Abstract

An optical-router-based dynamically reconfigurable photonic access network is described. The network is a dense wavelength division multiplex overlay over legacy time division multiplexed passive optical networks (PONs), each operating in its native format. A single such fiber plant deployment can support multiple logical PONs, each operating on a unique wavelength pair. This stack of logical PONs can be configured for optimal bandwidth delivery to the end user by controlling the number of optical network units (ONUs) supported in every such logical PON. Microring-resonator-based optical routers are used to dynamically manage the logical network topology to control the number of ONUs supported per logical PON. We present techniques to calculate an optimal network configuration and its use in a typical evolving access scenario. The network view from a data transport perspective and from a control and management perspective is also presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. IEEE 802.3-2005, Section 5, “Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications,” IEEE Standard.
  2. ITU-T G.984.1-6, “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” ITU-T Standards.
  3. ITU-T G.983.1-3, “Broadband optical access systems based on passive optical networks (PON),” ITU-T Standards.
  4. A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw. 4, 737-758 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. “Frost & Sullivan: bandwidth demand, future proofing driving optical deployments globally,” S.M.Hardy, ed., Lightwave Direct Newsletter, May 2008, www.lw.pennet.com.
  6. Freeband project web site, www.freeband.nl.
  7. T. Koonen, M. G. Larrode, J. Yang, A. Ng'oma, G. Rijckenberg, P. Urban, H. Yang, H. van Den Boom, and H. de Waardt, “Recent research results on flexible optical access and in-building networks,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 153-160.
  8. F. T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, and L. G. Kazovsky, “SUCCESS: a next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, M. Maier, and A. Keha, “Bandwidth management for WDM EPONs,” J. Opt. Netw. 5, 637-654 (2006).
  10. P. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “1.25-10 Gbit/s reconfigurable access network architecture,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 293-296.
  11. R. Roy and W. van Etten, “Design of a survivable multi-wavelength photonic access network,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Access Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-6.
  12. E. Klein, P. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, and A. Driessen, “Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks,” Opt. Express 15, 10345-10355 (2007).
  13. K. Fukuda, K. Cho, and H. Esaki, “The impact of residential broadband traffic on Japanese ISP backbones,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 15-21 (2005).
  14. Broadband Stakeholder Group, “Predicting UK future residential bandwidth requirements,” www.broadbanduk.org.
  15. Amsterdam Internet Exchange, www.ams-ix.net.
  16. Munich Internet Exchange, www.inxs.de.
  17. G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (McGraw-Hill, 2005), pp. 173-181.
  18. J. Kalrath and J. M. Wilson, Business Optimization: Using Mathematical Programming (Macmillan Business, 1997).
  19. J. Bisschop, “AIMMS: optimization modelling,” www.aimms.com.
  20. V. Souza, B. Tremblay, P. Karlsson, J. R. I. Riu, K. Persson, Z. Ghebretensae, and W. Zhao, “A QoS enabled public ethernet access network,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 244-251.
  21. A. Elmaghraby, A. Kumar, M. M. Kantardzic, and M. G. Mostafa, “Bandwidth allocation in a dynamic environment using a variable pricing policy,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium of Computers and Communications (IEEE, 2002), pp. 589-594.
  22. A. Erramilli, E. H. Lipper, and J. L. Wang, “Some performance considerations for mass market broadband services,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Community Networking Integrated Multimedia Services to the Home (IEEE, 1994), pp. 109-116.
  23. Y. Lu, F. Kuipers, M. Janic, and P. V. Mieghem, “E2E blocking probability of IPTV and P2PTV,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Networking (IFIP, 2008), pp. 445-456.
  24. P. van Mieghem, “Queuing models,” in Performance Analysis of Communications Networks and Systems (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 279-282.
  25. IEEE 802.1D, “Media access control (MAC) bridges,” IEEE Standard.
  26. IEEE 802.1ad-2005, “Virtual bridged local area networks, amendment 4: provider bridges,” IEEE Standard.
  27. R. Teune, R. Roy, and W. van Etten, “Demonstration of IP based control and management for a reconfigurable photonic access network,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2008), pp. 145-148.

2007 (1)

E. Klein, P. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, and A. Driessen, “Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks,” Opt. Express 15, 10345-10355 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

An, F. T.

Banerjee, A.

Bisschop, J.

J. Bisschop, “AIMMS: optimization modelling,” www.aimms.com.

Cho, K.

K. Fukuda, K. Cho, and H. Esaki, “The impact of residential broadband traffic on Japanese ISP backbones,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 15-21 (2005).

Clarke, F.

de Waardt, H.

T. Koonen, M. G. Larrode, J. Yang, A. Ng'oma, G. Rijckenberg, P. Urban, H. Yang, H. van Den Boom, and H. de Waardt, “Recent research results on flexible optical access and in-building networks,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 153-160.

P. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “1.25-10 Gbit/s reconfigurable access network architecture,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 293-296.

Driessen, A.

E. Klein, P. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, and A. Driessen, “Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks,” Opt. Express 15, 10345-10355 (2007).

Elmaghraby, A.

A. Elmaghraby, A. Kumar, M. M. Kantardzic, and M. G. Mostafa, “Bandwidth allocation in a dynamic environment using a variable pricing policy,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium of Computers and Communications (IEEE, 2002), pp. 589-594.

Erramilli, A.

A. Erramilli, E. H. Lipper, and J. L. Wang, “Some performance considerations for mass market broadband services,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Community Networking Integrated Multimedia Services to the Home (IEEE, 1994), pp. 109-116.

Esaki, H.

K. Fukuda, K. Cho, and H. Esaki, “The impact of residential broadband traffic on Japanese ISP backbones,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 15-21 (2005).

Fukuda, K.

K. Fukuda, K. Cho, and H. Esaki, “The impact of residential broadband traffic on Japanese ISP backbones,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 15-21 (2005).

Ghebretensae, Z.

V. Souza, B. Tremblay, P. Karlsson, J. R. I. Riu, K. Persson, Z. Ghebretensae, and W. Zhao, “A QoS enabled public ethernet access network,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 244-251.

Gutierrez, D.

Hilderink, L. T.

E. Klein, P. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, and A. Driessen, “Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks,” Opt. Express 15, 10345-10355 (2007).

Hoekman, M.

E. Klein, P. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, and A. Driessen, “Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks,” Opt. Express 15, 10345-10355 (2007).

Hu, E.

Janic, M.

Y. Lu, F. Kuipers, M. Janic, and P. V. Mieghem, “E2E blocking probability of IPTV and P2PTV,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Networking (IFIP, 2008), pp. 445-456.

Kalrath, J.

J. Kalrath and J. M. Wilson, Business Optimization: Using Mathematical Programming (Macmillan Business, 1997).

Kantardzic, M. M.

A. Elmaghraby, A. Kumar, M. M. Kantardzic, and M. G. Mostafa, “Bandwidth allocation in a dynamic environment using a variable pricing policy,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium of Computers and Communications (IEEE, 2002), pp. 589-594.

Karlsson, P.

V. Souza, B. Tremblay, P. Karlsson, J. R. I. Riu, K. Persson, Z. Ghebretensae, and W. Zhao, “A QoS enabled public ethernet access network,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 244-251.

Kazovsky, L. G.

Keha, A.

Khoe, G. D.

P. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “1.25-10 Gbit/s reconfigurable access network architecture,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 293-296.

Kim, K.

Kim, K. S.

Klein, E.

E. Klein, P. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, and A. Driessen, “Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks,” Opt. Express 15, 10345-10355 (2007).

Klein, E. J.

P. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “1.25-10 Gbit/s reconfigurable access network architecture,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 293-296.

Koonen, A. M. J.

P. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “1.25-10 Gbit/s reconfigurable access network architecture,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 293-296.

Koonen, T.

T. Koonen, M. G. Larrode, J. Yang, A. Ng'oma, G. Rijckenberg, P. Urban, H. Yang, H. van Den Boom, and H. de Waardt, “Recent research results on flexible optical access and in-building networks,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 153-160.

Kramer, G.

Kuipers, F.

Y. Lu, F. Kuipers, M. Janic, and P. V. Mieghem, “E2E blocking probability of IPTV and P2PTV,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Networking (IFIP, 2008), pp. 445-456.

Kumar, A.

A. Elmaghraby, A. Kumar, M. M. Kantardzic, and M. G. Mostafa, “Bandwidth allocation in a dynamic environment using a variable pricing policy,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium of Computers and Communications (IEEE, 2002), pp. 589-594.

Larrode, M. G.

T. Koonen, M. G. Larrode, J. Yang, A. Ng'oma, G. Rijckenberg, P. Urban, H. Yang, H. van Den Boom, and H. de Waardt, “Recent research results on flexible optical access and in-building networks,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 153-160.

Lipper, E. H.

A. Erramilli, E. H. Lipper, and J. L. Wang, “Some performance considerations for mass market broadband services,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Community Networking Integrated Multimedia Services to the Home (IEEE, 1994), pp. 109-116.

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, F. Kuipers, M. Janic, and P. V. Mieghem, “E2E blocking probability of IPTV and P2PTV,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Networking (IFIP, 2008), pp. 445-456.

Maier, M.

McGarry, M. P.

Mieghem, P. V.

Y. Lu, F. Kuipers, M. Janic, and P. V. Mieghem, “E2E blocking probability of IPTV and P2PTV,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Networking (IFIP, 2008), pp. 445-456.

Mostafa, M. G.

A. Elmaghraby, A. Kumar, M. M. Kantardzic, and M. G. Mostafa, “Bandwidth allocation in a dynamic environment using a variable pricing policy,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium of Computers and Communications (IEEE, 2002), pp. 589-594.

Mukherjee, B.

Ng'oma, A.

T. Koonen, M. G. Larrode, J. Yang, A. Ng'oma, G. Rijckenberg, P. Urban, H. Yang, H. van Den Boom, and H. de Waardt, “Recent research results on flexible optical access and in-building networks,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 153-160.

Park, Y.

Pellens, R.

E. Klein, P. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, and A. Driessen, “Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks,” Opt. Express 15, 10345-10355 (2007).

Persson, K.

V. Souza, B. Tremblay, P. Karlsson, J. R. I. Riu, K. Persson, Z. Ghebretensae, and W. Zhao, “A QoS enabled public ethernet access network,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 244-251.

Pluk, E. G. C.

P. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “1.25-10 Gbit/s reconfigurable access network architecture,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 293-296.

Reisslein, M.

Rijckenberg, G.

T. Koonen, M. G. Larrode, J. Yang, A. Ng'oma, G. Rijckenberg, P. Urban, H. Yang, H. van Den Boom, and H. de Waardt, “Recent research results on flexible optical access and in-building networks,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 153-160.

Riu, J. R. I.

V. Souza, B. Tremblay, P. Karlsson, J. R. I. Riu, K. Persson, Z. Ghebretensae, and W. Zhao, “A QoS enabled public ethernet access network,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 244-251.

Roy, R.

R. Roy and W. van Etten, “Design of a survivable multi-wavelength photonic access network,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Access Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-6.

R. Teune, R. Roy, and W. van Etten, “Demonstration of IP based control and management for a reconfigurable photonic access network,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2008), pp. 145-148.

Sengo, G.

E. Klein, P. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, and A. Driessen, “Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks,” Opt. Express 15, 10345-10355 (2007).

Shrikhande, K.

Song, H.

Souza, V.

V. Souza, B. Tremblay, P. Karlsson, J. R. I. Riu, K. Persson, Z. Ghebretensae, and W. Zhao, “A QoS enabled public ethernet access network,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 244-251.

Teune, R.

R. Teune, R. Roy, and W. van Etten, “Demonstration of IP based control and management for a reconfigurable photonic access network,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2008), pp. 145-148.

Tremblay, B.

V. Souza, B. Tremblay, P. Karlsson, J. R. I. Riu, K. Persson, Z. Ghebretensae, and W. Zhao, “A QoS enabled public ethernet access network,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 244-251.

Urban, P.

E. Klein, P. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, and A. Driessen, “Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks,” Opt. Express 15, 10345-10355 (2007).

T. Koonen, M. G. Larrode, J. Yang, A. Ng'oma, G. Rijckenberg, P. Urban, H. Yang, H. van Den Boom, and H. de Waardt, “Recent research results on flexible optical access and in-building networks,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 153-160.

P. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “1.25-10 Gbit/s reconfigurable access network architecture,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 293-296.

van Den Boom, H.

T. Koonen, M. G. Larrode, J. Yang, A. Ng'oma, G. Rijckenberg, P. Urban, H. Yang, H. van Den Boom, and H. de Waardt, “Recent research results on flexible optical access and in-building networks,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 153-160.

van Dijk, P.

E. Klein, P. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, and A. Driessen, “Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks,” Opt. Express 15, 10345-10355 (2007).

van Etten, W.

R. Roy and W. van Etten, “Design of a survivable multi-wavelength photonic access network,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Access Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-6.

R. Teune, R. Roy, and W. van Etten, “Demonstration of IP based control and management for a reconfigurable photonic access network,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2008), pp. 145-148.

van Mieghem, P.

P. van Mieghem, “Queuing models,” in Performance Analysis of Communications Networks and Systems (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 279-282.

Wang, J. L.

A. Erramilli, E. H. Lipper, and J. L. Wang, “Some performance considerations for mass market broadband services,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Community Networking Integrated Multimedia Services to the Home (IEEE, 1994), pp. 109-116.

Wilson, J. M.

J. Kalrath and J. M. Wilson, Business Optimization: Using Mathematical Programming (Macmillan Business, 1997).

Xu, L.

P. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “1.25-10 Gbit/s reconfigurable access network architecture,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 293-296.

Yam, S.

Yang, H.

T. Koonen, M. G. Larrode, J. Yang, A. Ng'oma, G. Rijckenberg, P. Urban, H. Yang, H. van Den Boom, and H. de Waardt, “Recent research results on flexible optical access and in-building networks,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 153-160.

Yang, J.

T. Koonen, M. G. Larrode, J. Yang, A. Ng'oma, G. Rijckenberg, P. Urban, H. Yang, H. van Den Boom, and H. de Waardt, “Recent research results on flexible optical access and in-building networks,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 153-160.

Yang, S.

Zhao, W.

V. Souza, B. Tremblay, P. Karlsson, J. R. I. Riu, K. Persson, Z. Ghebretensae, and W. Zhao, “A QoS enabled public ethernet access network,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 244-251.

Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

K. Fukuda, K. Cho, and H. Esaki, “The impact of residential broadband traffic on Japanese ISP backbones,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 15-21 (2005).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (2)

Opt. Express (1)

E. Klein, P. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, and A. Driessen, “Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks,” Opt. Express 15, 10345-10355 (2007).

Other (22)

IEEE 802.3-2005, Section 5, “Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications,” IEEE Standard.

ITU-T G.984.1-6, “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” ITU-T Standards.

ITU-T G.983.1-3, “Broadband optical access systems based on passive optical networks (PON),” ITU-T Standards.

“Frost & Sullivan: bandwidth demand, future proofing driving optical deployments globally,” S.M.Hardy, ed., Lightwave Direct Newsletter, May 2008, www.lw.pennet.com.

Freeband project web site, www.freeband.nl.

T. Koonen, M. G. Larrode, J. Yang, A. Ng'oma, G. Rijckenberg, P. Urban, H. Yang, H. van Den Boom, and H. de Waardt, “Recent research results on flexible optical access and in-building networks,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 153-160.

P. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “1.25-10 Gbit/s reconfigurable access network architecture,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 293-296.

R. Roy and W. van Etten, “Design of a survivable multi-wavelength photonic access network,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Access Networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1-6.

Broadband Stakeholder Group, “Predicting UK future residential bandwidth requirements,” www.broadbanduk.org.

Amsterdam Internet Exchange, www.ams-ix.net.

Munich Internet Exchange, www.inxs.de.

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (McGraw-Hill, 2005), pp. 173-181.

J. Kalrath and J. M. Wilson, Business Optimization: Using Mathematical Programming (Macmillan Business, 1997).

J. Bisschop, “AIMMS: optimization modelling,” www.aimms.com.

V. Souza, B. Tremblay, P. Karlsson, J. R. I. Riu, K. Persson, Z. Ghebretensae, and W. Zhao, “A QoS enabled public ethernet access network,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications, D.W.Faulkner, R.Neat, and E.Vannin, eds. (Acreo AB, 2007), pp. 244-251.

A. Elmaghraby, A. Kumar, M. M. Kantardzic, and M. G. Mostafa, “Bandwidth allocation in a dynamic environment using a variable pricing policy,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium of Computers and Communications (IEEE, 2002), pp. 589-594.

A. Erramilli, E. H. Lipper, and J. L. Wang, “Some performance considerations for mass market broadband services,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Community Networking Integrated Multimedia Services to the Home (IEEE, 1994), pp. 109-116.

Y. Lu, F. Kuipers, M. Janic, and P. V. Mieghem, “E2E blocking probability of IPTV and P2PTV,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Networking (IFIP, 2008), pp. 445-456.

P. van Mieghem, “Queuing models,” in Performance Analysis of Communications Networks and Systems (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 279-282.

IEEE 802.1D, “Media access control (MAC) bridges,” IEEE Standard.

IEEE 802.1ad-2005, “Virtual bridged local area networks, amendment 4: provider bridges,” IEEE Standard.

R. Teune, R. Roy, and W. van Etten, “Demonstration of IP based control and management for a reconfigurable photonic access network,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2008), pp. 145-148.

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