Abstract

The sustainable growth of high-bandwidth services and on-demand applications has introduced new challenges to next-generation networks in terms of capacity, configurability, and resiliency. Significant networking advancements need to be achieved with architectures and technologies that are scalable with respect to cost, size, and power requirements, while they should be capable of handling high traffic volumes and dynamically changing connection patterns. Transparent networking has the potential to meet those requirements and offer significant benefits in terms of performance and cost. We present the key enabling technologies, review the state-of-the-art achievements, and discuss the new opportunities that optical transparency has and will introduce.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (6)

2006 (18)

M. Akbulut, A. M. Weiner, and P. J. Miller, “Broadband all-order polarization mode dispersion compensation using liquid-crystal modulator arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 251-261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Marom, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Compact colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 1000-ps/nm tuning range for 40-Gb/s data rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 237-241 (2006).

M. Jager, T. Rankl, J. Speidel, H. Bulow, and F. Buchali, “Performance of turbo equalizers for optical PMD channels,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1226-1236 (2006).

R. Martinez, C. Pinart, F. Cuqini, N. Andriolli, L. Valcarenqhi, P. Castoldi, L. Wosinska, J. Cornelias, and G. Junyent, “Challenges and requirements for introducing impairment-awareness into the management and control planes of ASON/GMPLS WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 76-85 (2006).

A. Tychopoulos, O. Koufopavlou, and I. Tomkos, “A tutorial on the evolution of architectures and the future prospects of outband and inband FEC for optical communications,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 22, 79-86 (2006).

S. Namiki, K. Seo, N. Tsukiji, and S. Shikii, “Challenges of Raman amplification,” Proc. IEEE 94, 1024-1035 (2006).

V. S. Grigoryan, M. Shin, P. Devgan, J. Lasri, and P. Kumar, “SOA-based regenerative amplification of phase-noise-degraded DPSK signals: dynamic analysis and demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 135-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, A. Marculescu, J. Wang, G. Böttger, B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, C. Schmidt, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Cascadability and regenerative properties of SOA all-optical DPSK wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1970-1973 (2006).

D. T. Neilson, C. R. Doerr, D. M. Marom, R. Ryf, and M. P. Earnshaw, “Wavelength selective switching for optical bandwidth management,” Bell Labs Technical J. 11, 105-128 (2006).

G. Charlet and S. Bigo, “Upgrading WDM submarine systems to 40Gb/s channel bitrate,” Proc. IEEE 94, 935-951 (2006).

P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Schneiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, “Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture,” Proc. IEEE 94, 869-891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Pinart and G. Junyet, “The INIM system: in-service non-intrusive monitoring for QoS-enabled transparent WDM,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 635-644 (2006).

D. Fishman, D. L. Correa, E. H. Goode, T. L. Downs, A. Y. Ho, A. Hale, P. Hofmann, B. Basch, and S. Gringeri, “The rollout of optical networking: lambdaXtreme national network deployment,” Bell Labs Technical J. 11, 55-63 (2006).

D. Fishman, W. A. Thompson, and L. Vallone, “LambdaXtreme transport system: R&D of a high capacity system for low cost ultra long haul DWDM transport,” Bell Labs Technical J. 11, 27-53 (2006).

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby, “Architectural tradeoffs for reconfigurable dense wavelength division multiplexing systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 615-626 (2006).

A. A. Saleh and J. Simmons, “Evolution towards next-generation core optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3303-3321 (2006).

M. Dinu, D. C. Kilper, and H. R. Stuart, “Optical performance monitoring using data stream intensity autocorrelation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1194-1202 (2006).

2005 (9)

A. Kirstaedter, M. Wrage, G. Goeger, W. Fischler, and B. Spinnler, “Current aspects of optical performance monitoring and failure root cause analysis in optical WDM networks,” Proc. SPIE 5625, 362-373 (2005).

J. M. Simmons, “On determining the optimal optical reach for a long-haul network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1039-1048 (2005).
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P. A. Andersen, T. Tokle, Y. Geng, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppessen, “Wavelength conversion of a 40-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signal using four-wave mixing in a dispersion flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1908-1910 (2005).
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W. Wang, L. G. Rau, and D. J. Blumenthal, “160-Gb/s variable length packet/10-Gb/s-label all-optical label switching with wavelength conversion and unicast/multicast operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 211-218 (2005).

M. Vasilyev and T. I. Lakoba, “All-optical multichannel 2R regeneration in a fiber-based device,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1458-1460 (2005).

Y. Huang, J. P. Heritage, and B. Makherjee, “Connection provisioning with transmission impairment consideration in optical WDM networks with high-speed channels,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 982-993 (2005).
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C. Mas, I. Tomkos, and O. K. Tonguz, “Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1508-1519 (2005).
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T. Nielsen and S. Chandrasekhar, “OFC 2004: workshop on optical and electronic mitigation of impairments,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 131-142 (2005).

N. S. Bergano, “Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transoceanic transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4125-4139 (2005).
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2004 (13)

H. F. Haunstein, W. Sauer-Greff, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht, and R. Ubransky, “Principles of electronic equilization of polarization-mode dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1169-1182 (2004).
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F. Buchali and H. Bulow, “Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).
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L. Shenping, M. Sauer, Z. D. Gaeta, D. V. Kuksenkov, S. R. Bickham, G. E. Berkey, L. Ming-Jun, and D. A. Nolan, “Broad-band dynamic dispersion compensation in nonlinear fiber-based device,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 29-38 (2004).
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T. Mizuochi, Y. Miyata, T. Kobayashi, K. Ouchi, K. Kuno, K. Kubo, K. Shimizu, H. Taqami, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, M. Akita, and K. Motoshima, “FEC based on block turbo code with 3dB soft decision for 10Gb/s optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 376-386 (2004).
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T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi, N. Edagawa, and S. Akida, “70-GHz-spaced 42.7GHz transpacific transmission over 9400km using pre-filtered CSRZ-DPSK signals, all-Raman repeaters and symmetrically dispersion managed fiber spans,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 215-224 (2004).
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J. Leuthold, L. Moller, J. Jaques, S. Cabot, L. Zhang, P. Bernasconi, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, and A. Griffin, “160Gbit/s SOA all-optical wavelength converter and assessment of its regenerative properties,” Electron. Lett. 40, 554-555 (2004).
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K. Croussore, C. Kim, and G. Li, “All optical regeneration of differential phase-shift keying signals based on phase-sensitive amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2357-2359 (2004).
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Z. Li, Y. Dong, J. Mo, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, “Cascaded all-optical wavelength conversion for RZ-DPSK signal based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1685-1687 (2004).
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P. Peloso, M. Prunaire, L. Noirie, and D. Pennicks, “Optical transparency of a heterogeneous pan-European network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 242-248 (2004).
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R. Tomkos, D. Vogiatzis, C. Mas, I. Zacharopoulos, A. Tzanakaki, and E. Varvarigos, “Performance engineering of metropolitan area optical networks through impairment constraint routing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S40-S47 (2004).
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D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preis, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).
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A. Tzanakaki, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, “Broadband building blocks,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 20, 32-37 (2004).

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn, and B. Zhu, “Optical performance monitoring using nonlinear detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 784-793 (2004).

2003 (9)

M. Vasilyev, I. Tomkos, R. June-Koo Rhee, M. Mehendale, B. S. Hallock, B. K. Szalabofka, M. Williams, S. Tsuda, and M. Sharma, “Broadcast and select OADMin 80×10.7Gb/s ultra long haul network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 332-334 (2003).
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S. Mechels, L. Muller, G. D. Morley, and D. Tillett, “1D MEMS-based wavelength switching subsystem,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 88-95 (2003).
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J. Leuthold, R. Ryf, D. N. Maywar, S. Cabot, J. Jaques, and S. S. Patel, “Non-blocking all-optical cross connect based on regenerative all-optical wavelength converter in a transparent demonstration over 42 nodes and 16800km,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2863-2870 (2003).
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D. C. Kilper and W. Weingatner, “Monitoring optical network performance degradation due to amplifier noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1171-1178 (2003).

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight-wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 138-140 (2003).
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J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100×1100 port MEMS-based optical cross-connect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537-1539 (2003).
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M. Y. Jeon, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Wang, V. Akella, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, J. Pan, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of all-optical packet switching routers with optical label swapping and 2R regeneration for scalable optical label switching network applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2723-2733 (2003).
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S. Kodama, T. Yoshimatsu, and H. Ito, “320Gb/s optical gate monolithically integrating photodiode and electroabsorption modulator,” Electron. Lett. 39, 383-384 (2003).
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D. J. Moss, M. Lamont, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, and C. A. Hulse, “Tunable dispersion and dispersion slope compensators for 10Gb/s using all-pass multicavity etalons,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 730-731 (2003).
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2002 (9)

J. Leuthold, G. Raybon, Y. Su, R. Essiambre, S. Cabot, J. Jaques, and M. Kauer, “40Gbit/s transmission and cascaded all-optical wavelength conversion over 1000000km,” Electron. Lett. 38, 890-892 (2002).

D. Rouvillain, P. Brindel, E. Sequineau, L. Pierre, O. Leclerc, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, and J. L. Oudar, “Optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for 40Gb/s WDM long-haul transmissions,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1113-1114 (2002).
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C. Schubert, R. Ludwig, S. Watanabe, F. Futami, C. Schmidt, J. Berger, C. Boerner, S. Ferber, and H. G. Weber, “160Gb/s wavelength converter with 3R-regenerating capability,” Electron. Lett. 38, 903-904 (2002).
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R. Ramaswami, “Optical fiber communication: from transmission to networking,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 138-147 (2002).

N. Antoniades, A. Boskovic, I. Tomkos, N. Madamopoulos, M. Lee, I. Roudas, D. Pastel, M. Sharma, and M. Yadlowsky, “Performance engineering and topological design of metro WDM optical networks using computer simulations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 149-165 (2002).
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A. Richter, W. Fischler, H. Bock, R. Bach, and W. Grupp, “Optical performance monitoring in transparent and configurable DWDM networks,” Proc. IEEE 149, 1-5 (2002).

S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J Savage, and E. P. Ippen, “100Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).
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J. C. Rasmussen, A. Isomura, and G. Ishikawa, “Automatic compensation of PMD for 40Gb/s transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2101-2109 (2002).
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P. C. Chou, J. M. Fini, and H. A. Haus, “Demonstration of a feed-forward PMD compensation technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 161-163 (2002).
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2001 (5)

J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, and R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 81-87 (2001).

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “168-Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion with a symmetric-Mach-Zehnder-type switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1091-1093 (2001).
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J. Leuthold, B. Mikkelsen, R. E. Behringer, G. Raybon, C. H. Joyner, and P. A. Besse, “Novel 3R regenerator based on semiconductor optical amplifier delayed-interference configuration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 860-862 (2001).

T. Akiyama, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Simoyama, Y. Nakata, K. Mukai, M. Sugawara, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, “Non-linear gain dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers and its application to optical communication devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1059-1065 (2001).
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X. Zheng, F. Liu, and P. Jeppesen, “Receiver optimization for 40Gb/s optical duobinary signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 744-746 (2001).
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2000 (5)

H. Suzuki, J.-I. Kani, H. Masuda, N. Takachio, K. Iwatsuki, Y. Tada, and M. Sumida, “1-Tb/s(100×10Gb/s) super-dense WDM transmission with 25-GHz channel spacing in the zero-dispersion region employing distributed Raman amplification technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 903-905 (2000).
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I. Brener, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, R. Harel, K. Parameswaran, J. R. Kurz, and M. M. Fejer, “160Gb/s wavelength shifting and phase conjugation using periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide parametric converter,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1788-1790 (2000).
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C. Mas and P. Thiran, “An efficient algorithm for locating soft and hard failures in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1900-1911 (2000).
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G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, and D. Blumenthal, “Optical performance monitoring in reconfigurable WDM optical networks using subcarrier multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1639-1648 (2000).

C. Mas and P. Thiran, “An efficient algorithm for locating soft and hard failures in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1900-1911 (2000).
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1999 (8)

C. Mas, P. Thiran, and J.-Y. Le Boudec, “Fault location at the WDM layer,” Photonic Network Commun. 1, 235-255 (1999).

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritagen, and B. Mukherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the tele-traffic performance of wavelength routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1713-1723 (1999).

S. Walklin and J. Conradi, “Multilevel signaling for increasing the reach of 10Gb/s lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2235-2248 (1999).
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R. Noé, D. Sandel, M. Yoshida-Dierolf, S. Hinz, V. Mirvoda, A. Schöpflin, C. Glingener, E. Gottwald, C. Scheerer, G. Fischeer, T. Weyrauch, and W. Haase, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation at 10, 20 and 40Gb/s with various optical equalizers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1602-1616 (1999).
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D. J. Blumenthal, A. Carena, L. Rau, V. Curri, and S. Humphries, “All-optical label swapping with wavelength conversion for WDM-IP networks with subcarrier multiplexed addressing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1497-1499 (1999).
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I. M. Hayee and A. E. Willner, “Transmission penalties due to EDFA gain transients in add-drop multiplexed WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 889-891 (1999).
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M. F. C. Stephens, D. Nesset, K. A. Willians, A. E. Kelly, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. J. Fice, “Wavelength conversion at 40Gb/s via cross-gain modulation in distributed feedback laser integrated with semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1762-1764 (1999).
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C. K. Madsen, G. Lenz, A. J. Bruce, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, and R. E. Scotti, “Integrated all-pass filters for tunable dispersion and dispersion slope compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1623-1625 (1999).
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1998 (5)

K. L. Hall and K. A. Rauschenbach, “100-Gb/s bitwise logic,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1271-1273 (1998).

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tarima, and S. Kitamura, “3.8-THz wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses using a semiconductor delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter (DISC),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346-348 (1998).

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, “TDM single channel 640Gb/s transmission experiment over 60km using 400fs pulse train and walk-off free, dispersion flattened nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 34, 907-908 (1998).
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M. Karasek and F. W. Willems, “Channel addition/removal response in cascades of strongly inverted erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2311-2317 (1998).
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A. R. Chraplyvy and R. W. Tkach, “Terabit/second transmission experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2103-2108 (1998).
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1997 (1)

M. Shirasaki, “Chromatic-dispersion compensator using virtually angled phased array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1598-1600 (1997).
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1996 (5)

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “A practical approach for routing and wavelength assignment in large wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 903-908 (1996).
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R. E. Wagner, R. C. Alferness, A. A. M. Saleh, and M. S. Goodman, “Monet: multiwavelength optical networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1423-1435 (1996).
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S. J. B. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).

K. Takiguchi, K. Jinguji, K. Okamoto, and Y. Ohmori, “Variable group-delay dispersion equalizer using lattice-form programmable optical filter on planar lightwave circuit,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 270-276 (1996).
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1995 (2)

K. Tajima, S. Sakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, “Ultrafast polarization-discriminating Mach-Zehnder all optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709-3711 (1995).
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N. Kikuchi and S. Sasaki, “Analytical evaluation technique of self-phase modulation effect on the performance of cascaded optical amplifier systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 868-878 (1995).

1994 (3)

K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, and K. Oda, “Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four-wave mixing in multi-channel transmissions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1994).
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1993 (5)

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K. Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 12A, L1746-L1749 (1993).

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N. S. V. Rao, “Computational complexity issues in operative diagnosis of graph-based systems,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 42, 447-457 (1993).

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

A. Hirano, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, and H. Toba, “40Gb/s L-band transmission experiment using SPM-tolerant carrier-suppressed RZ format,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2213-2215 (1989).
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1987 (2)

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1983 (2)

J. S. Cook and O. I. Szentesi, “North American field trials and early applications in telephony,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 1, 393-397 (1983).

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