Abstract

We propose a method for the topology design of free-space optical (FSO) mesh networks in order to enhance network reliability under a defined degree constraint of each FSO node. The methodology presented enlarges the minimum angle between adjacent links at each node. Simulation results show that, compared to other methods, the proposed algorithm not only provides a higher connectivity and lower delay for FSO networks but also makes the constructed FSO networks more tolerant in a dynamic environment.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  2. Z. Jia, Q. Zhu, and F. Ao, “Atmospheric attenuation analysis in the FSO link,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-4.
  3. A. S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 4th ed. (Prentice Hall, 2002).
  4. K. Kiasaleh, “Performance of APD-based, PPM free-space optical communication systems in atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1455-1461 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, C. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, and U. Birnbacher, “Reliability of FSO links in next generation optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2005), pp. 394-401.
  6. T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and N. C. Sagias, “Multihop free-space optical communications over strong turbulence channels,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2006), pp. 2755-2759.
  7. J. R. Minch, D. R. Gervais, and D. J. Townsend, “Adaptive transceivers for mobile free-space optical communications,” in Proceedings of the Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-5.
  8. M. Abtahi, P. Lemieux, W. Mathlouthi, and L. A. Rusch, “Suppression of turbulence-induced scintillation in free-space optical communication systems using saturated optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4966-4973 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Wu, B. Hamzeh, and M. Kavehrad, “Achieving carrier class availability of FSO link via a complementary RF link,” in Proceedings of the Conference Record of the 38th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1483-1487.
  10. J. Akella, M. Yuksel, and S. Kalyanaraman, “Error analysis of multi-hop free-space optical communication,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1777-1781.
  11. A. Desai and S. Milner, “Autonomous reconfiguration in free-space optical sensor networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1556-1563 (2005).
  12. L. Hu, “Topology control for multihop packet radio networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 1474-1481 (1993).
  13. F. Liu, U. Vishkin, and S. Milner, “Bootstrapping free-space optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 13-22 (2006).
  14. P. C. Gurumohan and J. Hui, “Topology design for free space optical networks,” in Proceedings of Computer Communications and Networks (IEEE, 2003), pp. 576-579.
  15. M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications (Springer, 1997).
  16. S. C. Narula and C. A. Ho, “Degree-constrained minimum spanning tree,” Comput. Oper. Res. 7, 239-249 (1980).
  17. A. Belmonte, A. Comerón, J. Bath, J. A. Rubio, E. Fernández, and P. Menéndez-Valdés, “Performance of a multiple-aperture optical system,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 316-326 (1996).
  18. R. S. Cahn, Wide Area Network Design: Concepts and Tools for Optimization (Morgan Kaufmann Series in Networking, 1998).
  19. M. G. C. Resende and P. M. Pardalos, eds., Handbook of Optimization in Telecommunications (Springer, 2006).
  20. L. Hu, “Distributed algorithms for multihop packet radio networks,” Ph.D. dissertation (U. California Berkeley, 1990).
  21. B. Bollobas, Modern Graph Theory (Springer, 1998).
  22. OMNILUX MESH NETWORK V3.0, installation manual (2006).

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

A. Desai and S. Milner, “Autonomous reconfiguration in free-space optical sensor networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1556-1563 (2005).

K. Kiasaleh, “Performance of APD-based, PPM free-space optical communication systems in atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1455-1461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1996 (1)

A. Belmonte, A. Comerón, J. Bath, J. A. Rubio, E. Fernández, and P. Menéndez-Valdés, “Performance of a multiple-aperture optical system,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 316-326 (1996).

1993 (1)

L. Hu, “Topology control for multihop packet radio networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 1474-1481 (1993).

1980 (1)

S. C. Narula and C. A. Ho, “Degree-constrained minimum spanning tree,” Comput. Oper. Res. 7, 239-249 (1980).

Abtahi, M.

Akella, J.

J. Akella, M. Yuksel, and S. Kalyanaraman, “Error analysis of multi-hop free-space optical communication,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1777-1781.

Ao, F.

Z. Jia, Q. Zhu, and F. Ao, “Atmospheric attenuation analysis in the FSO link,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-4.

Bath, J.

A. Belmonte, A. Comerón, J. Bath, J. A. Rubio, E. Fernández, and P. Menéndez-Valdés, “Performance of a multiple-aperture optical system,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 316-326 (1996).

Belmonte, A.

A. Belmonte, A. Comerón, J. Bath, J. A. Rubio, E. Fernández, and P. Menéndez-Valdés, “Performance of a multiple-aperture optical system,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 316-326 (1996).

Birnbacher, U.

E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, C. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, and U. Birnbacher, “Reliability of FSO links in next generation optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2005), pp. 394-401.

Bloom, S.

Cahn, R. S.

R. S. Cahn, Wide Area Network Design: Concepts and Tools for Optimization (Morgan Kaufmann Series in Networking, 1998).

Cheong, O.

M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications (Springer, 1997).

Chlestil, C.

E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, C. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, and U. Birnbacher, “Reliability of FSO links in next generation optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2005), pp. 394-401.

Comerón, A.

A. Belmonte, A. Comerón, J. Bath, J. A. Rubio, E. Fernández, and P. Menéndez-Valdés, “Performance of a multiple-aperture optical system,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 316-326 (1996).

de Berg, M.

M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications (Springer, 1997).

Desai, A.

A. Desai and S. Milner, “Autonomous reconfiguration in free-space optical sensor networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1556-1563 (2005).

Fernández, E.

A. Belmonte, A. Comerón, J. Bath, J. A. Rubio, E. Fernández, and P. Menéndez-Valdés, “Performance of a multiple-aperture optical system,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 316-326 (1996).

Gebhart, M.

E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, C. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, and U. Birnbacher, “Reliability of FSO links in next generation optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2005), pp. 394-401.

Gervais, D. R.

J. R. Minch, D. R. Gervais, and D. J. Townsend, “Adaptive transceivers for mobile free-space optical communications,” in Proceedings of the Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-5.

Gurumohan, P. C.

P. C. Gurumohan and J. Hui, “Topology design for free space optical networks,” in Proceedings of Computer Communications and Networks (IEEE, 2003), pp. 576-579.

Hamzeh, B.

H. Wu, B. Hamzeh, and M. Kavehrad, “Achieving carrier class availability of FSO link via a complementary RF link,” in Proceedings of the Conference Record of the 38th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1483-1487.

Ho, C. A.

S. C. Narula and C. A. Ho, “Degree-constrained minimum spanning tree,” Comput. Oper. Res. 7, 239-249 (1980).

Hu, L.

L. Hu, “Topology control for multihop packet radio networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 1474-1481 (1993).

L. Hu, “Distributed algorithms for multihop packet radio networks,” Ph.D. dissertation (U. California Berkeley, 1990).

Hui, J.

P. C. Gurumohan and J. Hui, “Topology design for free space optical networks,” in Proceedings of Computer Communications and Networks (IEEE, 2003), pp. 576-579.

Jia, Z.

Z. Jia, Q. Zhu, and F. Ao, “Atmospheric attenuation analysis in the FSO link,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-4.

Kalyanaraman, S.

J. Akella, M. Yuksel, and S. Kalyanaraman, “Error analysis of multi-hop free-space optical communication,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1777-1781.

Karagiannidis, G. K.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and N. C. Sagias, “Multihop free-space optical communications over strong turbulence channels,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2006), pp. 2755-2759.

Kavehrad, M.

H. Wu, B. Hamzeh, and M. Kavehrad, “Achieving carrier class availability of FSO link via a complementary RF link,” in Proceedings of the Conference Record of the 38th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1483-1487.

Kiasaleh, K.

K. Kiasaleh, “Performance of APD-based, PPM free-space optical communication systems in atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1455-1461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Korevaar, E.

Leitgeb, E.

E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, C. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, and U. Birnbacher, “Reliability of FSO links in next generation optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2005), pp. 394-401.

Lemieux, P.

Liu, F.

F. Liu, U. Vishkin, and S. Milner, “Bootstrapping free-space optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 13-22 (2006).

Mathlouthi, W.

Menéndez-Valdés, P.

A. Belmonte, A. Comerón, J. Bath, J. A. Rubio, E. Fernández, and P. Menéndez-Valdés, “Performance of a multiple-aperture optical system,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 316-326 (1996).

Milner, S.

F. Liu, U. Vishkin, and S. Milner, “Bootstrapping free-space optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 13-22 (2006).

A. Desai and S. Milner, “Autonomous reconfiguration in free-space optical sensor networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1556-1563 (2005).

Minch, J. R.

J. R. Minch, D. R. Gervais, and D. J. Townsend, “Adaptive transceivers for mobile free-space optical communications,” in Proceedings of the Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-5.

Muhammad, S. S.

E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, C. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, and U. Birnbacher, “Reliability of FSO links in next generation optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2005), pp. 394-401.

Narula, S. C.

S. C. Narula and C. A. Ho, “Degree-constrained minimum spanning tree,” Comput. Oper. Res. 7, 239-249 (1980).

Overmars, M.

M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications (Springer, 1997).

Pardalos, P. M.

M. G. C. Resende and P. M. Pardalos, eds., Handbook of Optimization in Telecommunications (Springer, 2006).

Resende, M. G. C.

M. G. C. Resende and P. M. Pardalos, eds., Handbook of Optimization in Telecommunications (Springer, 2006).

Rubio, J. A.

A. Belmonte, A. Comerón, J. Bath, J. A. Rubio, E. Fernández, and P. Menéndez-Valdés, “Performance of a multiple-aperture optical system,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 316-326 (1996).

Rusch, L. A.

Sagias, N. C.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and N. C. Sagias, “Multihop free-space optical communications over strong turbulence channels,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2006), pp. 2755-2759.

Sandalidis, H. G.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and N. C. Sagias, “Multihop free-space optical communications over strong turbulence channels,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2006), pp. 2755-2759.

Schuster, J.

Tanenbaum, A. S.

A. S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 4th ed. (Prentice Hall, 2002).

Townsend, D. J.

J. R. Minch, D. R. Gervais, and D. J. Townsend, “Adaptive transceivers for mobile free-space optical communications,” in Proceedings of the Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-5.

Tsiftsis, T. A.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and N. C. Sagias, “Multihop free-space optical communications over strong turbulence channels,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2006), pp. 2755-2759.

van Kreveld, M.

M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications (Springer, 1997).

Vishkin, U.

F. Liu, U. Vishkin, and S. Milner, “Bootstrapping free-space optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 13-22 (2006).

Willebrand, H.

Wu, H.

H. Wu, B. Hamzeh, and M. Kavehrad, “Achieving carrier class availability of FSO link via a complementary RF link,” in Proceedings of the Conference Record of the 38th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1483-1487.

Yuksel, M.

J. Akella, M. Yuksel, and S. Kalyanaraman, “Error analysis of multi-hop free-space optical communication,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1777-1781.

Zhu, Q.

Z. Jia, Q. Zhu, and F. Ao, “Atmospheric attenuation analysis in the FSO link,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-4.

Comput. Oper. Res. (1)

S. C. Narula and C. A. Ho, “Degree-constrained minimum spanning tree,” Comput. Oper. Res. 7, 239-249 (1980).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

A. Desai and S. Milner, “Autonomous reconfiguration in free-space optical sensor networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1556-1563 (2005).

F. Liu, U. Vishkin, and S. Milner, “Bootstrapping free-space optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 13-22 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

L. Hu, “Topology control for multihop packet radio networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 1474-1481 (1993).

K. Kiasaleh, “Performance of APD-based, PPM free-space optical communication systems in atmospheric turbulence,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1455-1461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Belmonte, A. Comerón, J. Bath, J. A. Rubio, E. Fernández, and P. Menéndez-Valdés, “Performance of a multiple-aperture optical system,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 316-326 (1996).

Other (14)

R. S. Cahn, Wide Area Network Design: Concepts and Tools for Optimization (Morgan Kaufmann Series in Networking, 1998).

M. G. C. Resende and P. M. Pardalos, eds., Handbook of Optimization in Telecommunications (Springer, 2006).

L. Hu, “Distributed algorithms for multihop packet radio networks,” Ph.D. dissertation (U. California Berkeley, 1990).

B. Bollobas, Modern Graph Theory (Springer, 1998).

OMNILUX MESH NETWORK V3.0, installation manual (2006).

Z. Jia, Q. Zhu, and F. Ao, “Atmospheric attenuation analysis in the FSO link,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication Technology (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-4.

A. S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 4th ed. (Prentice Hall, 2002).

E. Leitgeb, S. S. Muhammad, C. Chlestil, M. Gebhart, and U. Birnbacher, “Reliability of FSO links in next generation optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (IEEE, 2005), pp. 394-401.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and N. C. Sagias, “Multihop free-space optical communications over strong turbulence channels,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2006), pp. 2755-2759.

J. R. Minch, D. R. Gervais, and D. J. Townsend, “Adaptive transceivers for mobile free-space optical communications,” in Proceedings of the Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-5.

H. Wu, B. Hamzeh, and M. Kavehrad, “Achieving carrier class availability of FSO link via a complementary RF link,” in Proceedings of the Conference Record of the 38th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1483-1487.

J. Akella, M. Yuksel, and S. Kalyanaraman, “Error analysis of multi-hop free-space optical communication,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1777-1781.

P. C. Gurumohan and J. Hui, “Topology design for free space optical networks,” in Proceedings of Computer Communications and Networks (IEEE, 2003), pp. 576-579.

M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications (Springer, 1997).

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