Abstract

The emerging vehicular applications such as active safety, infotainment, interactive games, and Internet access might dictate very high reliability and availability in future radio over fiber (RoF) networks. We provide guidelines for network architecture and topology selection in future RoF networks in terms of network availability, reliability, and fiber length. We present a comparative analysis of network topologies for RoF networks. In particular, we present results that compare different toplogies such as star, ring, bus, multilevel stars, multilevel rings, multilevel buses, hybrid multilevel star-rings, hybrid multilevel ring-stars, and hybrid multilevel ring-buses in terms of availability, reliability, and fiber length requirements of networks. Protection is also considered and results on the protected versions of the aforementioned topologies are also presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, V. Sadekar, and O. Tonguz, “Routing in sparse vehicular ad hoc wireless networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 1538-1556 (2007).
  2. N. Wisitpongphan, O. Tonguz, J. Parikh, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcast storm mitigation techniques in vehicular ad hoc networks,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Mag. 14(6), 84-94 (2007).
  3. O. Tonguz, N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcasting in VANET,” in 2007 Mobile Networking for Vehicular Environments (IEEE, 2007), pp. 7-12.
  4. B. Masella and X. Zhang, “A novel single wavelength balanced system for radio over fiber links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 301-303 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T.-S. Cho and K. Kim, “Effect of third-order intermodulation on radio-over-fiber systems by a dual-electrode Mach Zehnder modulator with ODSB and OSSB signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2052-2058 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, and S. Banba, “Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 2285-2293 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Braun, G. Grosskopf, D. Rohde, and F. Schmidt, “Low-phase-noise millimeter-wave generation at 64GHz and data transmission using optical sideband injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 728-730 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. K. Tonguz and H. Jung, “Personal communications access networks using subcarrier multiplexed optical links,” Joint Special Issue of J. Lightwave Technol. and IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. on Multiwavelength Optical Technology and Networks 14, 1400-1409 (1996).
  9. H. Jung and O. K. Tonguz, “Coax/fiber hybrid access network for microcellular personal communication systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E79-B, 932-938 (1996).
  10. K. Kitayama, A. Stohr, T. Kuri, R. Heinzelmann, D. Jaager, and Y. Takahashi, “An approach to single optical component antenna base stations for broad-band millimeter-wave fiber-radio access systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 2588-2594 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, “A millimeter-wave full-duplex fiber-radio star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. H. Smith and D. Novak, “Broadband millimeter-wave fiber-radio network incorporating remote up/downconversion,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 3, pp. 1509-1512.
  13. K. Kitayama and R. A. Grifin, “Optical downconversion from millimeter-wave to IF-band over 50-km-long optical fiber link using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 287-289 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U. Gliese, S. Norskow, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Castañón, “Preferred WDM packet switched router architecture and method for generating the same,” U.S. patent 6,810,211 (26 October 2004).
  16. O. K. Tonguz and K. A. Falcone, “Fiber-optic interconnection of local area networks: physical limitations of topologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1040-1052 (1993).
  17. O. K. Tonguz and K. A. Falcone, “Cost function considerations in hierarchical growth of lightwave networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 306-308 (1994).
  18. S. Hariri and C. S. Raghavendra, “SYREL: a symbolic reliability algorithm based on path and cutset methods,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-36, 1224-1232 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. S. Raghavendra, V. K. Prasanna Kumar, and S. Hariri, “Reliability analysis in distributed systems,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 37, 352-358 (1988).
  20. N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K.-I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation. Design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. Nagatsu, A. Watanabe, S. Okamoto, and K.-I. Sato, “Architectural analysis of multiple fiber ring networks employing optical paths,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1794-1804 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. A. A. Mello, D. A. Schupke, and H. Waldman, “A matrix-based analytical approach to connection unavailability estimation in shared backup path protection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 844-846 (2005).
  23. D. A. A. Mello, D. A. Schupket, M. Scheffelt, and H. Waldman, “Availability maps for connections in WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 77-84.

2007 (2)

N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, V. Sadekar, and O. Tonguz, “Routing in sparse vehicular ad hoc wireless networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 1538-1556 (2007).

N. Wisitpongphan, O. Tonguz, J. Parikh, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcast storm mitigation techniques in vehicular ad hoc networks,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Mag. 14(6), 84-94 (2007).

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

D. A. A. Mello, D. A. Schupke, and H. Waldman, “A matrix-based analytical approach to connection unavailability estimation in shared backup path protection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 844-846 (2005).

2000 (1)

K. Kitayama, A. Stohr, T. Kuri, R. Heinzelmann, D. Jaager, and Y. Takahashi, “An approach to single optical component antenna base stations for broad-band millimeter-wave fiber-radio access systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 2588-2594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Kitayama and R. A. Grifin, “Optical downconversion from millimeter-wave to IF-band over 50-km-long optical fiber link using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 287-289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, “A millimeter-wave full-duplex fiber-radio star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Braun, G. Grosskopf, D. Rohde, and F. Schmidt, “Low-phase-noise millimeter-wave generation at 64GHz and data transmission using optical sideband injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 728-730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

N. Nagatsu, A. Watanabe, S. Okamoto, and K.-I. Sato, “Architectural analysis of multiple fiber ring networks employing optical paths,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1794-1804 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K.-I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation. Design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Gliese, S. Norskow, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. K. Tonguz and H. Jung, “Personal communications access networks using subcarrier multiplexed optical links,” Joint Special Issue of J. Lightwave Technol. and IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. on Multiwavelength Optical Technology and Networks 14, 1400-1409 (1996).

H. Jung and O. K. Tonguz, “Coax/fiber hybrid access network for microcellular personal communication systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E79-B, 932-938 (1996).

1994 (1)

O. K. Tonguz and K. A. Falcone, “Cost function considerations in hierarchical growth of lightwave networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 306-308 (1994).

1993 (1)

O. K. Tonguz and K. A. Falcone, “Fiber-optic interconnection of local area networks: physical limitations of topologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1040-1052 (1993).

1992 (1)

H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, and S. Banba, “Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 2285-2293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. S. Raghavendra, V. K. Prasanna Kumar, and S. Hariri, “Reliability analysis in distributed systems,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 37, 352-358 (1988).

1987 (1)

S. Hariri and C. S. Raghavendra, “SYREL: a symbolic reliability algorithm based on path and cutset methods,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-36, 1224-1232 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bai, F.

N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, V. Sadekar, and O. Tonguz, “Routing in sparse vehicular ad hoc wireless networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 1538-1556 (2007).

N. Wisitpongphan, O. Tonguz, J. Parikh, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcast storm mitigation techniques in vehicular ad hoc networks,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Mag. 14(6), 84-94 (2007).

O. Tonguz, N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcasting in VANET,” in 2007 Mobile Networking for Vehicular Environments (IEEE, 2007), pp. 7-12.

Banba, S.

H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, and S. Banba, “Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 2285-2293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Braun, R.

R. Braun, G. Grosskopf, D. Rohde, and F. Schmidt, “Low-phase-noise millimeter-wave generation at 64GHz and data transmission using optical sideband injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 728-730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Castañón, G.

G. Castañón, “Preferred WDM packet switched router architecture and method for generating the same,” U.S. patent 6,810,211 (26 October 2004).

Cho, T.-S.

Falcone, K. A.

O. K. Tonguz and K. A. Falcone, “Cost function considerations in hierarchical growth of lightwave networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 306-308 (1994).

O. K. Tonguz and K. A. Falcone, “Fiber-optic interconnection of local area networks: physical limitations of topologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1040-1052 (1993).

Gliese, U.

U. Gliese, S. Norskow, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grifin, R. A.

K. Kitayama and R. A. Grifin, “Optical downconversion from millimeter-wave to IF-band over 50-km-long optical fiber link using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 287-289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grosskopf, G.

R. Braun, G. Grosskopf, D. Rohde, and F. Schmidt, “Low-phase-noise millimeter-wave generation at 64GHz and data transmission using optical sideband injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 728-730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hariri, S.

C. S. Raghavendra, V. K. Prasanna Kumar, and S. Hariri, “Reliability analysis in distributed systems,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 37, 352-358 (1988).

S. Hariri and C. S. Raghavendra, “SYREL: a symbolic reliability algorithm based on path and cutset methods,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-36, 1224-1232 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Heinzelmann, R.

K. Kitayama, A. Stohr, T. Kuri, R. Heinzelmann, D. Jaager, and Y. Takahashi, “An approach to single optical component antenna base stations for broad-band millimeter-wave fiber-radio access systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 2588-2594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaager, D.

K. Kitayama, A. Stohr, T. Kuri, R. Heinzelmann, D. Jaager, and Y. Takahashi, “An approach to single optical component antenna base stations for broad-band millimeter-wave fiber-radio access systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 2588-2594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H.

O. K. Tonguz and H. Jung, “Personal communications access networks using subcarrier multiplexed optical links,” Joint Special Issue of J. Lightwave Technol. and IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. on Multiwavelength Optical Technology and Networks 14, 1400-1409 (1996).

H. Jung and O. K. Tonguz, “Coax/fiber hybrid access network for microcellular personal communication systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E79-B, 932-938 (1996).

Kim, K.

Kitayama, K.

K. Kitayama, A. Stohr, T. Kuri, R. Heinzelmann, D. Jaager, and Y. Takahashi, “An approach to single optical component antenna base stations for broad-band millimeter-wave fiber-radio access systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 2588-2594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitayama and R. A. Grifin, “Optical downconversion from millimeter-wave to IF-band over 50-km-long optical fiber link using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 287-289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuri, T.

K. Kitayama, A. Stohr, T. Kuri, R. Heinzelmann, D. Jaager, and Y. Takahashi, “An approach to single optical component antenna base stations for broad-band millimeter-wave fiber-radio access systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 2588-2594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, “A millimeter-wave full-duplex fiber-radio star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Masella, B.

Mello, D. A. A.

D. A. A. Mello, D. A. Schupke, and H. Waldman, “A matrix-based analytical approach to connection unavailability estimation in shared backup path protection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 844-846 (2005).

D. A. A. Mello, D. A. Schupket, M. Scheffelt, and H. Waldman, “Availability maps for connections in WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 77-84.

Mudalige, P.

N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, V. Sadekar, and O. Tonguz, “Routing in sparse vehicular ad hoc wireless networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 1538-1556 (2007).

N. Wisitpongphan, O. Tonguz, J. Parikh, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcast storm mitigation techniques in vehicular ad hoc networks,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Mag. 14(6), 84-94 (2007).

O. Tonguz, N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcasting in VANET,” in 2007 Mobile Networking for Vehicular Environments (IEEE, 2007), pp. 7-12.

Nagatsu, N.

N. Nagatsu, A. Watanabe, S. Okamoto, and K.-I. Sato, “Architectural analysis of multiple fiber ring networks employing optical paths,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1794-1804 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K.-I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation. Design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, T. N.

U. Gliese, S. Norskow, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Norskow, S.

U. Gliese, S. Norskow, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, “A millimeter-wave full-duplex fiber-radio star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Smith and D. Novak, “Broadband millimeter-wave fiber-radio network incorporating remote up/downconversion,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 3, pp. 1509-1512.

Ogawa, H.

H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, and S. Banba, “Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 2285-2293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, S.

N. Nagatsu, A. Watanabe, S. Okamoto, and K.-I. Sato, “Architectural analysis of multiple fiber ring networks employing optical paths,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1794-1804 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K.-I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation. Design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Parikh, J.

N. Wisitpongphan, O. Tonguz, J. Parikh, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcast storm mitigation techniques in vehicular ad hoc networks,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Mag. 14(6), 84-94 (2007).

Polifko, D.

H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, and S. Banba, “Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 2285-2293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Prasanna Kumar, V. K.

C. S. Raghavendra, V. K. Prasanna Kumar, and S. Hariri, “Reliability analysis in distributed systems,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 37, 352-358 (1988).

Raghavendra, C. S.

C. S. Raghavendra, V. K. Prasanna Kumar, and S. Hariri, “Reliability analysis in distributed systems,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 37, 352-358 (1988).

S. Hariri and C. S. Raghavendra, “SYREL: a symbolic reliability algorithm based on path and cutset methods,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-36, 1224-1232 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rohde, D.

R. Braun, G. Grosskopf, D. Rohde, and F. Schmidt, “Low-phase-noise millimeter-wave generation at 64GHz and data transmission using optical sideband injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 728-730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sadekar, V.

N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, V. Sadekar, and O. Tonguz, “Routing in sparse vehicular ad hoc wireless networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 1538-1556 (2007).

N. Wisitpongphan, O. Tonguz, J. Parikh, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcast storm mitigation techniques in vehicular ad hoc networks,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Mag. 14(6), 84-94 (2007).

O. Tonguz, N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcasting in VANET,” in 2007 Mobile Networking for Vehicular Environments (IEEE, 2007), pp. 7-12.

Sato, K.-I.

N. Nagatsu, A. Watanabe, S. Okamoto, and K.-I. Sato, “Architectural analysis of multiple fiber ring networks employing optical paths,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1794-1804 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K.-I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation. Design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scheffelt, M.

D. A. A. Mello, D. A. Schupket, M. Scheffelt, and H. Waldman, “Availability maps for connections in WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 77-84.

Schmidt, F.

R. Braun, G. Grosskopf, D. Rohde, and F. Schmidt, “Low-phase-noise millimeter-wave generation at 64GHz and data transmission using optical sideband injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 728-730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schupke, D. A.

D. A. A. Mello, D. A. Schupke, and H. Waldman, “A matrix-based analytical approach to connection unavailability estimation in shared backup path protection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 844-846 (2005).

Schupket, D. A.

D. A. A. Mello, D. A. Schupket, M. Scheffelt, and H. Waldman, “Availability maps for connections in WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 77-84.

Smith, G. H.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, “A millimeter-wave full-duplex fiber-radio star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Smith and D. Novak, “Broadband millimeter-wave fiber-radio network incorporating remote up/downconversion,” in IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (IEEE, 1998), Vol. 3, pp. 1509-1512.

Stohr, A.

K. Kitayama, A. Stohr, T. Kuri, R. Heinzelmann, D. Jaager, and Y. Takahashi, “An approach to single optical component antenna base stations for broad-band millimeter-wave fiber-radio access systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 2588-2594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

K. Kitayama, A. Stohr, T. Kuri, R. Heinzelmann, D. Jaager, and Y. Takahashi, “An approach to single optical component antenna base stations for broad-band millimeter-wave fiber-radio access systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 2588-2594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tonguz, O.

N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, V. Sadekar, and O. Tonguz, “Routing in sparse vehicular ad hoc wireless networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 1538-1556 (2007).

N. Wisitpongphan, O. Tonguz, J. Parikh, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcast storm mitigation techniques in vehicular ad hoc networks,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Mag. 14(6), 84-94 (2007).

O. Tonguz, N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcasting in VANET,” in 2007 Mobile Networking for Vehicular Environments (IEEE, 2007), pp. 7-12.

Tonguz, O. K.

O. K. Tonguz and H. Jung, “Personal communications access networks using subcarrier multiplexed optical links,” Joint Special Issue of J. Lightwave Technol. and IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. on Multiwavelength Optical Technology and Networks 14, 1400-1409 (1996).

H. Jung and O. K. Tonguz, “Coax/fiber hybrid access network for microcellular personal communication systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E79-B, 932-938 (1996).

O. K. Tonguz and K. A. Falcone, “Cost function considerations in hierarchical growth of lightwave networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 306-308 (1994).

O. K. Tonguz and K. A. Falcone, “Fiber-optic interconnection of local area networks: physical limitations of topologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1040-1052 (1993).

Waldman, H.

D. A. A. Mello, D. A. Schupke, and H. Waldman, “A matrix-based analytical approach to connection unavailability estimation in shared backup path protection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 844-846 (2005).

D. A. A. Mello, D. A. Schupket, M. Scheffelt, and H. Waldman, “Availability maps for connections in WDM optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 77-84.

Watanabe, A.

N. Nagatsu, A. Watanabe, S. Okamoto, and K.-I. Sato, “Architectural analysis of multiple fiber ring networks employing optical paths,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1794-1804 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wisitpongphan, N.

N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, V. Sadekar, and O. Tonguz, “Routing in sparse vehicular ad hoc wireless networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 1538-1556 (2007).

N. Wisitpongphan, O. Tonguz, J. Parikh, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcast storm mitigation techniques in vehicular ad hoc networks,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Mag. 14(6), 84-94 (2007).

O. Tonguz, N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “Broadcasting in VANET,” in 2007 Mobile Networking for Vehicular Environments (IEEE, 2007), pp. 7-12.

Zhang, X.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

N. Wisitpongphan, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, V. Sadekar, and O. Tonguz, “Routing in sparse vehicular ad hoc wireless networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 1538-1556 (2007).

N. Nagatsu, S. Okamoto, and K.-I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect system scale evaluation using path accommodation. Design for restricted wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 893-902 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

D. A. A. Mello, D. A. Schupke, and H. Waldman, “A matrix-based analytical approach to connection unavailability estimation in shared backup path protection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 844-846 (2005).

R. Braun, G. Grosskopf, D. Rohde, and F. Schmidt, “Low-phase-noise millimeter-wave generation at 64GHz and data transmission using optical sideband injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 728-730 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, “A millimeter-wave full-duplex fiber-radio star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitayama and R. A. Grifin, “Optical downconversion from millimeter-wave to IF-band over 50-km-long optical fiber link using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 287-289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. K. Tonguz and K. A. Falcone, “Cost function considerations in hierarchical growth of lightwave networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 306-308 (1994).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (2)

S. Hariri and C. S. Raghavendra, “SYREL: a symbolic reliability algorithm based on path and cutset methods,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-36, 1224-1232 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Raghavendra, V. K. Prasanna Kumar, and S. Hariri, “Reliability analysis in distributed systems,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 37, 352-358 (1988).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (3)

K. Kitayama, A. Stohr, T. Kuri, R. Heinzelmann, D. Jaager, and Y. Takahashi, “An approach to single optical component antenna base stations for broad-band millimeter-wave fiber-radio access systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 2588-2594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Gliese, S. Norskow, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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