Abstract

In the last ten years electrodeless discharges have become increasingly important to the spectroscopist as light sources that possess distinct advantages over d.c. discharge tubes. An attempt was made to gather information on the characteristics of such discharges at frequencies of 10, 15, 20, and 25 megacycles and pressures ranging from 10−2 to 10−4 mm of Hg using dry air as the filling gas. It is hoped that the data presented here in form of onset and offset potentials versus pressure will help the spectroscopist in the design of his light sources and of the associated electrical equipment, thus taking this aspect of his research at least partly out of the realm of trial and error.—With this as our primary objective the experimental conditions were not appropriate for yielding data that contribute to the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of such discharges. Therefore a detailed discussion of the shapes of the characteristic curves Vs versus p is omitted.

© 1946 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Leonard B. Loeb, Fundamental Processes of Electrical Discharge in Gases (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1939), pp. 557–8.
  2. Gutton, Mirta, and Ylostalo, Comptes rendus 176, 1871 (1923); Comptes rendus 178, 476 (1924). C. Gutton and H. Gutton, Comptes rendus 186, 303 (1928).
  3. F. Kirchner, Ann. d. Physik 77, 287 (1925); Ann. d. Physik 7, 798 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Thomson, Phil. Mag. 10, 280 (1930); Phil. Mag. 18, 696 (1934); Phil. Mag. 23, 1 (1937).
  5. S. Mrozowski, “Forbidden lines in the laboratory,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 16, 153–174 (July-Oct., 1944).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. A. Jenkins and S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 59, 808 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 58, 1086 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Niewodniczenzki, Acta Phys. Polonica 2, 375 (1934).
  9. J. R. Holmes, Phys. Rev. 63, 41–46 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Wiens and L. W. Alvarez, Phys. Rev. 58, 11, 1005 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Mrozowski, Zeits. f. Physik 112, 223 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  12. John F. Rider, Vacuum Tube Voltmeters (John F. Rider Publisher, Inc., New York, 1940), p. 175.

1944 (1)

S. Mrozowski, “Forbidden lines in the laboratory,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 16, 153–174 (July-Oct., 1944).
[CrossRef]

1943 (1)

J. R. Holmes, Phys. Rev. 63, 41–46 (1943).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

F. A. Jenkins and S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 59, 808 (1941).
[CrossRef]

1940 (2)

S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 58, 1086 (1940).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wiens and L. W. Alvarez, Phys. Rev. 58, 11, 1005 (1940).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

S. Mrozowski, Zeits. f. Physik 112, 223 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

H. Niewodniczenzki, Acta Phys. Polonica 2, 375 (1934).

1930 (1)

J. Thomson, Phil. Mag. 10, 280 (1930); Phil. Mag. 18, 696 (1934); Phil. Mag. 23, 1 (1937).

1925 (1)

F. Kirchner, Ann. d. Physik 77, 287 (1925); Ann. d. Physik 7, 798 (1930).
[CrossRef]

1923 (1)

Gutton, Mirta, and Ylostalo, Comptes rendus 176, 1871 (1923); Comptes rendus 178, 476 (1924). C. Gutton and H. Gutton, Comptes rendus 186, 303 (1928).

Alvarez, L. W.

J. H. Wiens and L. W. Alvarez, Phys. Rev. 58, 11, 1005 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Gutton,

Gutton, Mirta, and Ylostalo, Comptes rendus 176, 1871 (1923); Comptes rendus 178, 476 (1924). C. Gutton and H. Gutton, Comptes rendus 186, 303 (1928).

Holmes, J. R.

J. R. Holmes, Phys. Rev. 63, 41–46 (1943).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, F. A.

F. A. Jenkins and S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 59, 808 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Kirchner, F.

F. Kirchner, Ann. d. Physik 77, 287 (1925); Ann. d. Physik 7, 798 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Loeb, Leonard B.

Leonard B. Loeb, Fundamental Processes of Electrical Discharge in Gases (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1939), pp. 557–8.

Mirta,

Gutton, Mirta, and Ylostalo, Comptes rendus 176, 1871 (1923); Comptes rendus 178, 476 (1924). C. Gutton and H. Gutton, Comptes rendus 186, 303 (1928).

Mrozowski, S.

S. Mrozowski, “Forbidden lines in the laboratory,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 16, 153–174 (July-Oct., 1944).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Jenkins and S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 59, 808 (1941).
[CrossRef]

S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 58, 1086 (1940).
[CrossRef]

S. Mrozowski, Zeits. f. Physik 112, 223 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Niewodniczenzki, H.

H. Niewodniczenzki, Acta Phys. Polonica 2, 375 (1934).

Rider, John F.

John F. Rider, Vacuum Tube Voltmeters (John F. Rider Publisher, Inc., New York, 1940), p. 175.

Thomson, J.

J. Thomson, Phil. Mag. 10, 280 (1930); Phil. Mag. 18, 696 (1934); Phil. Mag. 23, 1 (1937).

Wiens, J. H.

J. H. Wiens and L. W. Alvarez, Phys. Rev. 58, 11, 1005 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Ylostalo,

Gutton, Mirta, and Ylostalo, Comptes rendus 176, 1871 (1923); Comptes rendus 178, 476 (1924). C. Gutton and H. Gutton, Comptes rendus 186, 303 (1928).

Acta Phys. Polonica (1)

H. Niewodniczenzki, Acta Phys. Polonica 2, 375 (1934).

Ann. d. Physik (1)

F. Kirchner, Ann. d. Physik 77, 287 (1925); Ann. d. Physik 7, 798 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Comptes rendus (1)

Gutton, Mirta, and Ylostalo, Comptes rendus 176, 1871 (1923); Comptes rendus 178, 476 (1924). C. Gutton and H. Gutton, Comptes rendus 186, 303 (1928).

Phil. Mag. (1)

J. Thomson, Phil. Mag. 10, 280 (1930); Phil. Mag. 18, 696 (1934); Phil. Mag. 23, 1 (1937).

Phys. Rev. (4)

J. R. Holmes, Phys. Rev. 63, 41–46 (1943).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wiens and L. W. Alvarez, Phys. Rev. 58, 11, 1005 (1940).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Jenkins and S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 59, 808 (1941).
[CrossRef]

S. Mrozowski, Phys. Rev. 58, 1086 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. Mrozowski, “Forbidden lines in the laboratory,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 16, 153–174 (July-Oct., 1944).
[CrossRef]

Zeits. f. Physik (1)

S. Mrozowski, Zeits. f. Physik 112, 223 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

John F. Rider, Vacuum Tube Voltmeters (John F. Rider Publisher, Inc., New York, 1940), p. 175.

Leonard B. Loeb, Fundamental Processes of Electrical Discharge in Gases (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1939), pp. 557–8.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical Pashen curves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

External electrode system, center ring at high frequency potential, outer rings grounded.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three types of glow discharge, obtained with the three-ring electrode system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Three most frequently occurring types of glow discharge, using coil excitation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Offset potentials versus pressures in dry air, using the three-electrode ring system with a spacing of 2.2 cm between the center ring and either of the external rings.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Frequency versus pressure for several constant offset potentials, taken from Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Offset potential versus pressure in dry air, using the three-ring electrode system with a spacing of 4.75 cm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Offset potential versus pressure in dry air, using the three-electrode ring system with a spacing of 15 cm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Onset and offset potentials versus pressures in dry air at 10 megacycles/sec. using coil excitation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Onset and offset potentials versus pressures in dry air at 15 megacycles/sec. using coil excitation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Onset and offset potentials versus pressures in dry air at 20 megacycles/sec. using coil excitation.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Onset and offset potentials versus pressures in dry air at 25 megacycles/sec. using coil excitation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I

Equations (2)

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V s = A + B p ,
f = 11.7 log p + 1.4.