Abstract

Many features of the behavior of luminescent sulphides can be correlated by means of a mechanism based on the energy-band theory of the solid insulator. It is imagined that after excitation, which is essentially an ionization of an activator atom, the dissociated electron is highly likely to be trapped and held localized in a discrete energy level in the forbidden region, recombining with an ion and emitting the characteristic luminescence only after it has been freed from this trapped state by thermal excitation or other agencies. This picture, with appropriate modifications, is also useful in explaining the properties of silicate phosphors.

© 1939 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For a nonmathematical discussion and references, see F. Seitz and R. P. Johnson, J. App. Phys. 8, 84, 186, 246 (1937); also, N. F. Mott, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 822 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Summarized by E. L. Nichols and E. Merritt, Studies in Luminescence (Washington, 1912); P. Lenard, F. Schmidt, and R. Tomaschek, Handbuch der ExperimentalphysikXXIII/1 and 2 (Leipzig, 1928); P. Pringsheim, Fluoreszenz und Phosphoreszenz (Berlin, 3rd Ed., 1928); M. Curie, Luminescence des Corps Solides (Paris, 1934); L. Vanino, Die Leuchtfarben (Stuttgart, 1935); H. Rupp, Die Leuchtmassen und ihre Verwendung (Berlin, 1937).
  3. E. T. Goodwin, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 35, 205, 221, 232 (1939); W. Shockley, Phys. Rev. 56, 317 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  4. See M. Schön, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 19, 361 (1938).
  5. K. Scherer and R. Rübsaat, Archiv f. Elektrot. 31, 821 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. M. Wolf and N. Riehl, Ann. d. Physik 11, 108 (1931).
  7. See also A. Guntz, Ann. de Chimie 6, 5 (1926).
  8. A. L. Reimann, Nature 140, 501 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 73 (1939); S. T. Martin and L. B. Headrick, J. App. Phys. 10, 116 (1939); W. de Groot, Physica 6, 393 (1939); N. Riehl, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 20, 152 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Schleede and B. Bartels, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 19, 364 (1938); P. J. Mulder, J. Frank. Inst. 225, 527 (1938); W. de Groot, Physica 6, 275 (1939); R. B. Nelson, R. P. Johnson, and W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 335 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. T. Martin and L. B. Headrick, J. App. Phys. 10, 116 (1939); R. B. Nelson, R. P. Johnson, and W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 335 (1939); G. R. Fonda, J. App. Phys. 10, 408 (1939); R. P. Johnson and W. L. Davis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 283 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. R. Fonda, J. App. Phys. 10, 408 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Hofstader, Phys. Rev. 54, 864 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  14. See, for example, J. W. Marden and G. Meister, Trans. I.E.S. 34, 503 (1939).
  15. J. C. Slater, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 828 (1938); A. von Hippel, Phys. Rev. 54, 1096 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  16. For example, Trans. Faraday Soc. 35 (Discussion on Luminescence) (1939).
  17. D. Blochinzew, Phys. Zeits. Sowjetunion 12, 587 (1937).
  18. W. de Groot, Physica 6, 275 (1939).
    [CrossRef]

1939 (7)

E. T. Goodwin, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 35, 205, 221, 232 (1939); W. Shockley, Phys. Rev. 56, 317 (1939).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 73 (1939); S. T. Martin and L. B. Headrick, J. App. Phys. 10, 116 (1939); W. de Groot, Physica 6, 393 (1939); N. Riehl, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 20, 152 (1939).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Martin and L. B. Headrick, J. App. Phys. 10, 116 (1939); R. B. Nelson, R. P. Johnson, and W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 335 (1939); G. R. Fonda, J. App. Phys. 10, 408 (1939); R. P. Johnson and W. L. Davis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 283 (1939).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Fonda, J. App. Phys. 10, 408 (1939).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J. W. Marden and G. Meister, Trans. I.E.S. 34, 503 (1939).

For example, Trans. Faraday Soc. 35 (Discussion on Luminescence) (1939).

W. de Groot, Physica 6, 275 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1938 (4)

J. C. Slater, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 828 (1938); A. von Hippel, Phys. Rev. 54, 1096 (1938).
[CrossRef]

R. Hofstader, Phys. Rev. 54, 864 (1938).
[CrossRef]

A. Schleede and B. Bartels, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 19, 364 (1938); P. J. Mulder, J. Frank. Inst. 225, 527 (1938); W. de Groot, Physica 6, 275 (1939); R. B. Nelson, R. P. Johnson, and W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 335 (1939).
[CrossRef]

See M. Schön, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 19, 361 (1938).

1937 (4)

K. Scherer and R. Rübsaat, Archiv f. Elektrot. 31, 821 (1937).
[CrossRef]

For a nonmathematical discussion and references, see F. Seitz and R. P. Johnson, J. App. Phys. 8, 84, 186, 246 (1937); also, N. F. Mott, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 822 (1938).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Reimann, Nature 140, 501 (1937).
[CrossRef]

D. Blochinzew, Phys. Zeits. Sowjetunion 12, 587 (1937).

1931 (1)

P. M. Wolf and N. Riehl, Ann. d. Physik 11, 108 (1931).

1926 (1)

See also A. Guntz, Ann. de Chimie 6, 5 (1926).

Bartels, B.

A. Schleede and B. Bartels, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 19, 364 (1938); P. J. Mulder, J. Frank. Inst. 225, 527 (1938); W. de Groot, Physica 6, 275 (1939); R. B. Nelson, R. P. Johnson, and W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 335 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Blochinzew, D.

D. Blochinzew, Phys. Zeits. Sowjetunion 12, 587 (1937).

de Groot, W.

W. de Groot, Physica 6, 275 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Fonda, G. R.

G. R. Fonda, J. App. Phys. 10, 408 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, E. T.

E. T. Goodwin, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 35, 205, 221, 232 (1939); W. Shockley, Phys. Rev. 56, 317 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Guntz, A.

See also A. Guntz, Ann. de Chimie 6, 5 (1926).

Headrick, L. B.

S. T. Martin and L. B. Headrick, J. App. Phys. 10, 116 (1939); R. B. Nelson, R. P. Johnson, and W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 335 (1939); G. R. Fonda, J. App. Phys. 10, 408 (1939); R. P. Johnson and W. L. Davis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 283 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Hofstader, R.

R. Hofstader, Phys. Rev. 54, 864 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R. P.

For a nonmathematical discussion and references, see F. Seitz and R. P. Johnson, J. App. Phys. 8, 84, 186, 246 (1937); also, N. F. Mott, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 822 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Marden, J. W.

See, for example, J. W. Marden and G. Meister, Trans. I.E.S. 34, 503 (1939).

Martin, S. T.

S. T. Martin and L. B. Headrick, J. App. Phys. 10, 116 (1939); R. B. Nelson, R. P. Johnson, and W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 335 (1939); G. R. Fonda, J. App. Phys. 10, 408 (1939); R. P. Johnson and W. L. Davis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 283 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Meister, G.

See, for example, J. W. Marden and G. Meister, Trans. I.E.S. 34, 503 (1939).

Merritt, E.

Summarized by E. L. Nichols and E. Merritt, Studies in Luminescence (Washington, 1912); P. Lenard, F. Schmidt, and R. Tomaschek, Handbuch der ExperimentalphysikXXIII/1 and 2 (Leipzig, 1928); P. Pringsheim, Fluoreszenz und Phosphoreszenz (Berlin, 3rd Ed., 1928); M. Curie, Luminescence des Corps Solides (Paris, 1934); L. Vanino, Die Leuchtfarben (Stuttgart, 1935); H. Rupp, Die Leuchtmassen und ihre Verwendung (Berlin, 1937).

Nichols, E. L.

Summarized by E. L. Nichols and E. Merritt, Studies in Luminescence (Washington, 1912); P. Lenard, F. Schmidt, and R. Tomaschek, Handbuch der ExperimentalphysikXXIII/1 and 2 (Leipzig, 1928); P. Pringsheim, Fluoreszenz und Phosphoreszenz (Berlin, 3rd Ed., 1928); M. Curie, Luminescence des Corps Solides (Paris, 1934); L. Vanino, Die Leuchtfarben (Stuttgart, 1935); H. Rupp, Die Leuchtmassen und ihre Verwendung (Berlin, 1937).

Nottingham, W. B.

W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 73 (1939); S. T. Martin and L. B. Headrick, J. App. Phys. 10, 116 (1939); W. de Groot, Physica 6, 393 (1939); N. Riehl, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 20, 152 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, A. L.

A. L. Reimann, Nature 140, 501 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Riehl, N.

P. M. Wolf and N. Riehl, Ann. d. Physik 11, 108 (1931).

Rübsaat, R.

K. Scherer and R. Rübsaat, Archiv f. Elektrot. 31, 821 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, K.

K. Scherer and R. Rübsaat, Archiv f. Elektrot. 31, 821 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Schleede, A.

A. Schleede and B. Bartels, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 19, 364 (1938); P. J. Mulder, J. Frank. Inst. 225, 527 (1938); W. de Groot, Physica 6, 275 (1939); R. B. Nelson, R. P. Johnson, and W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 335 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Schön, M.

See M. Schön, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 19, 361 (1938).

Seitz, F.

For a nonmathematical discussion and references, see F. Seitz and R. P. Johnson, J. App. Phys. 8, 84, 186, 246 (1937); also, N. F. Mott, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 822 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Slater, J. C.

J. C. Slater, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 828 (1938); A. von Hippel, Phys. Rev. 54, 1096 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P. M.

P. M. Wolf and N. Riehl, Ann. d. Physik 11, 108 (1931).

Ann. d. Physik (1)

P. M. Wolf and N. Riehl, Ann. d. Physik 11, 108 (1931).

Ann. de Chimie (1)

See also A. Guntz, Ann. de Chimie 6, 5 (1926).

Archiv f. Elektrot. (1)

K. Scherer and R. Rübsaat, Archiv f. Elektrot. 31, 821 (1937).
[CrossRef]

J. App. Phys. (4)

W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 73 (1939); S. T. Martin and L. B. Headrick, J. App. Phys. 10, 116 (1939); W. de Groot, Physica 6, 393 (1939); N. Riehl, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 20, 152 (1939).
[CrossRef]

For a nonmathematical discussion and references, see F. Seitz and R. P. Johnson, J. App. Phys. 8, 84, 186, 246 (1937); also, N. F. Mott, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 822 (1938).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Martin and L. B. Headrick, J. App. Phys. 10, 116 (1939); R. B. Nelson, R. P. Johnson, and W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 335 (1939); G. R. Fonda, J. App. Phys. 10, 408 (1939); R. P. Johnson and W. L. Davis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 283 (1939).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Fonda, J. App. Phys. 10, 408 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. L. Reimann, Nature 140, 501 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. Hofstader, Phys. Rev. 54, 864 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Zeits. Sowjetunion (1)

D. Blochinzew, Phys. Zeits. Sowjetunion 12, 587 (1937).

Physica (1)

W. de Groot, Physica 6, 275 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. (1)

E. T. Goodwin, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 35, 205, 221, 232 (1939); W. Shockley, Phys. Rev. 56, 317 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Faraday Soc. (2)

J. C. Slater, Trans. Faraday Soc. 34, 828 (1938); A. von Hippel, Phys. Rev. 54, 1096 (1938).
[CrossRef]

For example, Trans. Faraday Soc. 35 (Discussion on Luminescence) (1939).

Trans. I.E.S. (1)

See, for example, J. W. Marden and G. Meister, Trans. I.E.S. 34, 503 (1939).

Zeits. f. tech. Physik (2)

See M. Schön, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 19, 361 (1938).

A. Schleede and B. Bartels, Zeits. f. tech. Physik 19, 364 (1938); P. J. Mulder, J. Frank. Inst. 225, 527 (1938); W. de Groot, Physica 6, 275 (1939); R. B. Nelson, R. P. Johnson, and W. B. Nottingham, J. App. Phys. 10, 335 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Summarized by E. L. Nichols and E. Merritt, Studies in Luminescence (Washington, 1912); P. Lenard, F. Schmidt, and R. Tomaschek, Handbuch der ExperimentalphysikXXIII/1 and 2 (Leipzig, 1928); P. Pringsheim, Fluoreszenz und Phosphoreszenz (Berlin, 3rd Ed., 1928); M. Curie, Luminescence des Corps Solides (Paris, 1934); L. Vanino, Die Leuchtfarben (Stuttgart, 1935); H. Rupp, Die Leuchtmassen und ihre Verwendung (Berlin, 1937).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of energy levels for valence electrons in proposed sulphide phosphor model, (b)–(e) Course of decay after excitation by a quantum in the fundamental ultraviolet absorption region of the lattice.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scheme of energy levels for valence electrons in proposed silicate phosphor model, (b)–(f) Course of decay after excitation by a quantum in the fundamental ultraviolet absorption region of the lattice.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I (From Johnson and Davis, reference 11.)