Abstract

We propose a dynamic light-path establishment method for using wavelengths effectively. In our proposed method, a proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller is implemented in each edge node. The edge node determines the amount of data to be transmitted with PID control so that a constant amount of data can be stored in the buffer. In addition, light paths are established and released dynamically by comparing the output signal of the PID controller with the maximum amount of data that can be transmitted with the established light paths. Because data can be stored in the buffer for a short time, it is expected that the number of established light paths decreases. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method and investigate the impact of the setting parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown through a comparison with the conventional method.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(9), 100-108 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Tachibana and H. Harai, “Aggressive rank accounting for end-to-end lightpath establishment in multi-domain WDM networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2006. ICC '06 (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 6, pp. 2459-2464.
  3. R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).
  4. L.Berger, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching signaling functional description,” Network Working Group Request for Comments IETF RFC 3471 (Jan. 2003).
  5. L.Berger, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” Network Working Group Request for Comments IETF RFC 3473 (Jan. 2003).
  6. T. Anjali and C. Scoglio, “Threshold-based policy for LSP and light path setup in GMPLS networks,” in 2004 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 4, pp. 1927-1931.
  7. Z. Rosberg, A. Zalesky, and M. Zukerman, “Packet delay in optical circuit-switched networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Commun. 14, 341-354 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Duser and P. Bayvel, “Performance of a dynamically wavelength-routed, optical burst switched network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 239-241 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. “IBM system x3950 M2 and x3850 M2 technical introduction,” Draft Document for Review, (Feb. 7, 2008), http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redpieces/pdfs/redp4362.pdf.
  10. M. Düser, I. D. Miguel, P. Bayvel, and D. Wischik, “Timescale analysis for wavelength-routed optical burst-switched (WR-OBS) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, A.Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper WG7.
  11. E. Huh and H. Choo, “Performance enhancement of TCP in high-speed networks,” Inf. Sci. (N.Y.) 178, 352-362 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Xu, B. Liu, and J. Wei, “Model predictive feedback control for QoS assurance in webservers,” Computer 41(3), 66-72 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Tachibana, K. Kogiso, and K. Sugimoto, “Dynamic management of computing and network resources with PID control in optical grid networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2008. ICC '08 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 396-400.
  14. K. J. Astrom and T. Hagglund, PID Controllers: Theory, Design, and Tuning (Instrument Society of America, 1995).
  15. M. Saeki and A. Takahashi, “Parameter space PID design based on simulation and its application,” in 44th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 2005, and 2005 European Control Conference. CDC-ECC '05 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 7241-7246.
  16. E. G. Gilbert, “Linear control systems with pointwise-in-time constraints: what do we do about them?” in Proceedings of the 1992 American Control Conference (IEEE, 1992), p. 2565.
  17. K. Kogiso and K. Hirata, “Reference governor for constrained systems with time-varying references,” in 2006 IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 359-364.
  18. J. Ziegler and N. Nichols, “Optimum settings for automatic controllers,” Trans. ASME 64, 759-768 (1942).
  19. C. Hang and K. Sin, “On-line auto tuning of PID controllers based on the cross-correlation technique,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 38, 428-437 (1991).
  20. Y. Lee, J. Lee, and S. Park, “PID controller tuning for integrating and unstable processes with time delay,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 55, 3481-3493 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Skogestad, “Simple analytic rules for model reduction and PID controller tuning,” J. Manage. Issue 13, 291-309 (2003).

2008 (2)

E. Huh and H. Choo, “Performance enhancement of TCP in high-speed networks,” Inf. Sci. (N.Y.) 178, 352-362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, B. Liu, and J. Wei, “Model predictive feedback control for QoS assurance in webservers,” Computer 41(3), 66-72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Z. Rosberg, A. Zalesky, and M. Zukerman, “Packet delay in optical circuit-switched networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Commun. 14, 341-354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Skogestad, “Simple analytic rules for model reduction and PID controller tuning,” J. Manage. Issue 13, 291-309 (2003).

2002 (1)

M. Duser and P. Bayvel, “Performance of a dynamically wavelength-routed, optical burst switched network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 239-241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(9), 100-108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Lee, J. Lee, and S. Park, “PID controller tuning for integrating and unstable processes with time delay,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 55, 3481-3493 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. Hang and K. Sin, “On-line auto tuning of PID controllers based on the cross-correlation technique,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 38, 428-437 (1991).

1942 (1)

J. Ziegler and N. Nichols, “Optimum settings for automatic controllers,” Trans. ASME 64, 759-768 (1942).

Anjali, T.

T. Anjali and C. Scoglio, “Threshold-based policy for LSP and light path setup in GMPLS networks,” in 2004 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 4, pp. 1927-1931.

Astrom, K. J.

K. J. Astrom and T. Hagglund, PID Controllers: Theory, Design, and Tuning (Instrument Society of America, 1995).

Bayvel, P.

M. Duser and P. Bayvel, “Performance of a dynamically wavelength-routed, optical burst switched network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 239-241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Düser, I. D. Miguel, P. Bayvel, and D. Wischik, “Timescale analysis for wavelength-routed optical burst-switched (WR-OBS) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, A.Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper WG7.

Choo, H.

E. Huh and H. Choo, “Performance enhancement of TCP in high-speed networks,” Inf. Sci. (N.Y.) 178, 352-362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duser, M.

M. Duser and P. Bayvel, “Performance of a dynamically wavelength-routed, optical burst switched network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 239-241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Düser, M.

M. Düser, I. D. Miguel, P. Bayvel, and D. Wischik, “Timescale analysis for wavelength-routed optical burst-switched (WR-OBS) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, A.Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper WG7.

Gilbert, E. G.

E. G. Gilbert, “Linear control systems with pointwise-in-time constraints: what do we do about them?” in Proceedings of the 1992 American Control Conference (IEEE, 1992), p. 2565.

Hagglund, T.

K. J. Astrom and T. Hagglund, PID Controllers: Theory, Design, and Tuning (Instrument Society of America, 1995).

Hang, C.

C. Hang and K. Sin, “On-line auto tuning of PID controllers based on the cross-correlation technique,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 38, 428-437 (1991).

Harai, H.

T. Tachibana and H. Harai, “Aggressive rank accounting for end-to-end lightpath establishment in multi-domain WDM networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2006. ICC '06 (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 6, pp. 2459-2464.

Hirata, K.

K. Kogiso and K. Hirata, “Reference governor for constrained systems with time-varying references,” in 2006 IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 359-364.

Huh, E.

E. Huh and H. Choo, “Performance enhancement of TCP in high-speed networks,” Inf. Sci. (N.Y.) 178, 352-362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jue, J.

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(9), 100-108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kogiso, K.

T. Tachibana, K. Kogiso, and K. Sugimoto, “Dynamic management of computing and network resources with PID control in optical grid networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2008. ICC '08 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 396-400.

K. Kogiso and K. Hirata, “Reference governor for constrained systems with time-varying references,” in 2006 IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 359-364.

Lee, J.

Y. Lee, J. Lee, and S. Park, “PID controller tuning for integrating and unstable processes with time delay,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 55, 3481-3493 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, J. Lee, and S. Park, “PID controller tuning for integrating and unstable processes with time delay,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 55, 3481-3493 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

C. Xu, B. Liu, and J. Wei, “Model predictive feedback control for QoS assurance in webservers,” Computer 41(3), 66-72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miguel, I. D.

M. Düser, I. D. Miguel, P. Bayvel, and D. Wischik, “Timescale analysis for wavelength-routed optical burst-switched (WR-OBS) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, A.Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper WG7.

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(9), 100-108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, N.

J. Ziegler and N. Nichols, “Optimum settings for automatic controllers,” Trans. ASME 64, 759-768 (1942).

Park, S.

Y. Lee, J. Lee, and S. Park, “PID controller tuning for integrating and unstable processes with time delay,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 55, 3481-3493 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, R.

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(9), 100-108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).

Rosberg, Z.

Z. Rosberg, A. Zalesky, and M. Zukerman, “Packet delay in optical circuit-switched networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Commun. 14, 341-354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saeki, M.

M. Saeki and A. Takahashi, “Parameter space PID design based on simulation and its application,” in 44th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 2005, and 2005 European Control Conference. CDC-ECC '05 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 7241-7246.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(9), 100-108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scoglio, C.

T. Anjali and C. Scoglio, “Threshold-based policy for LSP and light path setup in GMPLS networks,” in 2004 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 4, pp. 1927-1931.

Sin, K.

C. Hang and K. Sin, “On-line auto tuning of PID controllers based on the cross-correlation technique,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 38, 428-437 (1991).

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).

Skogestad, S.

S. Skogestad, “Simple analytic rules for model reduction and PID controller tuning,” J. Manage. Issue 13, 291-309 (2003).

Sugimoto, K.

T. Tachibana, K. Kogiso, and K. Sugimoto, “Dynamic management of computing and network resources with PID control in optical grid networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2008. ICC '08 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 396-400.

Tachibana, T.

T. Tachibana and H. Harai, “Aggressive rank accounting for end-to-end lightpath establishment in multi-domain WDM networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2006. ICC '06 (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 6, pp. 2459-2464.

T. Tachibana, K. Kogiso, and K. Sugimoto, “Dynamic management of computing and network resources with PID control in optical grid networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2008. ICC '08 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 396-400.

Takahashi, A.

M. Saeki and A. Takahashi, “Parameter space PID design based on simulation and its application,” in 44th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 2005, and 2005 European Control Conference. CDC-ECC '05 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 7241-7246.

Wei, J.

C. Xu, B. Liu, and J. Wei, “Model predictive feedback control for QoS assurance in webservers,” Computer 41(3), 66-72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wischik, D.

M. Düser, I. D. Miguel, P. Bayvel, and D. Wischik, “Timescale analysis for wavelength-routed optical burst-switched (WR-OBS) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, A.Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper WG7.

Xu, C.

C. Xu, B. Liu, and J. Wei, “Model predictive feedback control for QoS assurance in webservers,” Computer 41(3), 66-72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zalesky, A.

Z. Rosberg, A. Zalesky, and M. Zukerman, “Packet delay in optical circuit-switched networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Commun. 14, 341-354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(9), 100-108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, J.

J. Ziegler and N. Nichols, “Optimum settings for automatic controllers,” Trans. ASME 64, 759-768 (1942).

Zukerman, M.

Z. Rosberg, A. Zalesky, and M. Zukerman, “Packet delay in optical circuit-switched networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Commun. 14, 341-354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eng. Sci. (1)

Y. Lee, J. Lee, and S. Park, “PID controller tuning for integrating and unstable processes with time delay,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 55, 3481-3493 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Computer (1)

C. Xu, B. Liu, and J. Wei, “Model predictive feedback control for QoS assurance in webservers,” Computer 41(3), 66-72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(9), 100-108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Duser and P. Bayvel, “Performance of a dynamically wavelength-routed, optical burst switched network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 239-241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. (1)

C. Hang and K. Sin, “On-line auto tuning of PID controllers based on the cross-correlation technique,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 38, 428-437 (1991).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Commun. (1)

Z. Rosberg, A. Zalesky, and M. Zukerman, “Packet delay in optical circuit-switched networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Commun. 14, 341-354 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Inf. Sci. (N.Y.) (1)

E. Huh and H. Choo, “Performance enhancement of TCP in high-speed networks,” Inf. Sci. (N.Y.) 178, 352-362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Manage. Issue (1)

S. Skogestad, “Simple analytic rules for model reduction and PID controller tuning,” J. Manage. Issue 13, 291-309 (2003).

Trans. ASME (1)

J. Ziegler and N. Nichols, “Optimum settings for automatic controllers,” Trans. ASME 64, 759-768 (1942).

Other (12)

T. Tachibana, K. Kogiso, and K. Sugimoto, “Dynamic management of computing and network resources with PID control in optical grid networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2008. ICC '08 (IEEE, 2008), pp. 396-400.

K. J. Astrom and T. Hagglund, PID Controllers: Theory, Design, and Tuning (Instrument Society of America, 1995).

M. Saeki and A. Takahashi, “Parameter space PID design based on simulation and its application,” in 44th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 2005, and 2005 European Control Conference. CDC-ECC '05 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 7241-7246.

E. G. Gilbert, “Linear control systems with pointwise-in-time constraints: what do we do about them?” in Proceedings of the 1992 American Control Conference (IEEE, 1992), p. 2565.

K. Kogiso and K. Hirata, “Reference governor for constrained systems with time-varying references,” in 2006 IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (IEEE, 2006), pp. 359-364.

“IBM system x3950 M2 and x3850 M2 technical introduction,” Draft Document for Review, (Feb. 7, 2008), http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redpieces/pdfs/redp4362.pdf.

M. Düser, I. D. Miguel, P. Bayvel, and D. Wischik, “Timescale analysis for wavelength-routed optical burst-switched (WR-OBS) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, A.Sawchuk, ed., Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2002), paper WG7.

T. Tachibana and H. Harai, “Aggressive rank accounting for end-to-end lightpath establishment in multi-domain WDM networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2006. ICC '06 (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 6, pp. 2459-2464.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998).

L.Berger, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching signaling functional description,” Network Working Group Request for Comments IETF RFC 3471 (Jan. 2003).

L.Berger, ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) extensions,” Network Working Group Request for Comments IETF RFC 3473 (Jan. 2003).

T. Anjali and C. Scoglio, “Threshold-based policy for LSP and light path setup in GMPLS networks,” in 2004 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 4, pp. 1927-1931.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

WDM networks and edge node architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dynamic light-path establishment mechanism based on threshold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Edge node architecture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of the proposed method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light-path establishment and release algorithm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Impact of K P on the performance of the proposed method.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Number of light-path establishment and release processes.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average Number of Established Light Paths E [ n ( m ) ] and Average Amount of Stored Data E [ x ( m ) ] against Reference Value r

Tables Icon

Table 2 Variation of A ( m )

Tables Icon

Table 3 Performances of Proposed Method and Conventional Method

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x ( m ) = max { x ( m 1 ) + a ( m ) z ( m ) , 0 } .
U ( s ) = ( K P + K I s + K D s ) { r X ( s ) } ,
z ( m ) = min { u ( m ) , c ( m ) } .