Abstract

As Internet traffic continues to grow unabated at an exponential rate, it is unclear whether the existing packet-routing network architecture based on electronic routers will continue to scale at the necessary pace. On the other hand, optical fiber and switching elements have demonstrated an abundance of capacity that appears to be unmatched by electronic routers. In particular, the simplicity of circuit switching makes it well suited for optical implementations. We present what we believe to be a new approach to optical networking based on a paradigm of coarse optical circuit switching by default and adaptive rerouting over circuits with spare capacity. We consider the provisioning of long-duration quasi-static optical circuits between edge routers at the boundary of the network to carry the traffic by default. When the provisioned circuit is inadequate, excess traffic demand is rerouted through circuits with spare capacity. In particular, by adaptively load balancing across circuits with spare capacity, excess traffic is routed to its final destination without the need to create circuits on the fly. Our evaluations on two separate real, large Internet service provider point-of-presence-level topologies, Abilene and GEANT, show that only a very small amount of excess traffic needs to be rerouted even during peak traffic hours when the circuit configurations are carefully chosen and that this excess traffic could always be accommodated using our adaptive rerouting approach. We also demonstrate that our adaptive load-balancing approach is robust to sudden unexpected traffic changes by demonstrating its ability to reroute traffic under a number of hot-spot scenarios.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  36. A. Elwalid, C. Jin, S. Low, and I. Widjaja, “MATE: MPLS adaptive traffic engineering,” in Twentieth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2001), pp.1300-1309.
  37. S. Fischer, N. Kammenhuber, and A. Feldmann, “REPLEX--dynamic traffic engineering based on Wardrop routing policies,” in ACM CoNEXT (Association for Computing Machinery, 2006), pp. 1-12.
  38. G. Karakostas, 'Faster approximation schemes for fractional multicommodity flow problems,” in Thirteenth Accnual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Association for Computing Machinery, 2002), pp. 166-173.
  39. S. Kandula, D. Katabi, S. Sinha, and A. Berger, “Dynamic load balancing without packet reordering,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 37, 51-62 (2007).
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2007 (4)

V. Chan, “Near-term future of the optical network in question?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25(9, Part Supplement), 1-2 (2007).

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Medard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 84-101 (2007).

B. Radunovic and J. Y. Le Boudec, “A unified framework for max-min and min-max fairness with applications,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 1073-1083 (2007).

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, S. Sinha, and A. Berger, “Dynamic load balancing without packet reordering,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 37, 51-62 (2007).

2003 (3)

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, “A unified study of contention-resolution schemes in optical packet-switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical-label switching, MPLS, MPLambdaS, and GMPLS,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(3), 17-31 (2003).

2002 (2)

A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharyya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: existing techniques and new directions,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 32, 161-174 (2002).

D. Rubenstein, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, “The impact of multicast layering on network fairness,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 169-182 (2002).

2001 (3)

L. Xu, H. G. Perros, and G. Rouskas, “Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 136-142 (2001).

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” in IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 144-150 (2001).

M. Yoo, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “Optical burst switching for service differentiation in the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 98-104 (2001).

2000 (1)

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 598-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)--a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Networks 8(1/1999), 69-84 (1999).

1994 (1)

R. Hassin and S. Rubinstein, “Approximations for the maximum acyclic subgraph problem,” Inf. Process. Lett. 51, 133-140 (1994).

1959 (1)

E. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connexion with graphs,” Numerische Matematik 271, 1-269 (1959).

Akella, V.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allalouf, M.

M. Allalouf and Y. Shavitt, “Centralized and distributd approximation algorithms for routing and weighted max-min fair bandwidth allocation,” in 2005 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2005), pp. 306-311.

Applegate, D.

D. Applegate and E. Cohen, “Making intra-domain routing robust to changing and uncertain traffic demands: understanding fundamental tradeoffs,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2003), pp. 313-324.

Awduche, D.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” in IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 144-150 (2001).

Banerjee, A.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” in IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 144-150 (2001).

Banerjee, D.

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 598-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bansal, Y.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Belmonte, A.

F. Ricciato, S. Salsano, A. Belmonte, and M. Listanti, “Off-line configuration of a MPLS over WDM network under time-varying offered traffic,” in Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002), pp. 57-65.

Berger, A.

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, S. Sinha, and A. Berger, “Dynamic load balancing without packet reordering,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 37, 51-62 (2007).

Berger, L.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” in IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 144-150 (2001).

Bernstein, G.

G. Bernstein, B. Rajagopalan, and D. Spears, “OIF UNI 1.0--controlling optical networks,” White paper (Optical Internetworking Forum, 2001).

Bertsekas, D.

D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks (Prentice Hall, 1987).

Bhattacharyya, S.

A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharyya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: existing techniques and new directions,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 32, 161-174 (2002).

Boyer, K.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Callon, R.

E. Rose, A. Viswanathan, and R. Callon, “Multiprotocol label switching architecture, Request for Comments 3031 (Network Working Group, 2001).

Cao, J.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

Z. Cao and E. W. Zegura, “Utility max-min: an application-oriented bandwidth allocation scheme,” in Eighteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 1999), pp. 793-801.

Chan, V.

V. Chan, “Near-term future of the optical network in question?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25(9, Part Supplement), 1-2 (2007).

Chan, V. W. S.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Medard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 84-101 (2007).

V. W. S. Chan, G. Weichenberg, and M. Medard, “Optical flow switching,” in Workshop on Optical Burst Switching (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-8.

Charny, A.

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, B. Davie, and A. Charny, “Walking the tightrope: responsive yet stable traffic engineering,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 253-264.

Cohen, E.

D. Applegate and E. Cohen, “Making intra-domain routing robust to changing and uncertain traffic demands: understanding fundamental tradeoffs,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2003), pp. 313-324.

Davie, B.

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, B. Davie, and A. Charny, “Walking the tightrope: responsive yet stable traffic engineering,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 253-264.

Dijkstra, E.

E. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connexion with graphs,” Numerische Matematik 271, 1-269 (1959).

Diot, C.

A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharyya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: existing techniques and new directions,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 32, 161-174 (2002).

Dixit, S.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, “A unified study of contention-resolution schemes in optical packet-switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Yoo, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “Optical burst switching for service differentiation in the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 98-104 (2001).

Drake, J.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” in IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 144-150 (2001).

Elwalid, A.

A. Elwalid, C. Jin, S. Low, and I. Widjaja, “MATE: MPLS adaptive traffic engineering,” in Twentieth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2001), pp.1300-1309.

Feldmann, A.

S. Fischer, N. Kammenhuber, and A. Feldmann, “REPLEX--dynamic traffic engineering based on Wardrop routing policies,” in ACM CoNEXT (Association for Computing Machinery, 2006), pp. 1-12.

Fischer, S.

S. Fischer, N. Kammenhuber, and A. Feldmann, “REPLEX--dynamic traffic engineering based on Wardrop routing policies,” in ACM CoNEXT (Association for Computing Machinery, 2006), pp. 1-12.

Gallager, R.

D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks (Prentice Hall, 1987).

Goncher, G.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, A.

M. Roughan, A. Greenberg, C. Kalmanek, M. Rumsewicz, J. Yates, and Y. Zhang, “Experience in measuring Internet backbone traffic variability: models, metrics, measurements and meaning,” in International Teletraffic Congress (ITC) (2003), pp. 379-388.

Hassin, R.

R. Hassin and S. Rubinstein, “Approximations for the maximum acyclic subgraph problem,” Inf. Process. Lett. 51, 133-140 (1994).

Hopps, C.

C. Hopps, “Analysis of an equal-cost multi-path algorithm,” Request for Comments 2992 (Network Working Group, 2000).

Jeon, M.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, C.

A. Elwalid, C. Jin, S. Low, and I. Widjaja, “MATE: MPLS adaptive traffic engineering,” in Twentieth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2001), pp.1300-1309.

Kalmanek, C.

M. Roughan, A. Greenberg, C. Kalmanek, M. Rumsewicz, J. Yates, and Y. Zhang, “Experience in measuring Internet backbone traffic variability: models, metrics, measurements and meaning,” in International Teletraffic Congress (ITC) (2003), pp. 379-388.

Kamei, S.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kammenhuber, N.

S. Fischer, N. Kammenhuber, and A. Feldmann, “REPLEX--dynamic traffic engineering based on Wardrop routing policies,” in ACM CoNEXT (Association for Computing Machinery, 2006), pp. 1-12.

Kandula, S.

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, S. Sinha, and A. Berger, “Dynamic load balancing without packet reordering,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 37, 51-62 (2007).

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, B. Davie, and A. Charny, “Walking the tightrope: responsive yet stable traffic engineering,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 253-264.

Karakostas, G.

G. Karakostas, 'Faster approximation schemes for fractional multicommodity flow problems,” in Thirteenth Accnual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Association for Computing Machinery, 2002), pp. 166-173.

Katabi, D.

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, S. Sinha, and A. Berger, “Dynamic load balancing without packet reordering,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 37, 51-62 (2007).

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, B. Davie, and A. Charny, “Walking the tightrope: responsive yet stable traffic engineering,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 253-264.

Kodialam, M.

M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, and S. Sengupta, “Efficient and robust routing of highly variable traffic,” in HotNets III (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 15-21.

M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, J. B. Orlin, and S. Sengupta, “A versatile scheme for routing highly variable traffic in service overlays and IP backbones,” in 25th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-12.

Kompella, K.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” in IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 144-150 (2001).

Kurose, J.

D. Rubenstein, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, “The impact of multicast layering on network fairness,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 169-182 (2002).

Lakshman, T. V.

M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, and S. Sengupta, “Efficient and robust routing of highly variable traffic,” in HotNets III (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 15-21.

M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, J. B. Orlin, and S. Sengupta, “A versatile scheme for routing highly variable traffic in service overlays and IP backbones,” in 25th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-12.

Lang, J.

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” in IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 144-150 (2001).

Le Boudec, J. Y.

B. Radunovic and J. Y. Le Boudec, “A unified framework for max-min and min-max fairness with applications,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 1073-1083 (2007).

Listanti, M.

F. Ricciato, S. Salsano, A. Belmonte, and M. Listanti, “Off-line configuration of a MPLS over WDM network under time-varying offered traffic,” in Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002), pp. 57-65.

Low, S.

A. Elwalid, C. Jin, S. Low, and I. Widjaja, “MATE: MPLS adaptive traffic engineering,” in Twentieth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2001), pp.1300-1309.

Maier, G.

M. Tornatore, G. Maier, and A. Pattavina, “WDM network optimization by ILP based on source formulation,” in Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1813-1821.

McKeown, N.

P. Molinero-Fernandez and N. McKeown, “TCP switching: exposing circuits to IP,” in Hot Interconnects 9 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 43-48.

R. Zhang-Shen and N. McKeown, “Designing a predictable Internet backbone network,” in HotNets III (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004).

Medard, M.

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Medard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 84-101 (2007).

V. W. S. Chan, G. Weichenberg, and M. Medard, “Optical flow switching,” in Workshop on Optical Burst Switching (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-8.

Medina, A.

A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharyya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: existing techniques and new directions,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 32, 161-174 (2002).

Molinero-Fernandez, P.

P. Molinero-Fernandez and N. McKeown, “TCP switching: exposing circuits to IP,” in Hot Interconnects 9 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 43-48.

P. Molinero-Fernandez, “Circuit switching in the Internet,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2003).

Moy, J.

J. Moy, OSPF version 2, March 1994, www.ieft.org/rfc/rfc2328.txt.

Mukherjee, B.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, “A unified study of contention-resolution schemes in optical packet-switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 598-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nady, T.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
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Orlin, J. B.

M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, J. B. Orlin, and S. Sengupta, “A versatile scheme for routing highly variable traffic in service overlays and IP backbones,” in 25th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-12.

Pan, Z.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
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M. Tornatore, G. Maier, and A. Pattavina, “WDM network optimization by ILP based on source formulation,” in Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1813-1821.

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L. Xu, H. G. Perros, and G. Rouskas, “Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 136-142 (2001).

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M. Yoo, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “Optical burst switching for service differentiation in the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 98-104 (2001).

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G. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)--a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Networks 8(1/1999), 69-84 (1999).

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B. Radunovic and J. Y. Le Boudec, “A unified framework for max-min and min-max fairness with applications,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 1073-1083 (2007).

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G. Bernstein, B. Rajagopalan, and D. Spears, “OIF UNI 1.0--controlling optical networks,” White paper (Optical Internetworking Forum, 2001).

Ramakrishnan, A.

B. Ramamurthy and A. Ramakrishnan, “Virtual topology reconfiguration of wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1269-1275.

Ramamurthy, B.

B. Ramamurthy and A. Ramakrishnan, “Virtual topology reconfiguration of wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1269-1275.

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A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” in IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 144-150 (2001).

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F. Ricciato, S. Salsano, A. Belmonte, and M. Listanti, “Off-line configuration of a MPLS over WDM network under time-varying offered traffic,” in Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002), pp. 57-65.

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E. Rose, A. Viswanathan, and R. Callon, “Multiprotocol label switching architecture, Request for Comments 3031 (Network Working Group, 2001).

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M. Roughan, A. Greenberg, C. Kalmanek, M. Rumsewicz, J. Yates, and Y. Zhang, “Experience in measuring Internet backbone traffic variability: models, metrics, measurements and meaning,” in International Teletraffic Congress (ITC) (2003), pp. 379-388.

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L. Xu, H. G. Perros, and G. Rouskas, “Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 136-142 (2001).

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D. Rubenstein, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, “The impact of multicast layering on network fairness,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 169-182 (2002).

Rubinstein, S.

R. Hassin and S. Rubinstein, “Approximations for the maximum acyclic subgraph problem,” Inf. Process. Lett. 51, 133-140 (1994).

Rumsewicz, M.

M. Roughan, A. Greenberg, C. Kalmanek, M. Rumsewicz, J. Yates, and Y. Zhang, “Experience in measuring Internet backbone traffic variability: models, metrics, measurements and meaning,” in International Teletraffic Congress (ITC) (2003), pp. 379-388.

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A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharyya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: existing techniques and new directions,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 32, 161-174 (2002).

Salsano, S.

F. Ricciato, S. Salsano, A. Belmonte, and M. Listanti, “Off-line configuration of a MPLS over WDM network under time-varying offered traffic,” in Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002), pp. 57-65.

Sengupta, S.

M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, and S. Sengupta, “Efficient and robust routing of highly variable traffic,” in HotNets III (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 15-21.

M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, J. B. Orlin, and S. Sengupta, “A versatile scheme for routing highly variable traffic in service overlays and IP backbones,” in 25th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-12.

Shavitt, Y.

M. Allalouf and Y. Shavitt, “Centralized and distributd approximation algorithms for routing and weighted max-min fair bandwidth allocation,” in 2005 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2005), pp. 306-311.

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S. Kandula, D. Katabi, S. Sinha, and A. Berger, “Dynamic load balancing without packet reordering,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 37, 51-62 (2007).

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G. Bernstein, B. Rajagopalan, and D. Spears, “OIF UNI 1.0--controlling optical networks,” White paper (Optical Internetworking Forum, 2001).

Taft, N.

A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharyya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: existing techniques and new directions,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 32, 161-174 (2002).

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S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. Tornatore, G. Maier, and A. Pattavina, “WDM network optimization by ILP based on source formulation,” in Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1813-1821.

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D. Rubenstein, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, “The impact of multicast layering on network fairness,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 169-182 (2002).

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A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” in IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 144-150 (2001).

Viswanathan, A.

E. Rose, A. Viswanathan, and R. Callon, “Multiprotocol label switching architecture, Request for Comments 3031 (Network Working Group, 2001).

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G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Medard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 84-101 (2007).

V. W. S. Chan, G. Weichenberg, and M. Medard, “Optical flow switching,” in Workshop on Optical Burst Switching (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-8.

Widjaja, I.

A. Elwalid, C. Jin, S. Low, and I. Widjaja, “MATE: MPLS adaptive traffic engineering,” in Twentieth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2001), pp.1300-1309.

Xu, L.

L. Xu, H. G. Perros, and G. Rouskas, “Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 136-142 (2001).

Xue, F.

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S.

Yates, J.

M. Roughan, A. Greenberg, C. Kalmanek, M. Rumsewicz, J. Yates, and Y. Zhang, “Experience in measuring Internet backbone traffic variability: models, metrics, measurements and meaning,” in International Teletraffic Congress (ITC) (2003), pp. 379-388.

Yoo, M.

M. Yoo, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “Optical burst switching for service differentiation in the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 98-104 (2001).

G. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)--a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Networks 8(1/1999), 69-84 (1999).

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, and S. Dixit, “A unified study of contention-resolution schemes in optical packet-switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical-label switching, MPLS, MPLambdaS, and GMPLS,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(3), 17-31 (2003).

Zegura, E. W.

Z. Cao and E. W. Zegura, “Utility max-min: an application-oriented bandwidth allocation scheme,” in Eighteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 1999), pp. 793-801.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Abilene traffic matrices, www.cs.utexas.edu/~yzhang/research/AbileneTM.

M. Roughan, A. Greenberg, C. Kalmanek, M. Rumsewicz, J. Yates, and Y. Zhang, “Experience in measuring Internet backbone traffic variability: models, metrics, measurements and meaning,” in International Teletraffic Congress (ITC) (2003), pp. 379-388.

Zhang-Shen, R.

R. Zhang-Shen and N. McKeown, “Designing a predictable Internet backbone network,” in HotNets III (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004).

Comput. Commun. Rev. (2)

A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharyya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: existing techniques and new directions,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 32, 161-174 (2002).

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, S. Sinha, and A. Berger, “Dynamic load balancing without packet reordering,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 37, 51-62 (2007).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

M. Yoo, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “Optical burst switching for service differentiation in the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 98-104 (2001).

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. Lang, B. Turner, D. Awduche, L. Berger, K. Kompella, and Y. Rekhter, “Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques,” in IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 144-150 (2001).

L. Xu, H. G. Perros, and G. Rouskas, “Techniques for optical packet switching and optical burst switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(1), 136-142 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (3)

S. J. B. Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1041-1051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Chan, “Near-term future of the optical network in question?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25(9, Part Supplement), 1-2 (2007).

G. Weichenberg, V. W. S. Chan, and M. Medard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 84-101 (2007).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (3)

D. Rubenstein, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, “The impact of multicast layering on network fairness,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 169-182 (2002).

B. Radunovic and J. Y. Le Boudec, “A unified framework for max-min and min-max fairness with applications,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 1073-1083 (2007).

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 598-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inf. Process. Lett. (1)

R. Hassin and S. Rubinstein, “Approximations for the maximum acyclic subgraph problem,” Inf. Process. Lett. 51, 133-140 (1994).

J. High Speed Networks (1)

G. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)--a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Networks 8(1/1999), 69-84 (1999).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Numerische Matematik (1)

E. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connexion with graphs,” Numerische Matematik 271, 1-269 (1959).

Opt. Networks Mag. (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical-label switching, MPLS, MPLambdaS, and GMPLS,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(3), 17-31 (2003).

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G. Bernstein, B. Rajagopalan, and D. Spears, “OIF UNI 1.0--controlling optical networks,” White paper (Optical Internetworking Forum, 2001).

COPLAR is pronounced the same as the word “copular,” which is the adjective form of the noun “copula,” meaning “something that connects or links together.”

M. Roughan, A. Greenberg, C. Kalmanek, M. Rumsewicz, J. Yates, and Y. Zhang, “Experience in measuring Internet backbone traffic variability: models, metrics, measurements and meaning,” in International Teletraffic Congress (ITC) (2003), pp. 379-388.

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, B. Davie, and A. Charny, “Walking the tightrope: responsive yet stable traffic engineering,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 253-264.

A. Elwalid, C. Jin, S. Low, and I. Widjaja, “MATE: MPLS adaptive traffic engineering,” in Twentieth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2001), pp.1300-1309.

S. Fischer, N. Kammenhuber, and A. Feldmann, “REPLEX--dynamic traffic engineering based on Wardrop routing policies,” in ACM CoNEXT (Association for Computing Machinery, 2006), pp. 1-12.

G. Karakostas, 'Faster approximation schemes for fractional multicommodity flow problems,” in Thirteenth Accnual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Association for Computing Machinery, 2002), pp. 166-173.

M. Allalouf and Y. Shavitt, “Centralized and distributd approximation algorithms for routing and weighted max-min fair bandwidth allocation,” in 2005 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2005), pp. 306-311.

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E. Rose, A. Viswanathan, and R. Callon, “Multiprotocol label switching architecture, Request for Comments 3031 (Network Working Group, 2001).

P. Molinero-Fernandez and N. McKeown, “TCP switching: exposing circuits to IP,” in Hot Interconnects 9 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 43-48.

P. Molinero-Fernandez, “Circuit switching in the Internet,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2003).

R. Zhang-Shen and N. McKeown, “Designing a predictable Internet backbone network,” in HotNets III (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004).

M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, and S. Sengupta, “Efficient and robust routing of highly variable traffic,” in HotNets III (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 15-21.

M. Kodialam, T. V. Lakshman, J. B. Orlin, and S. Sengupta, “A versatile scheme for routing highly variable traffic in service overlays and IP backbones,” in 25th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-12.

V. W. S. Chan, G. Weichenberg, and M. Medard, “Optical flow switching,” in Workshop on Optical Burst Switching (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-8.

B. Ramamurthy and A. Ramakrishnan, “Virtual topology reconfiguration of wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1269-1275.

M. Tornatore, G. Maier, and A. Pattavina, “WDM network optimization by ILP based on source formulation,” in Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1813-1821.

F. Ricciato, S. Salsano, A. Belmonte, and M. Listanti, “Off-line configuration of a MPLS over WDM network under time-varying offered traffic,” in Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 2002), pp. 57-65.

D. Applegate and E. Cohen, “Making intra-domain routing robust to changing and uncertain traffic demands: understanding fundamental tradeoffs,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2003), pp. 313-324.

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Z. Cao and E. W. Zegura, “Utility max-min: an application-oriented bandwidth allocation scheme,” in Eighteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 1999), pp. 793-801.

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TOTEM, a toolbox for traffic engineering methods, February 2005, http://totem.info.ucl.ac.be.

Y. Zhang, Abilene traffic matrices, www.cs.utexas.edu/~yzhang/research/AbileneTM.

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