Abstract

One hundred and twenty men (86 color-normal and 34 color-deficient) were tested with 5 pseudo-isochromatic tests of color vision: the American Optical Company, Ishihara, Meyrowitz, Boström, and Boström-Kugelberg tests. Each of the men was also examined with a Bausch and Lomb visual spectrophotometer to determine his limit of visibility in the long wave-length (red) end of the spectrum. Twelve of the color deficient subjects had reduced sensitivity to long wave-length radiation, 19 had normal sensitivity to long wave-length radiation, and 3 subjects could not be assigned to either group with certainty.

Diagnostic plates in three of the tests, the Boström, Meyrowitz, and Ishihara, were evaluated in terms of their ability to differentiate the two kinds of color deficient individuals. The Boström plates were found to be worthless for this purpose, the Meyrowitz plates somewhat better, and the Ishihara plates best. None of the plates in the other two tests was found to be diagnostic.

© 1949 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Chapanis, “A comparative study of five tests of color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 626–649 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, “The color vision of dichromats: I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1936).
  3. D. B. Judd, “Facts of color-blindness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294–307 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Chapanis, “The dark adaptation of the color anomalous measured with lights of different hues,” J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).
  5. E. Murray, “Mass-testing of color vision: A simplified and accelerated technique,” Am. J. Psych. 61, 370–385 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (The C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).
  7. E. Murray, “Color vision tests,” pp. 275–282 in O. Glasser (Ed.) Medical Physics (Year Book Publishers, Chicago, 1944).
  8. LeG. H. Hardy, G. Rand, and M. C. Rittler, “The Ishihara test as a means of detecting and analyzing defective color vision,” J. Gen. Psych. 36, 79–106 (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. R. Miles, “Color blindness in eleven thousand museum visitors,” Yale J. Biol. Med. 16, 59–76 (1943).
  10. D. B. Judd, “Standard response functions for protanopic and deuteranopic vision,” J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 33, 407–437 (1944); also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199–221 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. S. Rowland, “Selection of a battery of color vision tests,” AAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project No. 108, . (Feb.19, 1943.)

1948 (2)

E. Murray, “Mass-testing of color vision: A simplified and accelerated technique,” Am. J. Psych. 61, 370–385 (1948).
[CrossRef]

A. Chapanis, “A comparative study of five tests of color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 626–649 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1947 (2)

A. Chapanis, “The dark adaptation of the color anomalous measured with lights of different hues,” J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).

LeG. H. Hardy, G. Rand, and M. C. Rittler, “The Ishihara test as a means of detecting and analyzing defective color vision,” J. Gen. Psych. 36, 79–106 (1947).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

D. B. Judd, “Standard response functions for protanopic and deuteranopic vision,” J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 33, 407–437 (1944); also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199–221 (1945).
[CrossRef]

1943 (2)

W. R. Miles, “Color blindness in eleven thousand museum visitors,” Yale J. Biol. Med. 16, 59–76 (1943).

D. B. Judd, “Facts of color-blindness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294–307 (1943).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, “The color vision of dichromats: I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1936).

Chapanis, A.

A. Chapanis, “A comparative study of five tests of color vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 626–649 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chapanis, “The dark adaptation of the color anomalous measured with lights of different hues,” J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).

Hardy, LeG. H.

LeG. H. Hardy, G. Rand, and M. C. Rittler, “The Ishihara test as a means of detecting and analyzing defective color vision,” J. Gen. Psych. 36, 79–106 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, “The color vision of dichromats: I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1936).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “Standard response functions for protanopic and deuteranopic vision,” J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 33, 407–437 (1944); also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199–221 (1945).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Judd, “Facts of color-blindness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 294–307 (1943).
[CrossRef]

Miles, W. R.

W. R. Miles, “Color blindness in eleven thousand museum visitors,” Yale J. Biol. Med. 16, 59–76 (1943).

Murray, E.

E. Murray, “Mass-testing of color vision: A simplified and accelerated technique,” Am. J. Psych. 61, 370–385 (1948).
[CrossRef]

E. Murray, “Color vision tests,” pp. 275–282 in O. Glasser (Ed.) Medical Physics (Year Book Publishers, Chicago, 1944).

Rand, G.

LeG. H. Hardy, G. Rand, and M. C. Rittler, “The Ishihara test as a means of detecting and analyzing defective color vision,” J. Gen. Psych. 36, 79–106 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Rittler, M. C.

LeG. H. Hardy, G. Rand, and M. C. Rittler, “The Ishihara test as a means of detecting and analyzing defective color vision,” J. Gen. Psych. 36, 79–106 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, L. S.

L. S. Rowland, “Selection of a battery of color vision tests,” AAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project No. 108, . (Feb.19, 1943.)

Shlaer, S.

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, “The color vision of dichromats: I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1936).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (The C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

Am. J. Psych. (1)

E. Murray, “Mass-testing of color vision: A simplified and accelerated technique,” Am. J. Psych. 61, 370–385 (1948).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Physiol. (2)

S. Hecht and S. Shlaer, “The color vision of dichromats: I. Wavelength discrimination, brightness distribution, and color mixture,” J. Gen. Physiol. 20, 57–82 (1936).

A. Chapanis, “The dark adaptation of the color anomalous measured with lights of different hues,” J. Gen. Physiol. 30, 423–437 (1947).

J. Gen. Psych. (1)

LeG. H. Hardy, G. Rand, and M. C. Rittler, “The Ishihara test as a means of detecting and analyzing defective color vision,” J. Gen. Psych. 36, 79–106 (1947).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. (1)

D. B. Judd, “Standard response functions for protanopic and deuteranopic vision,” J. Research Nat. Bur. of Stand. 33, 407–437 (1944); also J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 199–221 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Yale J. Biol. Med. (1)

W. R. Miles, “Color blindness in eleven thousand museum visitors,” Yale J. Biol. Med. 16, 59–76 (1943).

Other (3)

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Color Vision (The C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1947).

E. Murray, “Color vision tests,” pp. 275–282 in O. Glasser (Ed.) Medical Physics (Year Book Publishers, Chicago, 1944).

L. S. Rowland, “Selection of a battery of color vision tests,” AAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project No. 108, . (Feb.19, 1943.)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Histograms of all wave-length settings (3 for each subject) made by 86 color-normal and 34 color-deficient subjects in locating the red end of the spectrum seen in a Bausch and Lomb visual spectrophotometer. The uppermost histogram does not include 3 individuals whose color defect could not be classified with certainty.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histograms of mean wave-length settings made by 86 color-normal and 34 color-deficient subjects in locating the red end of the spectrum seen in a Bausch and Lomb visual spectrophotometer. The uppermost histogram does not include 3 individuals whose color defect could not be classified with certainty.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histogram of D-scores made by 34 color-deficient subjects on 6 diagnostic plates in the Boström test. The open areas represent 12 subjects who were classified protano; the solid areas, 19 subjects who were classified deuterano; and the striped areas, 3 subjects whose classification was uncertain on the basis of the spectrophotometer test. These data are taken from column 8 in Table I.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Histogram of D-scores made by 34 color-deficient subjects on 6 diagnostic plates in the Meyrowitz test. The open areas represent 12 subjects who were classified protano; the solid areas, 19 subjects who were classified deuterano; and the striped areas, 3 subjects whose classification was uncertain on the basis of the spectrophotometer test. These data are taken from column 8 in Table II.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histogram of D-scores made by 34 color-deficient subjects on 4 diagnostic plates in the Ishihara test. The open areas represent 12 subjects who were classified protano; the solid areas, 19 subjects who were classified deuterano; and the striped areas, 3 subjects whose classification was uncertain on the basis of the spectrophotometer test. These data are taken from column 6 in Table III.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Responses made to the diagnostic plates in the Boström test by 12 subjects who were classified protano (AL), 19 subjects who were classified deuterano (MAE), and 3 subjects who could not be classified with certainty (AFAH).

Tables Icon

Table II Responses made to the diagnostic plates in the Meyrowitz test by 12 subjects who were classified protano (AL), 19 subjects who were classified deuterano (MAE), and 3 subjects who could not be classified with certainty (AFAH).

Tables Icon

Table III Responses made to the diagnostic plates in the Ishihara test by 12 subjects who were classified protano (AL), 19 subjects who were classified deuterano (MAE), and 3 subjects who could not be classified with certainty(AFAH).