Abstract

We consider the problem of maximizing the reliability of connections in optical mesh networks against simultaneous failures of multiple fiber links that belong to a shared-risk link group (SRLG). We study the single-lightpath, parallel-lightpaths, and lightpath protection problems for connections between two end nodes, as well as the lightpath-ring problems for connections of three or more end nodes. We first study the special problems where all SRLGs have the same failure probability. In these problems, every SRLG is represented by a distinct color and every fiber link is associated with one or more colors, depending on the SRLGs to which the link belongs. We formulate the problems as minimum-color lightpath problems. By minimizing the number of colors on the lightpaths, the failure probability of the lightpaths can be minimized. We prove the problems to be NP-hard. We then extend the results to the general problems where the failure probabilities of the SRLGs may differ. Heuristic algorithms are proposed for larger instances of the problems, and the heuristics are evaluated through simulations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  2. R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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  6. O. Gerstel, “Opportunities for optical protection and restoration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper ThD1.
  7. T. Wu, Fiber Network Survivability, 1st ed. (Artech House, 1992).
  8. S. Yuan and J. P. Jue, “Shared protection routing algorithm for optical network,” Optical Networks Mag. 3(3), 32-39 (2002).
  9. S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 870-883 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, and R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 81-87 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Hjalmtysson, and A. Greenberg, “Auto-discovery of shared risk link groups,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WDD3.
  12. S. Yuan and J. P. Jue, “Dynamic path protection in WDM mesh networks under risk disjoint constraint,” in Proceedings of IEEE Globecom (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1770-1774.
  13. D. S. Turaga, M. van der Schaar, and K. Ratakonda, “Enterprise multimedia streaming: issues, background and new developments,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 956-961.
  14. M. Al-Hames and G. Rigoll, “A multi-modal mixed-state dynamic Bayesian network for robust meeting event recognition from distributed data,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 45-48.
  15. Y. Ishibashi and H. Kaneoka, “Fairness among game players in network haptic environments: influence of network latency,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 57-60.
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  19. M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-hardness, 1st ed. (W. H. Freeman Company, 1979).
  20. T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, R. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd ed. (McGraw Hill, 2001).
  21. J. W. Suurballe and R. E. Tarjan, “A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths,” Networks 14, 325-336 (1984).
  22. R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing, 1st ed. (Springer, 1999).
  23. R. Chang and S. Leu, “The minimum labeling spanning trees,” Inf. Process. Lett. 63, 277-282 (1997).
  24. S. Krumke and H. Wirth, “On the minimum label spanning tree problem,” Inf. Process. Lett. 66, 81-85 (1998).
  25. Y. Wan, G. Chen, and Y. Xu, “A note on the minimum label spanning tree,” Inf. Process. Lett. 84, 99-101 (2002).
  26. G. Ellinas, E. Bouillet, R. Ramamurthy, J. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, and K. Bala, “Routing and restoration architectures in mesh optical networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(1), 91-106 (2003).
  27. D. A. Dunn, W. D. Grover, and M. H. MacGregor, “Comparison of k-shortest paths and maximum flow routing for network facility restoration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 88-99 (1994).
  28. G. Li, B. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “Fiber span failure protection in mesh optical networks,” Proc. SPIE 4599, 130-141 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Algorithmic Solutions Software GmbH, http://www.algorithmic-solutions.com/leda/index.htm.
  30. ILOG Inc.http://www.ilog.com/products/cplex.
  31. D. S. Johnson, “Approximation algorithms for combinatorial problems,” J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 9, 256-278 (1974).

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (4)

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 870-883 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Lecrec, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, “Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2779-2790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Fortnow and S. Homer, “A short history of computational complexity,” Bull. Eur. Assoc. Theor. Comput. Sci. 80, 95-133 (2003).

G. Ellinas, E. Bouillet, R. Ramamurthy, J. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, and K. Bala, “Routing and restoration architectures in mesh optical networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(1), 91-106 (2003).

2002 (2)

S. Yuan and J. P. Jue, “Shared protection routing algorithm for optical network,” Optical Networks Mag. 3(3), 32-39 (2002).

Y. Wan, G. Chen, and Y. Xu, “A note on the minimum label spanning tree,” Inf. Process. Lett. 84, 99-101 (2002).

2001 (2)

J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, and R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 81-87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, B. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “Fiber span failure protection in mesh optical networks,” Proc. SPIE 4599, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Krumke and H. Wirth, “On the minimum label spanning tree problem,” Inf. Process. Lett. 66, 81-85 (1998).

1997 (1)

R. Chang and S. Leu, “The minimum labeling spanning trees,” Inf. Process. Lett. 63, 277-282 (1997).

1994 (1)

D. A. Dunn, W. D. Grover, and M. H. MacGregor, “Comparison of k-shortest paths and maximum flow routing for network facility restoration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 88-99 (1994).

1984 (1)

J. W. Suurballe and R. E. Tarjan, “A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths,” Networks 14, 325-336 (1984).

1974 (1)

D. S. Johnson, “Approximation algorithms for combinatorial problems,” J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 9, 256-278 (1974).

Al-Hames, M.

M. Al-Hames and G. Rigoll, “A multi-modal mixed-state dynamic Bayesian network for robust meeting event recognition from distributed data,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 45-48.

Bala, K.

G. Ellinas, E. Bouillet, R. Ramamurthy, J. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, and K. Bala, “Routing and restoration architectures in mesh optical networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(1), 91-106 (2003).

Balmefrezol, E.

Bhandari, R.

R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing, 1st ed. (Springer, 1999).

Bouillet, E.

G. Ellinas, E. Bouillet, R. Ramamurthy, J. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, and K. Bala, “Routing and restoration architectures in mesh optical networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(1), 91-106 (2003).

Brindel, P.

Chang, R.

R. Chang and S. Leu, “The minimum labeling spanning trees,” Inf. Process. Lett. 63, 277-282 (1997).

Chaudhuri, S.

G. Ellinas, E. Bouillet, R. Ramamurthy, J. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, and K. Bala, “Routing and restoration architectures in mesh optical networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(1), 91-106 (2003).

Chen, G.

Y. Wan, G. Chen, and Y. Xu, “A note on the minimum label spanning tree,” Inf. Process. Lett. 84, 99-101 (2002).

Chiu, A. L.

J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, and R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 81-87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cormen, T.

T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, R. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd ed. (McGraw Hill, 2001).

Doverspike, B.

G. Li, B. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “Fiber span failure protection in mesh optical networks,” Proc. SPIE 4599, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, D. A.

D. A. Dunn, W. D. Grover, and M. H. MacGregor, “Comparison of k-shortest paths and maximum flow routing for network facility restoration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 88-99 (1994).

Ellinas, G.

G. Ellinas, E. Bouillet, R. Ramamurthy, J. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, and K. Bala, “Routing and restoration architectures in mesh optical networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(1), 91-106 (2003).

Fortnow, L.

L. Fortnow and S. Homer, “A short history of computational complexity,” Bull. Eur. Assoc. Theor. Comput. Sci. 80, 95-133 (2003).

Garey, M. R.

M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-hardness, 1st ed. (W. H. Freeman Company, 1979).

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, “Opportunities for optical protection and restoration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper ThD1.

Greenberg, A.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Hjalmtysson, and A. Greenberg, “Auto-discovery of shared risk link groups,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WDD3.

Grover, W. D.

D. A. Dunn, W. D. Grover, and M. H. MacGregor, “Comparison of k-shortest paths and maximum flow routing for network facility restoration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 88-99 (1994).

Hamalainen, T.

K. Kaario, P. Raatikainen, M. Paakkonen, and T. Hamalainen, “A lightpath allocation scheme for WDM networks with QoS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Computers and Communication (IEEE, 2003), pp. 684-689.

Hjalmtysson, G.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Hjalmtysson, and A. Greenberg, “Auto-discovery of shared risk link groups,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WDD3.

Homer, S.

L. Fortnow and S. Homer, “A short history of computational complexity,” Bull. Eur. Assoc. Theor. Comput. Sci. 80, 95-133 (2003).

Ishibashi, Y.

Y. Ishibashi and H. Kaneoka, “Fairness among game players in network haptic environments: influence of network latency,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 57-60.

Johnson, D. S.

D. S. Johnson, “Approximation algorithms for combinatorial problems,” J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 9, 256-278 (1974).

M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-hardness, 1st ed. (W. H. Freeman Company, 1979).

Jue, J. P.

S. Yuan and J. P. Jue, “Shared protection routing algorithm for optical network,” Optical Networks Mag. 3(3), 32-39 (2002).

S. Yuan and J. P. Jue, “Dynamic path protection in WDM mesh networks under risk disjoint constraint,” in Proceedings of IEEE Globecom (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1770-1774.

Kaario, K.

K. Kaario, P. Raatikainen, M. Paakkonen, and T. Hamalainen, “A lightpath allocation scheme for WDM networks with QoS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Computers and Communication (IEEE, 2003), pp. 684-689.

Kalmanek, C.

G. Li, B. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “Fiber span failure protection in mesh optical networks,” Proc. SPIE 4599, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaneoka, H.

Y. Ishibashi and H. Kaneoka, “Fairness among game players in network haptic environments: influence of network latency,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 57-60.

Klonidis, D.

Krumke, S.

S. Krumke and H. Wirth, “On the minimum label spanning tree problem,” Inf. Process. Lett. 66, 81-85 (1998).

Labourdette, J.

G. Ellinas, E. Bouillet, R. Ramamurthy, J. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, and K. Bala, “Routing and restoration architectures in mesh optical networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(1), 91-106 (2003).

Lavigne, B.

Lecrec, O.

Leiserson, C.

T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, R. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd ed. (McGraw Hill, 2001).

Leu, S.

R. Chang and S. Leu, “The minimum labeling spanning trees,” Inf. Process. Lett. 63, 277-282 (1997).

Li, G.

G. Li, B. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “Fiber span failure protection in mesh optical networks,” Proc. SPIE 4599, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. J.

MacGregor, M. H.

D. A. Dunn, W. D. Grover, and M. H. MacGregor, “Comparison of k-shortest paths and maximum flow routing for network facility restoration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 88-99 (1994).

Mukherjee, B.

Nederlof, L.

Nejabati, R.

O'Mahony, M. J.

Paakkonen, M.

K. Kaario, P. Raatikainen, M. Paakkonen, and T. Hamalainen, “A lightpath allocation scheme for WDM networks with QoS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Computers and Communication (IEEE, 2003), pp. 684-689.

Pierre, L.

Politi, C.

Raatikainen, P.

K. Kaario, P. Raatikainen, M. Paakkonen, and T. Hamalainen, “A lightpath allocation scheme for WDM networks with QoS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Computers and Communication (IEEE, 2003), pp. 684-689.

Ramamurthy, R.

G. Ellinas, E. Bouillet, R. Ramamurthy, J. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, and K. Bala, “Routing and restoration architectures in mesh optical networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(1), 91-106 (2003).

Ramamurthy, S.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 2001).

Ratakonda, K.

D. S. Turaga, M. van der Schaar, and K. Ratakonda, “Enterprise multimedia streaming: issues, background and new developments,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 956-961.

Rigoll, G.

M. Al-Hames and G. Rigoll, “A multi-modal mixed-state dynamic Bayesian network for robust meeting event recognition from distributed data,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 45-48.

Rivest, R.

T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, R. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd ed. (McGraw Hill, 2001).

Rouvillain, D.

Sebos, P.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Hjalmtysson, and A. Greenberg, “Auto-discovery of shared risk link groups,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WDD3.

Seguineau, F.

Simeonidou, D.

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 2001).

Soulliere, M. J.

Stein, C.

T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, R. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd ed. (McGraw Hill, 2001).

Strand, J.

J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, and R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 81-87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suurballe, J. W.

J. W. Suurballe and R. E. Tarjan, “A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths,” Networks 14, 325-336 (1984).

Tarjan, R. E.

J. W. Suurballe and R. E. Tarjan, “A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths,” Networks 14, 325-336 (1984).

Tebben, D. J.

Tkach, R.

J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, and R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 81-87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Turaga, D. S.

D. S. Turaga, M. van der Schaar, and K. Ratakonda, “Enterprise multimedia streaming: issues, background and new developments,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 956-961.

van der Schaar, M.

D. S. Turaga, M. van der Schaar, and K. Ratakonda, “Enterprise multimedia streaming: issues, background and new developments,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 956-961.

Vaughn, M. D.

Wagner, R. E.

Wan, Y.

Y. Wan, G. Chen, and Y. Xu, “A note on the minimum label spanning tree,” Inf. Process. Lett. 84, 99-101 (2002).

Wirth, H.

S. Krumke and H. Wirth, “On the minimum label spanning tree problem,” Inf. Process. Lett. 66, 81-85 (1998).

Wu, T.

T. Wu, Fiber Network Survivability, 1st ed. (Artech House, 1992).

Xu, Y.

Y. Wan, G. Chen, and Y. Xu, “A note on the minimum label spanning tree,” Inf. Process. Lett. 84, 99-101 (2002).

Yang, O.

H. Zhang and O. Yang, “Finding protection cycles in DWDM networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), pp. 2756-2760.

Yates, J.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Hjalmtysson, and A. Greenberg, “Auto-discovery of shared risk link groups,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WDD3.

Yuan, S.

S. Yuan and J. P. Jue, “Shared protection routing algorithm for optical network,” Optical Networks Mag. 3(3), 32-39 (2002).

S. Yuan and J. P. Jue, “Dynamic path protection in WDM mesh networks under risk disjoint constraint,” in Proceedings of IEEE Globecom (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1770-1774.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang and O. Yang, “Finding protection cycles in DWDM networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), pp. 2756-2760.

Bull. Eur. Assoc. Theor. Comput. Sci. (1)

L. Fortnow and S. Homer, “A short history of computational complexity,” Bull. Eur. Assoc. Theor. Comput. Sci. 80, 95-133 (2003).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, and R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 81-87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

D. A. Dunn, W. D. Grover, and M. H. MacGregor, “Comparison of k-shortest paths and maximum flow routing for network facility restoration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 12, 88-99 (1994).

Inf. Process. Lett. (3)

R. Chang and S. Leu, “The minimum labeling spanning trees,” Inf. Process. Lett. 63, 277-282 (1997).

S. Krumke and H. Wirth, “On the minimum label spanning tree problem,” Inf. Process. Lett. 66, 81-85 (1998).

Y. Wan, G. Chen, and Y. Xu, “A note on the minimum label spanning tree,” Inf. Process. Lett. 84, 99-101 (2002).

J. Comput. Syst. Sci. (1)

D. S. Johnson, “Approximation algorithms for combinatorial problems,” J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 9, 256-278 (1974).

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Networks (1)

J. W. Suurballe and R. E. Tarjan, “A quick method for finding shortest pairs of disjoint paths,” Networks 14, 325-336 (1984).

Opt. Networks Mag. (1)

G. Ellinas, E. Bouillet, R. Ramamurthy, J. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, and K. Bala, “Routing and restoration architectures in mesh optical networks,” Opt. Networks Mag. 4(1), 91-106 (2003).

Optical Networks Mag. (1)

S. Yuan and J. P. Jue, “Shared protection routing algorithm for optical network,” Optical Networks Mag. 3(3), 32-39 (2002).

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Li, B. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “Fiber span failure protection in mesh optical networks,” Proc. SPIE 4599, 130-141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

Algorithmic Solutions Software GmbH, http://www.algorithmic-solutions.com/leda/index.htm.

ILOG Inc.http://www.ilog.com/products/cplex.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Hjalmtysson, and A. Greenberg, “Auto-discovery of shared risk link groups,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2001 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WDD3.

S. Yuan and J. P. Jue, “Dynamic path protection in WDM mesh networks under risk disjoint constraint,” in Proceedings of IEEE Globecom (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1770-1774.

D. S. Turaga, M. van der Schaar, and K. Ratakonda, “Enterprise multimedia streaming: issues, background and new developments,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 956-961.

M. Al-Hames and G. Rigoll, “A multi-modal mixed-state dynamic Bayesian network for robust meeting event recognition from distributed data,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 45-48.

Y. Ishibashi and H. Kaneoka, “Fairness among game players in network haptic environments: influence of network latency,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (IEEE, 2005), pp. 57-60.

H. Zhang and O. Yang, “Finding protection cycles in DWDM networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2002), pp. 2756-2760.

M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-hardness, 1st ed. (W. H. Freeman Company, 1979).

T. Cormen, C. Leiserson, R. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd ed. (McGraw Hill, 2001).

K. Kaario, P. Raatikainen, M. Paakkonen, and T. Hamalainen, “A lightpath allocation scheme for WDM networks with QoS,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Computers and Communication (IEEE, 2003), pp. 684-689.

O. Gerstel, “Opportunities for optical protection and restoration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), paper ThD1.

T. Wu, Fiber Network Survivability, 1st ed. (Artech House, 1992).

R. Bhandari, Survivable Networks: Algorithms for Diverse Routing, 1st ed. (Springer, 1999).

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks, 1st ed. (McGraw Hill, 1997).

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, 2001).

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