Abstract

The development of airports such as the recently inaugurated Heathrow Terminal 5, as well as the increasing number of people using these facilities every day for business reasons or just for pleasure, reveals the importance of adequate and reliable communication facilities in this context. This environment is characterized by multiservice, multistandard wireless technologies and a highly variable traffic demand in space and time due to passenger flow, behavior, and usage from the terminal's entrance to the corresponding boarding gate, ruled by flight departure schedules, in the indoor environment. The Intelligent Airport (TINA) project establishes its objective as the creation of a seamless hybrid wireless and wired infrastructure capable of providing users with a wide range of services, based on radio-over-fiber (RoF) networks, anticipating the deployment of multiple air interfaces within 4G networks. In this paper the spatial and temporal traffic demand is analyzed and modeled through simulation, as a means of selecting the optimum location for the base stations/antenna units (BSs/AUs) in the network. A load-balancing technique is applied to ease the load on congested cells using strategically located fixed relay nodes, and the network's behavior is analyzed for different BS properties.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Hartmann, X. Qian, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Broadband multimode fibre (MMF) based IEEE 802.11a/b/g WLAN distribution system,” in 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 173-176.
  2. E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, “RF fiber-optic link performance,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 2(4), 50-58 (2001).
  3. A. J. Seeds, “Wireless access over optical fibre: from cellular radio to broadband; from UHF to millimetre-waves,” in The 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2002), pp. 471-472.
  4. T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: what, where, and when?” Proc. IEEE 94, 911-934 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. S. Frost and B. Melamed, “Traffic modeling for telecommunications networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 32(3), 70-81 (1994).
  6. D. Hong and S. S. Rappaport, “Traffic model and performance analysis for cellular mobile radio telephone systems with prioritized and nonprioritized handoff procedures,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 35, 77-92 (1986).
  7. P. V. Orlik and S. S. Rappaport, “Traffic performance and mobility modeling of cellular communications with mixed platforms and highly variable mobilities,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1464-1479 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. V. Orlik and S. S. Rappaport, “A model for teletraffic performance and channel holding time characterization in wireless cellular communications with general session and dwell time distributions,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 788-803 (1998).
  9. Y. Fang and I. Chlamtac, “Teletraffic analysis and mobility modeling of PCS networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1062-1072 (1999).
  10. M. Rajaratnam and F. Takawira, “Nonclassical traffic modeling and performance analysis of cellular mobile networks with and without channel reservation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 49, 817-834 (2000).
  11. D. Lam, D. C. Cox, and J. Widom, “Teletraffic modeling for personal communications services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(2), 79-87 (1997).
  12. M. M. Zonoozi and P. Dassanayake, “User mobility modeling and characterization of mobility patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 15, 1239-1252 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, and E. Zehavi, “Other-cell interference in cellular power-controlled CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 1501-1504 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Zou and V. K. Bhergava, “Design issues in a CDMA cellular system with heterogenous traffic types,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 871-884 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. C. Lee and R. Steele, “Effect of soft and softer handoffs on CDMA system capacity,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 830-841 (1998).
  16. N. Antunes, R. Rocha, P. Pinto, and A. Pacheco, Impact of Next Generation Wireless Networks Requirements on Teletraffic Modeling. Interoperable Communication Networks, Vol. 1 (Baltzer Science, 1998), pp. 706-715.
  17. T. S. Kim, M. Y. Chung, D. Sung, and M. Sengoku, “Mobility modeling and traffic analysis in three-dimensional indoor environments,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 546-557 (1998).
  18. A. D. Amis and R. Prakash, “Load-balancing clusters in wireless ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Symposium on Application-Specific Systems and Software Engineering Technology (IEEE, 2000), pp. 25-32.
  19. J. So and N. H. Vaidya, “Load-balancing routing in multichannel hybrid wireless networks with single network interface,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 55, 806-812 (2006).
  20. K.-W. Lee, Y.-B. Ko, and T. Nadagopal, “Load mitigation in cellular data networks by peer data sharing over WLAN channels,” Comput. Netw. 47, 271-286 (2005).
  21. W. Song and W. Zhuang, “Load balancing for cellular/WLAN integrated networks,” IEEE Network 21(1), 27-33 (2007).
  22. K. Tutschku and P. Tran-Gia, “Spatial traffic estimation and characterization for mobile communication network design,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 804-811 (1998).
  23. F. Baccelli and V. Schmidt, “Modeling of communication networks via stochastic geometry,” in Dagstuhl Workshop (1998).
  24. C. C. Chan and S. V. Hanly, “Calculating the outage probability in a CDMA network with spatial Poisson traffic,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 50, 183-204 (2001).

2007 (1)

W. Song and W. Zhuang, “Load balancing for cellular/WLAN integrated networks,” IEEE Network 21(1), 27-33 (2007).

2006 (2)

J. So and N. H. Vaidya, “Load-balancing routing in multichannel hybrid wireless networks with single network interface,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 55, 806-812 (2006).

T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: what, where, and when?” Proc. IEEE 94, 911-934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K.-W. Lee, Y.-B. Ko, and T. Nadagopal, “Load mitigation in cellular data networks by peer data sharing over WLAN channels,” Comput. Netw. 47, 271-286 (2005).

2001 (2)

E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, “RF fiber-optic link performance,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 2(4), 50-58 (2001).

C. C. Chan and S. V. Hanly, “Calculating the outage probability in a CDMA network with spatial Poisson traffic,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 50, 183-204 (2001).

2000 (1)

M. Rajaratnam and F. Takawira, “Nonclassical traffic modeling and performance analysis of cellular mobile networks with and without channel reservation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 49, 817-834 (2000).

1999 (1)

Y. Fang and I. Chlamtac, “Teletraffic analysis and mobility modeling of PCS networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1062-1072 (1999).

1998 (6)

J. Zou and V. K. Bhergava, “Design issues in a CDMA cellular system with heterogenous traffic types,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 871-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee and R. Steele, “Effect of soft and softer handoffs on CDMA system capacity,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 830-841 (1998).

T. S. Kim, M. Y. Chung, D. Sung, and M. Sengoku, “Mobility modeling and traffic analysis in three-dimensional indoor environments,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 546-557 (1998).

K. Tutschku and P. Tran-Gia, “Spatial traffic estimation and characterization for mobile communication network design,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 804-811 (1998).

P. V. Orlik and S. S. Rappaport, “Traffic performance and mobility modeling of cellular communications with mixed platforms and highly variable mobilities,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1464-1479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Orlik and S. S. Rappaport, “A model for teletraffic performance and channel holding time characterization in wireless cellular communications with general session and dwell time distributions,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 788-803 (1998).

1997 (2)

D. Lam, D. C. Cox, and J. Widom, “Teletraffic modeling for personal communications services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(2), 79-87 (1997).

M. M. Zonoozi and P. Dassanayake, “User mobility modeling and characterization of mobility patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 15, 1239-1252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, and E. Zehavi, “Other-cell interference in cellular power-controlled CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 1501-1504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Frost and B. Melamed, “Traffic modeling for telecommunications networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 32(3), 70-81 (1994).

1986 (1)

D. Hong and S. S. Rappaport, “Traffic model and performance analysis for cellular mobile radio telephone systems with prioritized and nonprioritized handoff procedures,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 35, 77-92 (1986).

Ackerman, E. I.

E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, “RF fiber-optic link performance,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 2(4), 50-58 (2001).

Amis, A. D.

A. D. Amis and R. Prakash, “Load-balancing clusters in wireless ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Symposium on Application-Specific Systems and Software Engineering Technology (IEEE, 2000), pp. 25-32.

Antunes, N.

N. Antunes, R. Rocha, P. Pinto, and A. Pacheco, Impact of Next Generation Wireless Networks Requirements on Teletraffic Modeling. Interoperable Communication Networks, Vol. 1 (Baltzer Science, 1998), pp. 706-715.

Baccelli, F.

F. Baccelli and V. Schmidt, “Modeling of communication networks via stochastic geometry,” in Dagstuhl Workshop (1998).

Bhergava, V. K.

J. Zou and V. K. Bhergava, “Design issues in a CDMA cellular system with heterogenous traffic types,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 871-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

C. C. Chan and S. V. Hanly, “Calculating the outage probability in a CDMA network with spatial Poisson traffic,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 50, 183-204 (2001).

Chlamtac, I.

Y. Fang and I. Chlamtac, “Teletraffic analysis and mobility modeling of PCS networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1062-1072 (1999).

Chung, M. Y.

T. S. Kim, M. Y. Chung, D. Sung, and M. Sengoku, “Mobility modeling and traffic analysis in three-dimensional indoor environments,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 546-557 (1998).

Cox, C. H.

E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, “RF fiber-optic link performance,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 2(4), 50-58 (2001).

Cox, D. C.

D. Lam, D. C. Cox, and J. Widom, “Teletraffic modeling for personal communications services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(2), 79-87 (1997).

Dassanayake, P.

M. M. Zonoozi and P. Dassanayake, “User mobility modeling and characterization of mobility patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 15, 1239-1252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

Y. Fang and I. Chlamtac, “Teletraffic analysis and mobility modeling of PCS networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1062-1072 (1999).

Frost, V. S.

V. S. Frost and B. Melamed, “Traffic modeling for telecommunications networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 32(3), 70-81 (1994).

Hanly, S. V.

C. C. Chan and S. V. Hanly, “Calculating the outage probability in a CDMA network with spatial Poisson traffic,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 50, 183-204 (2001).

Hartmann, P.

P. Hartmann, X. Qian, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Broadband multimode fibre (MMF) based IEEE 802.11a/b/g WLAN distribution system,” in 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 173-176.

Hong, D.

D. Hong and S. S. Rappaport, “Traffic model and performance analysis for cellular mobile radio telephone systems with prioritized and nonprioritized handoff procedures,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 35, 77-92 (1986).

Kim, T. S.

T. S. Kim, M. Y. Chung, D. Sung, and M. Sengoku, “Mobility modeling and traffic analysis in three-dimensional indoor environments,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 546-557 (1998).

Ko, Y.-B.

K.-W. Lee, Y.-B. Ko, and T. Nadagopal, “Load mitigation in cellular data networks by peer data sharing over WLAN channels,” Comput. Netw. 47, 271-286 (2005).

Koonen, T.

T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: what, where, and when?” Proc. IEEE 94, 911-934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lam, D.

D. Lam, D. C. Cox, and J. Widom, “Teletraffic modeling for personal communications services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(2), 79-87 (1997).

Lee, C. C.

C. C. Lee and R. Steele, “Effect of soft and softer handoffs on CDMA system capacity,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 830-841 (1998).

Lee, K.-W.

K.-W. Lee, Y.-B. Ko, and T. Nadagopal, “Load mitigation in cellular data networks by peer data sharing over WLAN channels,” Comput. Netw. 47, 271-286 (2005).

Melamed, B.

V. S. Frost and B. Melamed, “Traffic modeling for telecommunications networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 32(3), 70-81 (1994).

Nadagopal, T.

K.-W. Lee, Y.-B. Ko, and T. Nadagopal, “Load mitigation in cellular data networks by peer data sharing over WLAN channels,” Comput. Netw. 47, 271-286 (2005).

Orlik, P. V.

P. V. Orlik and S. S. Rappaport, “A model for teletraffic performance and channel holding time characterization in wireless cellular communications with general session and dwell time distributions,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 788-803 (1998).

P. V. Orlik and S. S. Rappaport, “Traffic performance and mobility modeling of cellular communications with mixed platforms and highly variable mobilities,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1464-1479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pacheco, A.

N. Antunes, R. Rocha, P. Pinto, and A. Pacheco, Impact of Next Generation Wireless Networks Requirements on Teletraffic Modeling. Interoperable Communication Networks, Vol. 1 (Baltzer Science, 1998), pp. 706-715.

Penty, R. V.

P. Hartmann, X. Qian, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Broadband multimode fibre (MMF) based IEEE 802.11a/b/g WLAN distribution system,” in 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 173-176.

Pinto, P.

N. Antunes, R. Rocha, P. Pinto, and A. Pacheco, Impact of Next Generation Wireless Networks Requirements on Teletraffic Modeling. Interoperable Communication Networks, Vol. 1 (Baltzer Science, 1998), pp. 706-715.

Prakash, R.

A. D. Amis and R. Prakash, “Load-balancing clusters in wireless ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Symposium on Application-Specific Systems and Software Engineering Technology (IEEE, 2000), pp. 25-32.

Qian, X.

P. Hartmann, X. Qian, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Broadband multimode fibre (MMF) based IEEE 802.11a/b/g WLAN distribution system,” in 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 173-176.

Rajaratnam, M.

M. Rajaratnam and F. Takawira, “Nonclassical traffic modeling and performance analysis of cellular mobile networks with and without channel reservation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 49, 817-834 (2000).

Rappaport, S. S.

P. V. Orlik and S. S. Rappaport, “Traffic performance and mobility modeling of cellular communications with mixed platforms and highly variable mobilities,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1464-1479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Orlik and S. S. Rappaport, “A model for teletraffic performance and channel holding time characterization in wireless cellular communications with general session and dwell time distributions,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 788-803 (1998).

D. Hong and S. S. Rappaport, “Traffic model and performance analysis for cellular mobile radio telephone systems with prioritized and nonprioritized handoff procedures,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 35, 77-92 (1986).

Rocha, R.

N. Antunes, R. Rocha, P. Pinto, and A. Pacheco, Impact of Next Generation Wireless Networks Requirements on Teletraffic Modeling. Interoperable Communication Networks, Vol. 1 (Baltzer Science, 1998), pp. 706-715.

Schmidt, V.

F. Baccelli and V. Schmidt, “Modeling of communication networks via stochastic geometry,” in Dagstuhl Workshop (1998).

Seeds, A. J.

A. J. Seeds, “Wireless access over optical fibre: from cellular radio to broadband; from UHF to millimetre-waves,” in The 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2002), pp. 471-472.

Sengoku, M.

T. S. Kim, M. Y. Chung, D. Sung, and M. Sengoku, “Mobility modeling and traffic analysis in three-dimensional indoor environments,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 546-557 (1998).

So, J.

J. So and N. H. Vaidya, “Load-balancing routing in multichannel hybrid wireless networks with single network interface,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 55, 806-812 (2006).

Song, W.

W. Song and W. Zhuang, “Load balancing for cellular/WLAN integrated networks,” IEEE Network 21(1), 27-33 (2007).

Steele, R.

C. C. Lee and R. Steele, “Effect of soft and softer handoffs on CDMA system capacity,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 830-841 (1998).

Sung, D.

T. S. Kim, M. Y. Chung, D. Sung, and M. Sengoku, “Mobility modeling and traffic analysis in three-dimensional indoor environments,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 546-557 (1998).

Takawira, F.

M. Rajaratnam and F. Takawira, “Nonclassical traffic modeling and performance analysis of cellular mobile networks with and without channel reservation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 49, 817-834 (2000).

Tran-Gia, P.

K. Tutschku and P. Tran-Gia, “Spatial traffic estimation and characterization for mobile communication network design,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 804-811 (1998).

Tutschku, K.

K. Tutschku and P. Tran-Gia, “Spatial traffic estimation and characterization for mobile communication network design,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 804-811 (1998).

Vaidya, N. H.

J. So and N. H. Vaidya, “Load-balancing routing in multichannel hybrid wireless networks with single network interface,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 55, 806-812 (2006).

Viterbi, A. J.

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, and E. Zehavi, “Other-cell interference in cellular power-controlled CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 1501-1504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Viterbi, A. M.

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, and E. Zehavi, “Other-cell interference in cellular power-controlled CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 1501-1504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

P. Hartmann, X. Qian, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Broadband multimode fibre (MMF) based IEEE 802.11a/b/g WLAN distribution system,” in 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 173-176.

Widom, J.

D. Lam, D. C. Cox, and J. Widom, “Teletraffic modeling for personal communications services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(2), 79-87 (1997).

Zehavi, E.

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, and E. Zehavi, “Other-cell interference in cellular power-controlled CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 1501-1504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, W.

W. Song and W. Zhuang, “Load balancing for cellular/WLAN integrated networks,” IEEE Network 21(1), 27-33 (2007).

Zonoozi, M. M.

M. M. Zonoozi and P. Dassanayake, “User mobility modeling and characterization of mobility patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 15, 1239-1252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J.

J. Zou and V. K. Bhergava, “Design issues in a CDMA cellular system with heterogenous traffic types,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 871-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Netw. (1)

K.-W. Lee, Y.-B. Ko, and T. Nadagopal, “Load mitigation in cellular data networks by peer data sharing over WLAN channels,” Comput. Netw. 47, 271-286 (2005).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

D. Lam, D. C. Cox, and J. Widom, “Teletraffic modeling for personal communications services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 35(2), 79-87 (1997).

V. S. Frost and B. Melamed, “Traffic modeling for telecommunications networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 32(3), 70-81 (1994).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (3)

P. V. Orlik and S. S. Rappaport, “A model for teletraffic performance and channel holding time characterization in wireless cellular communications with general session and dwell time distributions,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 788-803 (1998).

M. M. Zonoozi and P. Dassanayake, “User mobility modeling and characterization of mobility patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 15, 1239-1252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tutschku and P. Tran-Gia, “Spatial traffic estimation and characterization for mobile communication network design,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 804-811 (1998).

IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

E. I. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, “RF fiber-optic link performance,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 2(4), 50-58 (2001).

IEEE Network (1)

W. Song and W. Zhuang, “Load balancing for cellular/WLAN integrated networks,” IEEE Network 21(1), 27-33 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, and E. Zehavi, “Other-cell interference in cellular power-controlled CDMA,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 1501-1504 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fang and I. Chlamtac, “Teletraffic analysis and mobility modeling of PCS networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 1062-1072 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. (7)

M. Rajaratnam and F. Takawira, “Nonclassical traffic modeling and performance analysis of cellular mobile networks with and without channel reservation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 49, 817-834 (2000).

D. Hong and S. S. Rappaport, “Traffic model and performance analysis for cellular mobile radio telephone systems with prioritized and nonprioritized handoff procedures,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 35, 77-92 (1986).

J. Zou and V. K. Bhergava, “Design issues in a CDMA cellular system with heterogenous traffic types,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 871-884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee and R. Steele, “Effect of soft and softer handoffs on CDMA system capacity,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 830-841 (1998).

T. S. Kim, M. Y. Chung, D. Sung, and M. Sengoku, “Mobility modeling and traffic analysis in three-dimensional indoor environments,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 47, 546-557 (1998).

J. So and N. H. Vaidya, “Load-balancing routing in multichannel hybrid wireless networks with single network interface,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 55, 806-812 (2006).

C. C. Chan and S. V. Hanly, “Calculating the outage probability in a CDMA network with spatial Poisson traffic,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 50, 183-204 (2001).

Proc. IEEE (2)

P. V. Orlik and S. S. Rappaport, “Traffic performance and mobility modeling of cellular communications with mixed platforms and highly variable mobilities,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1464-1479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: what, where, and when?” Proc. IEEE 94, 911-934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

P. Hartmann, X. Qian, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Broadband multimode fibre (MMF) based IEEE 802.11a/b/g WLAN distribution system,” in 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 173-176.

A. J. Seeds, “Wireless access over optical fibre: from cellular radio to broadband; from UHF to millimetre-waves,” in The 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (IEEE, 2002), pp. 471-472.

A. D. Amis and R. Prakash, “Load-balancing clusters in wireless ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Symposium on Application-Specific Systems and Software Engineering Technology (IEEE, 2000), pp. 25-32.

N. Antunes, R. Rocha, P. Pinto, and A. Pacheco, Impact of Next Generation Wireless Networks Requirements on Teletraffic Modeling. Interoperable Communication Networks, Vol. 1 (Baltzer Science, 1998), pp. 706-715.

F. Baccelli and V. Schmidt, “Modeling of communication networks via stochastic geometry,” in Dagstuhl Workshop (1998).

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