Abstract

<p><a href="http://jon.osa.org/virtual_issue.cfm?vid=54">Focus Issue: Orthogonal-Frequency-Division Multiplexed Communications Systems and Networks</a></p> Discrete multitone (DMT) modulation is a subclass of the more general orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing, where the output of the inverse fast Fourier transform modulator is real instead of complex-valued. Therefore, no in-phase and quadrature modulation onto an RF carrier is required. As a result, broadband, high-frequency, analog RF components are omitted, reducing system complexity and costs. We give an overview of important issues such as synchronization and peak-to-average power that should be considered when DMT is employed in an intensity-modulated direct-detection multimode fiber (MMF) link. Experimental results showing 24Gbits/s transmission over silica MMF and 8Gbits/s transmission over the standard step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) are presented, demonstrating the potential of DMT to enable high-speed transmission over MMF using only low-bandwidth transceivers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Flatman, ''In-premises optical fibre installed base analysis to 2007,'' http://www.ieee802.org/3/10GMMFSG/public/mar04/flatmanlowbar1lowbar0304.pdf.
  2. P. K. Pepeljugoski and D. M. Kuchta, ''Design of optical communications data links,'' IBM J. Res. Dev. 47, 223-237 (2003).
  3. P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.
  4. S. S. H. Yam and F. Achten, ''Single wavelength 40Gbit/s transmission over 3.4km broad wavelength window multimode fibre,'' Electron. Lett. 42, 592-594 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Randel, S. C. J. Lee, B. Spinnler, F. Breyer, H. Rohde, J. Walewski, A. M. J. Koonen, and A. Kirstädter, ''1Gbit/s transmission with 6.3bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in a 100m standard 1mm step-index plastic optical fibre link using adaptive multiple sub-carrier modulation,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 24-28 September 2006, postdeadline paper Th4.4.1.
  6. N. E. Jolley, H. Kee, R. Rickard, J. Tang, and K. Cordina, ''Generation and propagation of a 1550nm10Gbit/s optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal over 1000m of multimode fibre using a directly modulated DFB,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper OFP3.
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  9. S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-27 March 2007, paper PDP6.
  10. S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, ''Discrete multi-tone modulation for low-cost and robust 10Gb/s transmission over polymer optical fibre,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Th9.6.4.
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, ''Power efficient optical OFDM,'' Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. van Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications (Artech House, 2000).
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  15. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''16×52.5-Gb/s, 50-GHz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, postdeadline Paper PD 1.3.
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    [CrossRef]
  19. ''Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) transceivers,'' ITU Standard G.992.1, 07-1999 (ITU, 1999).
  20. ''Very high speed digital subscriber line transceivers 2 (VDSL2),'' ITU Standard G.993.2, 02-2006 (ITU, 2006).
  21. P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, ''A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 773-775 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. J. van de Beek, M. Sandell, and P. O. Börjesson, ''ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM systems,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 1800-1805 (1997).
  23. P. M. Moose, ''A technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing frequency offset correction,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2908-2914 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, ''Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Tellambura, ''Computation of the continuous-time PAR of an OFDM signal with BPSK subcarriers,'' IEEE Commun. Lett. 5, 185-187 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. J. G. Mestdagh and P. M. P. Spruyt, ''A method to reduce the probability of clipping in DMT-based transceivers,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 1234-1238 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, ''Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 2056-2057 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. V. Eetvelt, G. Wade, and M. Thompson, ''Peak to average power reduction for OFDM schemes by selected scrambling,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 1963-1964 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Friese, ''Multicarrier modulation with low peak-to-average power ratio,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 712-713 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. H. Müller and J. B. Huber, ''OFDM with reduced peak-to-average power ratio by optimum combination of partial transmit sequences,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 368-369 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. A. Davis and J. Jedwab, ''Peak-to-mean power control in OFDM, Golay complementary sequences, and Reed-Muller codes,'' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 2397-2417 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

S. S. H. Yam and F. Achten, ''Single wavelength 40Gbit/s transmission over 3.4km broad wavelength window multimode fibre,'' Electron. Lett. 42, 592-594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, ''Power efficient optical OFDM,'' Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

''Very high speed digital subscriber line transceivers 2 (VDSL2),'' ITU Standard G.993.2, 02-2006 (ITU, 2006).

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

P. K. Pepeljugoski and D. M. Kuchta, ''Design of optical communications data links,'' IBM J. Res. Dev. 47, 223-237 (2003).

2001 (1)

C. Tellambura, ''Computation of the continuous-time PAR of an OFDM signal with BPSK subcarriers,'' IEEE Commun. Lett. 5, 185-187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. van Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications (Artech House, 2000).

1999 (2)

''Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) transceivers,'' ITU Standard G.992.1, 07-1999 (ITU, 1999).

J. A. Davis and J. Jedwab, ''Peak-to-mean power control in OFDM, Golay complementary sequences, and Reed-Muller codes,'' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 2397-2417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. J. van de Beek, M. Sandell, and P. O. Börjesson, ''ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM systems,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 1800-1805 (1997).

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, ''Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Müller and J. B. Huber, ''OFDM with reduced peak-to-average power ratio by optimum combination of partial transmit sequences,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 368-369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

D. J. G. Mestdagh and P. M. P. Spruyt, ''A method to reduce the probability of clipping in DMT-based transceivers,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 1234-1238 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, ''Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 2056-2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Eetvelt, G. Wade, and M. Thompson, ''Peak to average power reduction for OFDM schemes by selected scrambling,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 1963-1964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Friese, ''Multicarrier modulation with low peak-to-average power ratio,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 712-713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, ''A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 773-775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. M. Moose, ''A technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing frequency offset correction,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2908-2914 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. S. Chow, J. C. Tu, and J. M. Cioffi, ''A discrete multitone transceiver system for HDSL applications,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9, 895-908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. A. C. Bingham, ''Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: an idea whose time has come,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 28, 5-14 (1990).

Achten, F.

S. S. H. Yam and F. Achten, ''Single wavelength 40Gbit/s transmission over 3.4km broad wavelength window multimode fibre,'' Electron. Lett. 42, 592-594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.

Armstrong, J.

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, ''Power efficient optical OFDM,'' Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lowery and J. Armstrong, ''10Gbit/s multimode fiber link using power-efficient orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing,'' Opt. Express 13, 10003-10009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong, ''Experimental demonstrations of 20Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-29 March 2007, paper PDP18.

Bäuml, R. W.

R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, ''Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 2056-2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beling, A.

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.

Bingham, J. A. C.

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, ''A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 773-775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. C. Bingham, ''Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: an idea whose time has come,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 28, 5-14 (1990).

Börjesson, P. O.

J. J. van de Beek, M. Sandell, and P. O. Börjesson, ''ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM systems,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 1800-1805 (1997).

Breyer, F.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-27 March 2007, paper PDP6.

S. Randel, S. C. J. Lee, B. Spinnler, F. Breyer, H. Rohde, J. Walewski, A. M. J. Koonen, and A. Kirstädter, ''1Gbit/s transmission with 6.3bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in a 100m standard 1mm step-index plastic optical fibre link using adaptive multiple sub-carrier modulation,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 24-28 September 2006, postdeadline paper Th4.4.1.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, ''Discrete multi-tone modulation for low-cost and robust 10Gb/s transmission over polymer optical fibre,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Th9.6.4.

Caspar, C.

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.

Chow, J. S.

J. S. Chow, J. C. Tu, and J. M. Cioffi, ''A discrete multitone transceiver system for HDSL applications,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9, 895-908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chow, P. S.

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, ''A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 773-775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cioffi, J. M.

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, ''A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 773-775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Chow, J. C. Tu, and J. M. Cioffi, ''A discrete multitone transceiver system for HDSL applications,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9, 895-908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cordina, K.

N. E. Jolley, H. Kee, R. Rickard, J. Tang, and K. Cordina, ''Generation and propagation of a 1550nm10Gbit/s optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal over 1000m of multimode fibre using a directly modulated DFB,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper OFP3.

Cox, D. C.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, ''Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

J. A. Davis and J. Jedwab, ''Peak-to-mean power control in OFDM, Golay complementary sequences, and Reed-Muller codes,'' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 2397-2417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eckhardt, Th.

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.

Eetvelt, P. V.

P. V. Eetvelt, G. Wade, and M. Thompson, ''Peak to average power reduction for OFDM schemes by selected scrambling,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 1963-1964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R. F. H.

R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, ''Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 2056-2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flatman, A.

A. Flatman, ''In-premises optical fibre installed base analysis to 2007,'' http://www.ieee802.org/3/10GMMFSG/public/mar04/flatmanlowbar1lowbar0304.pdf.

Freund, R.

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.

Friese, M.

M. Friese, ''Multicarrier modulation with low peak-to-average power ratio,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 712-713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gooijer, F.

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.

Hanik, N.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-27 March 2007, paper PDP6.

Huber, J. B.

S. H. Müller and J. B. Huber, ''OFDM with reduced peak-to-average power ratio by optimum combination of partial transmit sequences,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 368-369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, ''Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 2056-2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huijskens, F.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-27 March 2007, paper PDP6.

Jansen, S. L.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''16×52.5-Gb/s, 50-GHz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, postdeadline Paper PD 1.3.

Jedwab, J.

J. A. Davis and J. Jedwab, ''Peak-to-mean power control in OFDM, Golay complementary sequences, and Reed-Muller codes,'' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 2397-2417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jolley, N. E.

N. E. Jolley, H. Kee, R. Rickard, J. Tang, and K. Cordina, ''Generation and propagation of a 1550nm10Gbit/s optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal over 1000m of multimode fibre using a directly modulated DFB,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper OFP3.

Kee, H.

N. E. Jolley, H. Kee, R. Rickard, J. Tang, and K. Cordina, ''Generation and propagation of a 1550nm10Gbit/s optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal over 1000m of multimode fibre using a directly modulated DFB,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper OFP3.

Kirstädter, A.

S. Randel, S. C. J. Lee, B. Spinnler, F. Breyer, H. Rohde, J. Walewski, A. M. J. Koonen, and A. Kirstädter, ''1Gbit/s transmission with 6.3bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in a 100m standard 1mm step-index plastic optical fibre link using adaptive multiple sub-carrier modulation,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 24-28 September 2006, postdeadline paper Th4.4.1.

Koonen, A. M. J.

S. Randel, S. C. J. Lee, B. Spinnler, F. Breyer, H. Rohde, J. Walewski, A. M. J. Koonen, and A. Kirstädter, ''1Gbit/s transmission with 6.3bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in a 100m standard 1mm step-index plastic optical fibre link using adaptive multiple sub-carrier modulation,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 24-28 September 2006, postdeadline paper Th4.4.1.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-27 March 2007, paper PDP6.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, ''Discrete multi-tone modulation for low-cost and robust 10Gb/s transmission over polymer optical fibre,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Th9.6.4.

Kuchta, D. M.

P. K. Pepeljugoski and D. M. Kuchta, ''Design of optical communications data links,'' IBM J. Res. Dev. 47, 223-237 (2003).

Kuyt, G.

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.

Lee, S. C. J.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, ''Discrete multi-tone modulation for low-cost and robust 10Gb/s transmission over polymer optical fibre,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Th9.6.4.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-27 March 2007, paper PDP6.

S. Randel, S. C. J. Lee, B. Spinnler, F. Breyer, H. Rohde, J. Walewski, A. M. J. Koonen, and A. Kirstädter, ''1Gbit/s transmission with 6.3bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in a 100m standard 1mm step-index plastic optical fibre link using adaptive multiple sub-carrier modulation,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 24-28 September 2006, postdeadline paper Th4.4.1.

Lowery, A. J.

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, ''Power efficient optical OFDM,'' Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lowery and J. Armstrong, ''10Gbit/s multimode fiber link using power-efficient orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing,'' Opt. Express 13, 10003-10009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong, ''Experimental demonstrations of 20Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-29 March 2007, paper PDP18.

Matthijsse, P.

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.

Mestdagh, D. J. G.

D. J. G. Mestdagh and P. M. P. Spruyt, ''A method to reduce the probability of clipping in DMT-based transceivers,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 1234-1238 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Molle, L.

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.

Moose, P. M.

P. M. Moose, ''A technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing frequency offset correction,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2908-2914 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morita, I.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''16×52.5-Gb/s, 50-GHz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, postdeadline Paper PD 1.3.

Müller, S. H.

S. H. Müller and J. B. Huber, ''OFDM with reduced peak-to-average power ratio by optimum combination of partial transmit sequences,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 368-369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pepeljugoski, P. K.

P. K. Pepeljugoski and D. M. Kuchta, ''Design of optical communications data links,'' IBM J. Res. Dev. 47, 223-237 (2003).

Prasad, R.

R. van Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications (Artech House, 2000).

Randel, S.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, ''Discrete multi-tone modulation for low-cost and robust 10Gb/s transmission over polymer optical fibre,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Th9.6.4.

S. Randel, S. C. J. Lee, B. Spinnler, F. Breyer, H. Rohde, J. Walewski, A. M. J. Koonen, and A. Kirstädter, ''1Gbit/s transmission with 6.3bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in a 100m standard 1mm step-index plastic optical fibre link using adaptive multiple sub-carrier modulation,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 24-28 September 2006, postdeadline paper Th4.4.1.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-27 March 2007, paper PDP6.

Rickard, R.

N. E. Jolley, H. Kee, R. Rickard, J. Tang, and K. Cordina, ''Generation and propagation of a 1550nm10Gbit/s optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal over 1000m of multimode fibre using a directly modulated DFB,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper OFP3.

Rohde, H.

S. Randel, S. C. J. Lee, B. Spinnler, F. Breyer, H. Rohde, J. Walewski, A. M. J. Koonen, and A. Kirstädter, ''1Gbit/s transmission with 6.3bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in a 100m standard 1mm step-index plastic optical fibre link using adaptive multiple sub-carrier modulation,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 24-28 September 2006, postdeadline paper Th4.4.1.

Rosin, Th.

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.

Sandell, M.

J. J. van de Beek, M. Sandell, and P. O. Börjesson, ''ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM systems,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 1800-1805 (1997).

Schmidl, T. M.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, ''Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. J. C.

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong, ''Experimental demonstrations of 20Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-29 March 2007, paper PDP18.

Schmidt, D.

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.

Schuster, M.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-27 March 2007, paper PDP6.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh, ''PMD-supported coherent optical OFDM systems,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 134-136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shore, K. A.

J. M. Tang and K. A. Shore, ''Maximizing the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode-fiber links by optimizing analog-to-digital converters,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 787-798 (2007).

J. M. Tang and K. A. Shore, ''Transmission performance maximization of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in MMF based links using optimum analogue-to-digital converters,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-29 March 2007, paper OWD5.

Spinnler, B.

S. Randel, S. C. J. Lee, B. Spinnler, F. Breyer, H. Rohde, J. Walewski, A. M. J. Koonen, and A. Kirstädter, ''1Gbit/s transmission with 6.3bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in a 100m standard 1mm step-index plastic optical fibre link using adaptive multiple sub-carrier modulation,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 24-28 September 2006, postdeadline paper Th4.4.1.

Spruyt, P. M. P.

D. J. G. Mestdagh and P. M. P. Spruyt, ''A method to reduce the probability of clipping in DMT-based transceivers,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 1234-1238 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''16×52.5-Gb/s, 50-GHz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, postdeadline Paper PD 1.3.

Tang, J.

N. E. Jolley, H. Kee, R. Rickard, J. Tang, and K. Cordina, ''Generation and propagation of a 1550nm10Gbit/s optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal over 1000m of multimode fibre using a directly modulated DFB,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper OFP3.

Tang, J. M.

J. M. Tang and K. A. Shore, ''Maximizing the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode-fiber links by optimizing analog-to-digital converters,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 787-798 (2007).

J. M. Tang and K. A. Shore, ''Transmission performance maximization of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in MMF based links using optimum analogue-to-digital converters,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-29 March 2007, paper OWD5.

Tellambura, C.

C. Tellambura, ''Computation of the continuous-time PAR of an OFDM signal with BPSK subcarriers,'' IEEE Commun. Lett. 5, 185-187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M.

P. V. Eetvelt, G. Wade, and M. Thompson, ''Peak to average power reduction for OFDM schemes by selected scrambling,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 1963-1964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tu, J. C.

J. S. Chow, J. C. Tu, and J. M. Cioffi, ''A discrete multitone transceiver system for HDSL applications,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9, 895-908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

van de Beek, J. J.

J. J. van de Beek, M. Sandell, and P. O. Börjesson, ''ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM systems,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 1800-1805 (1997).

van den Boom, H. P. A.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-27 March 2007, paper PDP6.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, ''Discrete multi-tone modulation for low-cost and robust 10Gb/s transmission over polymer optical fibre,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Th9.6.4.

van Nee, R.

R. van Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications (Artech House, 2000).

Wade, G.

P. V. Eetvelt, G. Wade, and M. Thompson, ''Peak to average power reduction for OFDM schemes by selected scrambling,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 1963-1964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walewski, J.

S. Randel, S. C. J. Lee, B. Spinnler, F. Breyer, H. Rohde, J. Walewski, A. M. J. Koonen, and A. Kirstädter, ''1Gbit/s transmission with 6.3bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in a 100m standard 1mm step-index plastic optical fibre link using adaptive multiple sub-carrier modulation,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 24-28 September 2006, postdeadline paper Th4.4.1.

Yam, S. S. H.

S. S. H. Yam and F. Achten, ''Single wavelength 40Gbit/s transmission over 3.4km broad wavelength window multimode fibre,'' Electron. Lett. 42, 592-594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, J.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-27 March 2007, paper PDP6.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, ''Discrete multi-tone modulation for low-cost and robust 10Gb/s transmission over polymer optical fibre,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Th9.6.4.

Electron. Lett. (6)

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, ''Power efficient optical OFDM,'' Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, ''Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 2056-2057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Eetvelt, G. Wade, and M. Thompson, ''Peak to average power reduction for OFDM schemes by selected scrambling,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 1963-1964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Friese, ''Multicarrier modulation with low peak-to-average power ratio,'' Electron. Lett. 32, 712-713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Müller and J. B. Huber, ''OFDM with reduced peak-to-average power ratio by optimum combination of partial transmit sequences,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 368-369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. S. H. Yam and F. Achten, ''Single wavelength 40Gbit/s transmission over 3.4km broad wavelength window multimode fibre,'' Electron. Lett. 42, 592-594 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

P. K. Pepeljugoski and D. M. Kuchta, ''Design of optical communications data links,'' IBM J. Res. Dev. 47, 223-237 (2003).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

C. Tellambura, ''Computation of the continuous-time PAR of an OFDM signal with BPSK subcarriers,'' IEEE Commun. Lett. 5, 185-187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. A. C. Bingham, ''Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: an idea whose time has come,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 28, 5-14 (1990).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

J. S. Chow, J. C. Tu, and J. M. Cioffi, ''A discrete multitone transceiver system for HDSL applications,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9, 895-908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Shieh, ''PMD-supported coherent optical OFDM systems,'' IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 134-136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (4)

D. J. G. Mestdagh and P. M. P. Spruyt, ''A method to reduce the probability of clipping in DMT-based transceivers,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 1234-1238 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, ''A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 773-775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Moose, ''A technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing frequency offset correction,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2908-2914 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, ''Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

J. A. Davis and J. Jedwab, ''Peak-to-mean power control in OFDM, Golay complementary sequences, and Reed-Muller codes,'' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 2397-2417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

J. J. van de Beek, M. Sandell, and P. O. Börjesson, ''ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM systems,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 45, 1800-1805 (1997).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (12)

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, Th. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, and Th. Eckhardt, ''Multimode fiber enabling 40Gbit/s multi-mode transmission over distances >400m,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 5-10 March 2006, paper OW113.

S. Randel, S. C. J. Lee, B. Spinnler, F. Breyer, H. Rohde, J. Walewski, A. M. J. Koonen, and A. Kirstädter, ''1Gbit/s transmission with 6.3bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency in a 100m standard 1mm step-index plastic optical fibre link using adaptive multiple sub-carrier modulation,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, 24-28 September 2006, postdeadline paper Th4.4.1.

N. E. Jolley, H. Kee, R. Rickard, J. Tang, and K. Cordina, ''Generation and propagation of a 1550nm10Gbit/s optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal over 1000m of multimode fibre using a directly modulated DFB,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 6-11 March 2005, paper OFP3.

J. M. Tang and K. A. Shore, ''Transmission performance maximization of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in MMF based links using optimum analogue-to-digital converters,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-29 March 2007, paper OWD5.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-27 March 2007, paper PDP6.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, ''Discrete multi-tone modulation for low-cost and robust 10Gb/s transmission over polymer optical fibre,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Th9.6.4.

A. Flatman, ''In-premises optical fibre installed base analysis to 2007,'' http://www.ieee802.org/3/10GMMFSG/public/mar04/flatmanlowbar1lowbar0304.pdf.

''Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) transceivers,'' ITU Standard G.992.1, 07-1999 (ITU, 1999).

''Very high speed digital subscriber line transceivers 2 (VDSL2),'' ITU Standard G.993.2, 02-2006 (ITU, 2006).

R. van Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications (Artech House, 2000).

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong, ''Experimental demonstrations of 20Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter,'' presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Anaheim, Calif., 25-29 March 2007, paper PDP18.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''16×52.5-Gb/s, 50-GHz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, postdeadline Paper PD 1.3.

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