings.

Kinder, W.

W. Kinder, Zeiss. Nachtrichten 3, 91 (1937).

King, A. S.

A. S. King, Astrophys. J. 17, 239 (1903). Ruling errors.

Lacroute, P.

P. Lacroute, Comptes Rendus 194, 1803 (1932). Study of ghosts.

Leithaüser, G.

E. Gehrke and G. Leithaüser, Ber. d. D. Phys. Ges. 11, 310 (1909); T. Lyman, Astrophys. J. 60, 11 (1924); J. Strong, Astronom. Soc. Pac. 46, 10 (1934).

Lyman, T.

R. W. Wood and T. Lyman, Phil. Mag. 2, 310 (1926). Gratings in extreme ultraviolet.

T. Lyman, Phys. Rev. 12, 1 (1901); ibid. 16, 257 (1903); W. F. Meggers and C. C. Kiess, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 417 (1922); Carl Runge, ibid. p. 429; J. A. Anderson, ibid. p. 434. Rowland and Lyman ghosts, and design of ruling engines.

Mallock, A.

A. Mallock, Report of Meeting of British Association for Advancement of Science, p. 466 (1882). Ruling engine for 6″ × 6″ gratings described. See also: Am. Machinist 18, 241 (1895); ibid. 41, 813 (1914); J. E. Watkins, Smithson. Inst. Report, p. 721 (1890); K. Scheel, Zeits. f. Instr’knde 16, 321 (1916); W. A. Rogers, Am. J. Sci. 19, 54 (1880).

McKellar, A.

C. S. Beals and A. McKellar, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. Canada 32, 369 (1938). Use of aluminum-on-glass gratings.

Meyer, C. F.

C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).

Michelson, A. A.

A. A. Michelson, J. Frank. Inst. 181, 785 (1916).

A. A. Michelson, Nature, 362 (January 11, 1912).

A. A. Michelson, Univ. Chicago Mag. 7, 141 (1915); Proc. Am. Phys. Soc. 54, 137 (1915); J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785 (1916); Studies in Optics (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1927), p. 99.

A. A. Michelson, Nature 88, 362 (1912); J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785(1916).

A. A. Michelson, Astrophys. J. 18, 278 (1903). Grating errors.

Nobert, Herr

Herr Nobert, whose gratings served for the experiments of Lord Rayleigh and others, kept the details of his ruling process secret. See John Mayall, Jr., J. Soc. Arts, May 8, 1885.

Porter, A. B.

A. B. Porter, Phil. Mag. 11, 154 (1906). Refers to rulings by Max Levy, founder of a firm which has long produced half-tone plates by ruling.

Randall, H. M.

H. M. Randall, J. App. Phys. 10, 768 (1939).

Rayleigh, Lord

Lord Rayleigh, see reference 17, p. 210 et seq.

Lord Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. Soc. A79, 399 (1907). Dynamical theory of gratings.

Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 47, 81, and 193 (1874); ibid. 11, 196 (1881). Experiments with and theory of diffraction gratings.

Lord Rayleigh, Scientific Papers, Vol. 1, 1869 to 1881 (Cambridge University Press, London, 1899), p. 458.

Richardson, D.

D. Richardson and R. B. Tackaberry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 662 (1948).

Rosenthal, J. E.

J. E. Rosenthal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 87 (1930). Theoretical treatment of groove form.

Rowland, H. A.

H. A. Rowland, Physical Papers (Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1902); Phil. Mag. 13, 469 (1882); Nature 26, 211 (1882); Phil. Mag. 16, 297 (1883).

H. A. Rowland, Phil. Mag. 35, 397 (1893); Astronomy and Astro-Physics 12, 129 (1893); See reference 5, p. 525; C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).

Rutherfurd, L. M.

The gratings of L. M. Rutherfurd (ca. 1870) are frequently referred to by Rowland, Michelson, and others, but without citation of published works. Rutherfurd was a lawyer interested in astronomy as a hobby; an observatory at Columbia University is named after him. See C. Peirce, Am. J. Math. 2 (1879), and A. M. Meyer, Appleton's American Cyclopedia, "Spectrum," 15 (1876).

Scoble, W. A.

W. A. Scoble, Collected Researches National Phys. Lab. 8, 213 (1912).

Siegbahn, M.

M. Siegbahn, Kosmos 8, 186 (1930).

M. Siegbahn, Zeits. f. Physik 62, 435 (1930); Kosmos 8, 186 (1930); M. Siegbahn and T. Magnusson, Zeits. f. Physik 95, 133 (1935); M. Siegbahn, K. Svenska Vetens Kapsa Kademiens Årbok, (1940), p. 151.

Sparrow, C. M.

J. A. Anderson and C. M. Sparrow, Astrophys. J. 33, 338 (1911).

Stamm, R. F.

R. F. Stamm and J. J. Whalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 2 (1946). Calculation of energy distribution with Rowland's formulas.

Stöckl, K.

K. Stöckl, Beiblatt zur Zeits. fur Instr'knde 22, 217 (1903). Suggested improvements in engines.

Stone, W.

W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 241 (1934); ibid. 14, 309 (1937).

Strong, John

John Strong, ONR Report, Nov. 11, 1948.

John Strong, Phys, Rev. 43, 498 (1933); Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).

John Strong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 320 (1949). Improvement of echelettes.

Tackaberry, R. B.

D. Richardson and R. B. Tackaberry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 662 (1948).

Trowbridge, A.

A. Trowbridge and I. B. Crandall, Phil. Mag. 22, 534 (1911). Experimental study of groove shape in echelettes.

A. Trowbridge, Phys. Rev. 8, 485 (1916). Echelettes.

Whalen, J. J.

R. F. Stamm and J. J. Whalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 2 (1946). Calculation of energy distribution with Rowland's formulas.

Williams, R. C.

R. C. Williams, Nature 141, 329 (1938). Ruling in metallic films.

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Nature 140, 723 (1937); ibid. 147, 750 (1941); Popular Astronomy 50, 146 (1942). Gratings and replicas for astronomy.

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 507 (1924).

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 770 (1910).

R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 715 (1946).

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 4, 396 (1902); ibid. 12, 585 (1906); ibid. 14, 477 (1907); ibid. 20, 770 (1910); ibid. 23, 310 (1912): A. Trowbridge and R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 886 and 898 (1910).

R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 509 (1944).

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924).

R. W. Wood and T. Lyman, Phil. Mag. 2, 310 (1926). Gratings in extreme ultraviolet.

R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 715 (1946).

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924); George R. Harrison, Proceedings Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and its Applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New-York, 1940).

R. W. Wood, Astrophys. J. 21, 173 (1905); Physik. Zeits. 6, 238 (1905). Intensity of spectra.

Other (69)

T. D. Cope, J. Franklin Inst. 214, 99 (1932).

J. Fraunhofer, Ann. d. Physik 74, 337 (1823).

Herr Nobert, whose gratings served for the experiments of Lord Rayleigh and others, kept the details of his ruling process secret. See John Mayall, Jr., J. Soc. Arts, May 8, 1885.

The gratings of L. M. Rutherfurd (ca. 1870) are frequently referred to by Rowland, Michelson, and others, but without citation of published works. Rutherfurd was a lawyer interested in astronomy as a hobby; an observatory at Columbia University is named after him. See C. Peirce, Am. J. Math. 2 (1879), and A. M. Meyer, Appleton's American Cyclopedia, "Spectrum," 15 (1876).

H. A. Rowland, Physical Papers (Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1902); Phil. Mag. 13, 469 (1882); Nature 26, 211 (1882); Phil. Mag. 16, 297 (1883).

A. A. Michelson, Nature, 362 (January 11, 1912).

A. A. Michelson, Univ. Chicago Mag. 7, 141 (1915); Proc. Am. Phys. Soc. 54, 137 (1915); J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785 (1916); Studies in Optics (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1927), p. 99.

H. G. Gale, J. Sci. Inst. 12 (Zeeman Memorial Volume), 32 (1935).

J. A. Anderspn, Glazebrook's Dictionary of Applied Physics, "The manufacture and testing of diffraction gratings," p. 30; also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 434 (1922).

Harold D. Babcock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 1 (1944) and personal communications.

M. Siegbahn, Zeits. f. Physik 62, 435 (1930); Kosmos 8, 186 (1930); M. Siegbahn and T. Magnusson, Zeits. f. Physik 95, 133 (1935); M. Siegbahn, K. Svenska Vetens Kapsa Kademiens Årbok, (1940), p. 151.

W. A. Scoble, Collected Researches National Phys. Lab. 8, 213 (1912).

H. J. Grayson, Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria 30, 44 (1917): W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 1 (1934); 14, 8 (1937).

W. Stone, J. Sci. Inst. 11, 241 (1934); ibid. 14, 309 (1937).

To quote Michelson: "When the accumulation of difficulties seems to be insurmountable, a perfect grating is produced, the problem is considered solved, and the event celebrated with much rejoicing, only to find the next trial a failure.... One comes to regard the machine as having a personality...requiring humoring, coaxing, cajoling, even threatening!" Nature, 362 (January 11, 1912).

John Strong, Phys, Rev. 43, 498 (1933); Astrophys. J. 83, 401 (1936).

Lord Rayleigh, Scientific Papers, Vol. 1, 1869 to 1881 (Cambridge University Press, London, 1899), p. 458.

H. A. Rowland, Phil. Mag. 35, 397 (1893); Astronomy and Astro-Physics 12, 129 (1893); See reference 5, p. 525; C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).

T. Lyman, Phys. Rev. 12, 1 (1901); ibid. 16, 257 (1903); W. F. Meggers and C. C. Kiess, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 6, 417 (1922); Carl Runge, ibid. p. 429; J. A. Anderson, ibid. p. 434. Rowland and Lyman ghosts, and design of ruling engines.

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 4, 396 (1902); ibid. 12, 585 (1906); ibid. 14, 477 (1907); ibid. 20, 770 (1910); ibid. 23, 310 (1912): A. Trowbridge and R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 886 and 898 (1910).

J. A. Anderson and C. M. Sparrow, Astrophys. J. 33, 338 (1911).

H. M. Randall, J. App. Phys. 10, 768 (1939).

R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 509 (1944).

R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 715 (1946).

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924); George R. Harrison, Proceedings Seventh Summer Conference on Spectroscopy and its Applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New-York, 1940).

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 497 (1924).

Physical Papers of Henry A. Rowland (Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1902), p. 691.

Article "Screw," Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th Ed., Vol, 21; See reference 5, p. 506.

A. A. Michelson, Nature 88, 362 (1912); J. Franklin Inst. 181, 785(1916).

M. Siegbahn, Kosmos 8, 186 (1930).

John Strong, ONR Report, Nov. 11, 1948.

The first Hopkins grating on Al went to the Dominion Observatory in 1935; see Reference 63.

E. Gehrke and G. Leithaüser, Ber. d. D. Phys. Ges. 11, 310 (1909); T. Lyman, Astrophys. J. 60, 11 (1924); J. Strong, Astronom. Soc. Pac. 46, 10 (1934).

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 48, 507 (1924).

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 20, 770 (1910).

George R. Harrison, See reference 25, p. 58. Harrison, Lord, and Loufbourow, Practical Spectroscopy (Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1948), p. 98.

Lord Rayleigh, see reference 17, p. 210 et seq.

H. S. Allen, Phil. Mag. 3, 92 (1902); ibid. 6, 559 (1903).

A. A. Michelson, J. Frank. Inst. 181, 785 (1916).

H. G. Gale, Astrophys. J. 86, 437 (1937).

C. F. Meyer, The Diffraction of Light, X-rays, and Material Particles (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934).

D. Richardson and R. B. Tackaberry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 662 (1948).

W. Kinder, Zeiss. Nachtrichten 3, 91 (1937).

R. W. Wood, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 715 (1946).

Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 47, 81, and 193 (1874); ibid. 11, 196 (1881). Experiments with and theory of diffraction gratings.

A. Mallock, Report of Meeting of British Association for Advancement of Science, p. 466 (1882). Ruling engine for 6″ × 6″ gratings described. See also: Am. Machinist 18, 241 (1895); ibid. 41, 813 (1914); J. E. Watkins, Smithson. Inst. Report, p. 721 (1890); K. Scheel, Zeits. f. Instr’knde 16, 321 (1916); W. A. Rogers, Am. J. Sci. 19, 54 (1880).

K. Stöckl, Beiblatt zur Zeits. fur Instr'knde 22, 217 (1903). Suggested improvements in engines.

A. S. King, Astrophys. J. 17, 239 (1903). Ruling errors.

A. B. Porter, Phil. Mag. 11, 154 (1906). Refers to rulings by Max Levy, founder of a firm which has long produced half-tone plates by ruling.

A. A. Michelson, Astrophys. J. 18, 278 (1903). Grating errors.

Lord Rayleigh, Proc. Roy. Soc. A79, 399 (1907). Dynamical theory of gratings.

R. W. Wood, Astrophys. J. 21, 173 (1905); Physik. Zeits. 6, 238 (1905). Intensity of spectra.

A. Trowbridge and I. B. Crandall, Phil. Mag. 22, 534 (1911). Experimental study of groove shape in echelettes.

F. Biske, Physik. Zeits. 15, 327 (1914). Theory of groove form.

A. Trowbridge, Phys. Rev. 8, 485 (1916). Echelettes.

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