Abstract

<p><a href="http://jon.osa.org/virtual_issue.cfm?vid=54">Focus Issue on Orthogonal-Frequency-Division Multiplexed Communications Systems and Networks</a></p>We discuss the realization and performance of polarization-division-multiplexed orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-OFDM) for long-haul transmission systems. Polarization demultiplexing of the PDM signal at the receiver is realized by employing a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detector. Using a recirculating loop a long-haul transmission experiment is reported of 52.5 Gbits/s PDM-OFDM (40 Gbits/s after coding) over 4160 km of standard single-mode fiber (SSMF). In this transmission experiment, 16 wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) channels are transmitted at 50 GHz channel spacing, and we show that MIMO processing in the receiver enables both polarization demultiplexing and a large PMD tolerance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.
  2. H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.
  3. D. v. d. Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, and H. d. Waardt, ''PMD-induced transmission penalties in polarization-multiplexed transmission,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).
  4. Y. Han and G. Li, ''Coherent optical communication using polarization multiple-input-multiple-output,'' Opt. Express 13, 7527-7534 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, ''10×111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 22.
  6. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, ''Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 26 (to be published).
  7. W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, and Y. Tang, ''Theoretical and experimental study on PMD-supported transmission using polarization diversity in coherent optical OFDM systems,'' Opt. Express 15, 9936-9947 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong, ''Experimental demonstrations of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 18.
  9. X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, ''Phase noise on coherent optical OFDM systems with 16-QAM and 64-QAM beyond 10 Gb/s,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu. 2.5.3.
  10. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''Experimental demonstration of 23.6-Gb/s OFDM with a colorless transmitter,'' in Proceedings of the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (IEICE, 2007), paper PD1-5.
  11. S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 6.
  12. I. B. Djordjevic and B. Vasic, ''Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission,'' Opt. Express 14, 3767-3775 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''16×52.5-Gb/s, 50-GHz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160 km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper PD1.3.
  14. M. Mayrock and H. Haunstein, ''PMD tolerant direct-detection optical OFDM system'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu 5.2.5.
  15. T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, ''Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. C. W. Schenk, RF Imperfections in High-Rate Wireless Systems (Springer, 2008).
  17. A. van Zelst and T. C. W. Schenk, ''Implementation of a MIMO OFDM-based wireless LAN system,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 52, 483-494 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. H. Winters, ''On the capacity of radio communication systems with diversity in a Rayleigh fading environment,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. SAC-5, 871-878 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. W. Wolniansky, G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden, and R. A. Valenzuela, ''V-BLAST: An architecture for realizing very high date rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel,'' in Proceedings of the URSI International Symposium on Signals, Systems, and Electronics (IEEE, 1998), pp. 295-300.
  20. R. van Nee, A. van Zelst, and G. Awater, ''Maximum likelihood decoding in a space division multiplexing system,'' in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE, 51st Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 6-10.
  21. W. Shieh, ''Maximum-likelihood phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu 4.2.2.
  22. I. Barhumi, G. Leus, and M. Moonen, ''Optimal training design for MIMO OFDM systems in mobile wireless channels,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 41, 1615-1624 (2003).
  23. T. Pollet, M. van Bladel, and M. Moeneclaey, ''BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, ''Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP 39.
  25. R. Hui, B. Zhu, R. Huang, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest, and D. Richards, ''Subcarrier multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 417-427 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''10-Gb/s OFDM with conventional DFB lasers,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu. 2.5.2.

2008 (1)

T. C. W. Schenk, RF Imperfections in High-Rate Wireless Systems (Springer, 2008).

2007 (7)

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, ''10×111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 22.

W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, and Y. Tang, ''Theoretical and experimental study on PMD-supported transmission using polarization diversity in coherent optical OFDM systems,'' Opt. Express 15, 9936-9947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong, ''Experimental demonstrations of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 18.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''Experimental demonstration of 23.6-Gb/s OFDM with a colorless transmitter,'' in Proceedings of the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (IEICE, 2007), paper PD1-5.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 6.

2006 (2)

I. B. Djordjevic and B. Vasic, ''Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission,'' Opt. Express 14, 3767-3775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, ''Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP 39.

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

A. van Zelst and T. C. W. Schenk, ''Implementation of a MIMO OFDM-based wireless LAN system,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 52, 483-494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. Barhumi, G. Leus, and M. Moonen, ''Optimal training design for MIMO OFDM systems in mobile wireless channels,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 41, 1615-1624 (2003).

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

R. van Nee, A. van Zelst, and G. Awater, ''Maximum likelihood decoding in a space division multiplexing system,'' in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE, 51st Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 6-10.

1998 (1)

P. W. Wolniansky, G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden, and R. A. Valenzuela, ''V-BLAST: An architecture for realizing very high date rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel,'' in Proceedings of the URSI International Symposium on Signals, Systems, and Electronics (IEEE, 1998), pp. 295-300.

1997 (1)

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, ''Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Pollet, M. van Bladel, and M. Moeneclaey, ''BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. H. Winters, ''On the capacity of radio communication systems with diversity in a Rayleigh fading environment,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. SAC-5, 871-878 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Allen, C. T.

Armstrong, J.

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong, ''Experimental demonstrations of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 18.

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, ''Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP 39.

Awater, G.

R. van Nee, A. van Zelst, and G. Awater, ''Maximum likelihood decoding in a space division multiplexing system,'' in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE, 51st Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 6-10.

Barhumi, I.

I. Barhumi, G. Leus, and M. Moonen, ''Optimal training design for MIMO OFDM systems in mobile wireless channels,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 41, 1615-1624 (2003).

Borne, D. v. d.

Breyer, F.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 6.

Burrows, E. C.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.

Centanni, J. C.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.

Charlet, G.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.

Cox, D. C.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, ''Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Man, E.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, ''10×111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 22.

de Waardt, H.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, ''10×111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 22.

Demarest, K. R.

Djordjevic, I. B.

Doerr, C. R.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.

Du, L. B.

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, ''Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP 39.

Duthel, T.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, ''10×111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 22.

Fludger, C. R. S.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, ''10×111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 22.

Foschini, G. J.

P. W. Wolniansky, G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden, and R. A. Valenzuela, ''V-BLAST: An architecture for realizing very high date rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel,'' in Proceedings of the URSI International Symposium on Signals, Systems, and Electronics (IEEE, 1998), pp. 295-300.

Fukuyama, H.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.

Furuta, T.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.

Golden, G. D.

P. W. Wolniansky, G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden, and R. A. Valenzuela, ''V-BLAST: An architecture for realizing very high date rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel,'' in Proceedings of the URSI International Symposium on Signals, Systems, and Electronics (IEEE, 1998), pp. 295-300.

Hagimoto, K.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.

Han, Y.

Hanik, N.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 6.

Haunstein, H.

M. Mayrock and H. Haunstein, ''PMD tolerant direct-detection optical OFDM system'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu 5.2.5.

Hecker-Denschlag, N. E.

Hibino, Y.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.

Higuma, K.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.

Huang, R.

Hui, R.

Huijskens, F.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 6.

Jansen, S. L.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''Experimental demonstration of 23.6-Gb/s OFDM with a colorless transmitter,'' in Proceedings of the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (IEICE, 2007), paper PD1-5.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, ''Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 26 (to be published).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''16×52.5-Gb/s, 50-GHz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160 km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper PD1.3.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''10-Gb/s OFDM with conventional DFB lasers,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu. 2.5.2.

Kawanishi, T.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.

Khoe, G. D.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, ''10×111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 22.

D. v. d. Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, and H. d. Waardt, ''PMD-induced transmission penalties in polarization-multiplexed transmission,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).

Kobayashi, T.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.

Koonen, A. M. J.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 6.

Lee, S. C. J.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 6.

Leus, G.

I. Barhumi, G. Leus, and M. Moonen, ''Optimal training design for MIMO OFDM systems in mobile wireless channels,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 41, 1615-1624 (2003).

Li, G.

Lowery, A. J.

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong, ''Experimental demonstrations of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 18.

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, ''Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP 39.

Ma, Y.

W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, and Y. Tang, ''Theoretical and experimental study on PMD-supported transmission using polarization diversity in coherent optical OFDM systems,'' Opt. Express 15, 9936-9947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, ''Phase noise on coherent optical OFDM systems with 16-QAM and 64-QAM beyond 10 Gb/s,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu. 2.5.3.

Masuda, H.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.

Mayrock, M.

M. Mayrock and H. Haunstein, ''PMD tolerant direct-detection optical OFDM system'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu 5.2.5.

Miyamoto, Y.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.

Moeneclaey, M.

T. Pollet, M. van Bladel, and M. Moeneclaey, ''BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moonen, M.

I. Barhumi, G. Leus, and M. Moonen, ''Optimal training design for MIMO OFDM systems in mobile wireless channels,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 41, 1615-1624 (2003).

Morita, I.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''Experimental demonstration of 23.6-Gb/s OFDM with a colorless transmitter,'' in Proceedings of the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (IEICE, 2007), paper PD1-5.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''16×52.5-Gb/s, 50-GHz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160 km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper PD1.3.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, ''Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 26 (to be published).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''10-Gb/s OFDM with conventional DFB lasers,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu. 2.5.2.

Pollet, T.

T. Pollet, M. van Bladel, and M. Moeneclaey, ''BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Randel, S.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 6.

Richards, D.

Sakamoto, T.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.

Sano, A.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.

Schenk, T. C. W.

T. C. W. Schenk, RF Imperfections in High-Rate Wireless Systems (Springer, 2008).

A. van Zelst and T. C. W. Schenk, ''Implementation of a MIMO OFDM-based wireless LAN system,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 52, 483-494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, ''Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 26 (to be published).

Schmidl, T. M.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, ''Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. J. C.

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong, ''Experimental demonstrations of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 18.

Schmidt, E.-D.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, ''10×111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 22.

Schulien, C.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, ''10×111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 22.

Schuster, M.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 6.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, and Y. Tang, ''Theoretical and experimental study on PMD-supported transmission using polarization diversity in coherent optical OFDM systems,'' Opt. Express 15, 9936-9947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, ''Phase noise on coherent optical OFDM systems with 16-QAM and 64-QAM beyond 10 Gb/s,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu. 2.5.3.

W. Shieh, ''Maximum-likelihood phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu 4.2.2.

Takeda, N.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, ''Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 26 (to be published).

Tanaka, H.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''Experimental demonstration of 23.6-Gb/s OFDM with a colorless transmitter,'' in Proceedings of the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (IEICE, 2007), paper PD1-5.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, ''Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 26 (to be published).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''16×52.5-Gb/s, 50-GHz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160 km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper PD1.3.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''10-Gb/s OFDM with conventional DFB lasers,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu. 2.5.2.

Tang, Y.

Tran, P.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.

Valenzuela, R. A.

P. W. Wolniansky, G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden, and R. A. Valenzuela, ''V-BLAST: An architecture for realizing very high date rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel,'' in Proceedings of the URSI International Symposium on Signals, Systems, and Electronics (IEEE, 1998), pp. 295-300.

van Bladel, M.

T. Pollet, M. van Bladel, and M. Moeneclaey, ''BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van den Boom, H. P. A.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 6.

van den Borne, D.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, ''10×111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 22.

van Nee, R.

R. van Nee, A. van Zelst, and G. Awater, ''Maximum likelihood decoding in a space division multiplexing system,'' in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE, 51st Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 6-10.

van Zelst, A.

A. van Zelst and T. C. W. Schenk, ''Implementation of a MIMO OFDM-based wireless LAN system,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 52, 483-494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. van Nee, A. van Zelst, and G. Awater, ''Maximum likelihood decoding in a space division multiplexing system,'' in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE, 51st Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 6-10.

Vasic, B.

Waardt, H. d.

Winters, J. H.

J. H. Winters, ''On the capacity of radio communication systems with diversity in a Rayleigh fading environment,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. SAC-5, 871-878 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.

Wolniansky, P. W.

P. W. Wolniansky, G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden, and R. A. Valenzuela, ''V-BLAST: An architecture for realizing very high date rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel,'' in Proceedings of the URSI International Symposium on Signals, Systems, and Electronics (IEEE, 1998), pp. 295-300.

Wuth, T.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, ''10×111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 22.

Yamada, T.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.

Yi, X.

W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, and Y. Tang, ''Theoretical and experimental study on PMD-supported transmission using polarization diversity in coherent optical OFDM systems,'' Opt. Express 15, 9936-9947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, ''Phase noise on coherent optical OFDM systems with 16-QAM and 64-QAM beyond 10 Gb/s,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu. 2.5.3.

Yoshida, E.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.

Zeng, J.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 6.

Zhu, B.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

J. H. Winters, ''On the capacity of radio communication systems with diversity in a Rayleigh fading environment,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. SAC-5, 871-878 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, ''Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Pollet, M. van Bladel, and M. Moeneclaey, ''BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise,'' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (2)

A. van Zelst and T. C. W. Schenk, ''Implementation of a MIMO OFDM-based wireless LAN system,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 52, 483-494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Barhumi, G. Leus, and M. Moonen, ''Optimal training design for MIMO OFDM systems in mobile wireless channels,'' IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 41, 1615-1624 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (3)

Other (16)

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, ''Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2006), paper PDP 39.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''10-Gb/s OFDM with conventional DFB lasers,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu. 2.5.2.

T. C. W. Schenk, RF Imperfections in High-Rate Wireless Systems (Springer, 2008).

P. W. Wolniansky, G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden, and R. A. Valenzuela, ''V-BLAST: An architecture for realizing very high date rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel,'' in Proceedings of the URSI International Symposium on Signals, Systems, and Electronics (IEEE, 1998), pp. 295-300.

R. van Nee, A. van Zelst, and G. Awater, ''Maximum likelihood decoding in a space division multiplexing system,'' in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE, 51st Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE, 2000), Vol. 1, pp. 6-10.

W. Shieh, ''Maximum-likelihood phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu 4.2.2.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, ''25.6-Tb/sC+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 19.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, ''20.4-Tb/s(204×111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 20.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, ''10×111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 22.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, ''Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 26 (to be published).

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, and J. Armstrong, ''Experimental demonstrations of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 18.

X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, ''Phase noise on coherent optical OFDM systems with 16-QAM and 64-QAM beyond 10 Gb/s,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu. 2.5.3.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''Experimental demonstration of 23.6-Gb/s OFDM with a colorless transmitter,'' in Proceedings of the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (IEICE, 2007), paper PD1-5.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, and N. Hanik, ''24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation,'' in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2007), paper PDP 6.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, ''16×52.5-Gb/s, 50-GHz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160 km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing,'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper PD1.3.

M. Mayrock and H. Haunstein, ''PMD tolerant direct-detection optical OFDM system'' presented at the European Conference on Optical Communication, Berlin, Germany, 16-20 September 2007, paper Tu 5.2.5.

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