Abstract

We implement shared-path protection (SPP) with extra traffic in automatically switched optical network (ASON) rings provided with a generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) control plane. The protection time provided by the SPP scheme is analyzed as a function of the switching time of the wavelength-selective switches (WSS), the key components to building reconfigurable optical nodes. We demonstrate that the switching time of the currently available WSS prevents the protection of the complete set of affected label-switched paths (LSPs) within 50 ms after fault detection. Therefore, two alternative strategies can be considered, namely, (1) the definition of two classes of protection with different requirements in terms of protection time, and (2) a real-time mechanism to decide, on the basis of the current number of LSPs to protect, whether the protection scheme to apply is either at the path layer or at the link layer. When protecting at the path layer, part of the extra traffic will be saved, whereas all the extra traffic will be preempted when protecting at the link layer.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Ou, J. Zhang, H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “New and improved approaches for shared-path-protection in WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1223-1232 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Guo, H. Yu, and L. Li, “A new shared-path protection algorithm under shared risk link group constraints for survivable WDM mesh networks,” Opt. Commun. 246, 285-295 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. D. Grover and D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self planning network restoration,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 1998), pp. 537-543.
  4. W. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks (Prentice Hall, 2004).
  5. Architecture for the Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON), ITU-T G.8080, (ITU, 2001).
  6. E. Mannie, Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Architecture, RFC-3945 (IETF, 2004).
  7. L. Berger, Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions, RFC-3473 (IETF, 2003).
  8. D. Katz, K. Kompella, and D. Yeung, Traffic Engineering (TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2, RFC-3630 (IETF, 2003).
  9. J. Lang, Link Management Protocol (LMP), RFC 4204 (IETF, 2005).
  10. L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Introducing OMS protection in GMPLS-based optical ring networks,” Comput. Netw. 52, 1975-1987 (2008).
  11. O. Gerstel and G. Sasaki, “Meeting SLAs by design: a protection scheme with memory,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper OThJ2.
  12. J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(10), 86-92 (2007).
  13. J. P. Lang, Y. Rekhter, and D. Papadimitriou, RSVP-TE Extensions in Support of End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Recovery, RFC 4872 (IETF, 2007).
  14. L. Berger, I. Bryskin, D. Papadimitriou, and A. Farrel, GMPLS Segment Recovery, RFC 4873 (IETF, 2007).
  15. K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS), RFC-4203 (IETF, 2005).
  16. H. Zang, J. P. Juez, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 1(2), 47-60 (2000).
  17. R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing (Kluwer Academic, 1999).
  18. G. Swallow, J. Drake, H. Ishimatsu, and Y. Rekhter, Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) User-Network Interface (UNI): Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Support for the Overlay Model, RFC-4208 (IETF, 2005).
  19. M. To and P. Neusy, “Unavailability analysis of long-haul networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 100-109 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, General availability model for multilayer transport networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Design Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN 2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 85-92.
  21. Y. Goebuchi, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 538-540 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Goebuchi, M. Hisada, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Optical cross-connect circuit using hitless wavelength selective switch,” Opt. Express 16, 535-548 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Bouillet, K. Kumaran, G. Liu, and I. Saniee, “Wavelength usage efficiency versus recovery time in path-protected DWDM mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG1.

2008

L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Introducing OMS protection in GMPLS-based optical ring networks,” Comput. Netw. 52, 1975-1987 (2008).

Y. Goebuchi, M. Hisada, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Optical cross-connect circuit using hitless wavelength selective switch,” Opt. Express 16, 535-548 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(10), 86-92 (2007).

2006

Y. Goebuchi, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 538-540 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. Guo, H. Yu, and L. Li, “A new shared-path protection algorithm under shared risk link group constraints for survivable WDM mesh networks,” Opt. Commun. 246, 285-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2000

H. Zang, J. P. Juez, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 1(2), 47-60 (2000).

1994

M. To and P. Neusy, “Unavailability analysis of long-haul networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 100-109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berger, L.

L. Berger, Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions, RFC-3473 (IETF, 2003).

L. Berger, I. Bryskin, D. Papadimitriou, and A. Farrel, GMPLS Segment Recovery, RFC 4873 (IETF, 2007).

Bhandari, R.

R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing (Kluwer Academic, 1999).

Bouillet, E.

E. Bouillet, K. Kumaran, G. Liu, and I. Saniee, “Wavelength usage efficiency versus recovery time in path-protected DWDM mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG1.

Bryskin, I.

L. Berger, I. Bryskin, D. Papadimitriou, and A. Farrel, GMPLS Segment Recovery, RFC 4873 (IETF, 2007).

Colle, D.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, General availability model for multilayer transport networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Design Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN 2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 85-92.

Comellas, J.

L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Introducing OMS protection in GMPLS-based optical ring networks,” Comput. Netw. 52, 1975-1987 (2008).

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(10), 86-92 (2007).

Demeester, P.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, General availability model for multilayer transport networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Design Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN 2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 85-92.

Drake, J.

G. Swallow, J. Drake, H. Ishimatsu, and Y. Rekhter, Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) User-Network Interface (UNI): Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Support for the Overlay Model, RFC-4208 (IETF, 2005).

Escalona, E.

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(10), 86-92 (2007).

Farrel, A.

L. Berger, I. Bryskin, D. Papadimitriou, and A. Farrel, GMPLS Segment Recovery, RFC 4873 (IETF, 2007).

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel and G. Sasaki, “Meeting SLAs by design: a protection scheme with memory,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper OThJ2.

Goebuchi, Y.

Y. Goebuchi, M. Hisada, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Optical cross-connect circuit using hitless wavelength selective switch,” Opt. Express 16, 535-548 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Goebuchi, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 538-540 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grover, W.

W. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks (Prentice Hall, 2004).

Grover, W. D.

W. D. Grover and D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self planning network restoration,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 1998), pp. 537-543.

Guo, L.

L. Guo, H. Yu, and L. Li, “A new shared-path protection algorithm under shared risk link group constraints for survivable WDM mesh networks,” Opt. Commun. 246, 285-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hisada, M.

Huelsermann, R.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, General availability model for multilayer transport networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Design Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN 2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 85-92.

Ishimatsu, H.

G. Swallow, J. Drake, H. Ishimatsu, and Y. Rekhter, Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) User-Network Interface (UNI): Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Support for the Overlay Model, RFC-4208 (IETF, 2005).

Jaeger, M.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, General availability model for multilayer transport networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Design Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN 2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 85-92.

Juez, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Juez, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 1(2), 47-60 (2000).

Junyent, G.

L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Introducing OMS protection in GMPLS-based optical ring networks,” Comput. Netw. 52, 1975-1987 (2008).

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(10), 86-92 (2007).

Kato, T.

Y. Goebuchi, M. Hisada, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Optical cross-connect circuit using hitless wavelength selective switch,” Opt. Express 16, 535-548 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Goebuchi, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 538-540 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Katz, D.

D. Katz, K. Kompella, and D. Yeung, Traffic Engineering (TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2, RFC-3630 (IETF, 2003).

Kokubun, Y.

Y. Goebuchi, M. Hisada, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Optical cross-connect circuit using hitless wavelength selective switch,” Opt. Express 16, 535-548 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Goebuchi, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 538-540 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kompella, K.

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS), RFC-4203 (IETF, 2005).

D. Katz, K. Kompella, and D. Yeung, Traffic Engineering (TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2, RFC-3630 (IETF, 2003).

Kumaran, K.

E. Bouillet, K. Kumaran, G. Liu, and I. Saniee, “Wavelength usage efficiency versus recovery time in path-protected DWDM mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG1.

Lang, J.

J. Lang, Link Management Protocol (LMP), RFC 4204 (IETF, 2005).

Lang, J. P.

J. P. Lang, Y. Rekhter, and D. Papadimitriou, RSVP-TE Extensions in Support of End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Recovery, RFC 4872 (IETF, 2007).

Li, L.

L. Guo, H. Yu, and L. Li, “A new shared-path protection algorithm under shared risk link group constraints for survivable WDM mesh networks,” Opt. Commun. 246, 285-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

E. Bouillet, K. Kumaran, G. Liu, and I. Saniee, “Wavelength usage efficiency versus recovery time in path-protected DWDM mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG1.

Mannie, E.

E. Mannie, Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Architecture, RFC-3945 (IETF, 2004).

Mukherjee, B.

C. Ou, J. Zhang, H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “New and improved approaches for shared-path-protection in WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1223-1232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Juez, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 1(2), 47-60 (2000).

Neusy, P.

M. To and P. Neusy, “Unavailability analysis of long-haul networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 100-109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ou, C.

Papadimitriou, D.

L. Berger, I. Bryskin, D. Papadimitriou, and A. Farrel, GMPLS Segment Recovery, RFC 4873 (IETF, 2007).

J. P. Lang, Y. Rekhter, and D. Papadimitriou, RSVP-TE Extensions in Support of End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Recovery, RFC 4872 (IETF, 2007).

Perelló, J.

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(10), 86-92 (2007).

Rekhter, Y.

J. P. Lang, Y. Rekhter, and D. Papadimitriou, RSVP-TE Extensions in Support of End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Recovery, RFC 4872 (IETF, 2007).

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS), RFC-4203 (IETF, 2005).

G. Swallow, J. Drake, H. Ishimatsu, and Y. Rekhter, Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) User-Network Interface (UNI): Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Support for the Overlay Model, RFC-4208 (IETF, 2005).

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

Saniee, I.

E. Bouillet, K. Kumaran, G. Liu, and I. Saniee, “Wavelength usage efficiency versus recovery time in path-protected DWDM mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG1.

Sasaki, G.

O. Gerstel and G. Sasaki, “Meeting SLAs by design: a protection scheme with memory,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper OThJ2.

Spadaro, S.

L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Introducing OMS protection in GMPLS-based optical ring networks,” Comput. Netw. 52, 1975-1987 (2008).

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(10), 86-92 (2007).

Stamatelakis, D.

W. D. Grover and D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self planning network restoration,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 1998), pp. 537-543.

Swallow, G.

G. Swallow, J. Drake, H. Ishimatsu, and Y. Rekhter, Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) User-Network Interface (UNI): Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Support for the Overlay Model, RFC-4208 (IETF, 2005).

To, M.

M. To and P. Neusy, “Unavailability analysis of long-haul networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 100-109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Velasco, L.

L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Introducing OMS protection in GMPLS-based optical ring networks,” Comput. Netw. 52, 1975-1987 (2008).

Verbrugge, S.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, General availability model for multilayer transport networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Design Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN 2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 85-92.

Yeung, D.

D. Katz, K. Kompella, and D. Yeung, Traffic Engineering (TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2, RFC-3630 (IETF, 2003).

Yu, H.

L. Guo, H. Yu, and L. Li, “A new shared-path protection algorithm under shared risk link group constraints for survivable WDM mesh networks,” Opt. Commun. 246, 285-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

C. Ou, J. Zhang, H. Zang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “New and improved approaches for shared-path-protection in WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1223-1232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. P. Juez, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 1(2), 47-60 (2000).

Zhang, J.

Comput. Netw.

L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Introducing OMS protection in GMPLS-based optical ring networks,” Comput. Netw. 52, 1975-1987 (2008).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

J. Perelló, E. Escalona, S. Spadaro, J. Comellas, and G. Junyent, “Resource discovery in ASON/GMPLS transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(10), 86-92 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

M. To and P. Neusy, “Unavailability analysis of long-haul networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 100-109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. Goebuchi, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 538-540 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Commun.

L. Guo, H. Yu, and L. Li, “A new shared-path protection algorithm under shared risk link group constraints for survivable WDM mesh networks,” Opt. Commun. 246, 285-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Networks Mag.

H. Zang, J. P. Juez, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 1(2), 47-60 (2000).

Other

R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing (Kluwer Academic, 1999).

G. Swallow, J. Drake, H. Ishimatsu, and Y. Rekhter, Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) User-Network Interface (UNI): Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Support for the Overlay Model, RFC-4208 (IETF, 2005).

O. Gerstel and G. Sasaki, “Meeting SLAs by design: a protection scheme with memory,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper OThJ2.

J. P. Lang, Y. Rekhter, and D. Papadimitriou, RSVP-TE Extensions in Support of End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Recovery, RFC 4872 (IETF, 2007).

L. Berger, I. Bryskin, D. Papadimitriou, and A. Farrel, GMPLS Segment Recovery, RFC 4873 (IETF, 2007).

K. Kompella and Y. Rekhter, OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS), RFC-4203 (IETF, 2005).

W. D. Grover and D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self planning network restoration,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (IEEE, 1998), pp. 537-543.

W. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks (Prentice Hall, 2004).

Architecture for the Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON), ITU-T G.8080, (ITU, 2001).

E. Mannie, Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Architecture, RFC-3945 (IETF, 2004).

L. Berger, Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions, RFC-3473 (IETF, 2003).

D. Katz, K. Kompella, and D. Yeung, Traffic Engineering (TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2, RFC-3630 (IETF, 2003).

J. Lang, Link Management Protocol (LMP), RFC 4204 (IETF, 2005).

E. Bouillet, K. Kumaran, G. Liu, and I. Saniee, “Wavelength usage efficiency versus recovery time in path-protected DWDM mesh networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper TuG1.

S. Verbrugge, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Huelsermann, and M. Jaeger, General availability model for multilayer transport networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Design Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN 2005) (IEEE, 2005), pp. 85-92.

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