Abstract

Grid networks provide users with a transparent way to access computational and storage resources. The introduction of (dense) wavelength division multiplexing techniques have made optical networks the technology of choice for data-intensive grid traffic. In a grid network scenario, users are generally more interested in the successful completion of their jobs than in the location where the actual processing occurs. Job routing and scheduling in current generation grid networks are managed by resource brokers, which assign each job to a resource and route the job in a unicast way. An anycast approach using grid-aware network algorithms would bypass the need for a resource broker and increase scalability. We propose several anycast algorithms for job routing in optical grid networks, based on the concept of ant colony optimization, which draws parallels between the behavior of ants gathering food and the routing of packets inside a network. Simulation results show an increased performance of our algorithms over more classical unicast-based protocols, even though this is accompanied by a slight increase in complexity.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Grid computing: the next network challenge!'' J. Commun. Network 3, 159-168 (2004).
  2. I. Foster and C. Kesselman, The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure (Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).
  3. C. A. Brackett, ''Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: principles and applications,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 948-964 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, ''Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 489-500 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Chen and S. Banerjee, ''A new model for optimal routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength division multiplexed optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Fifteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer Societies. Networking the Next Generation (INFOCOM '96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 164-171.
  6. D. Simeonidou, ed., ''Infrastructure for grid,'' Global Grid Forum draft (2004).
  7. D. Simeonidou, R. Nejabati, G. Zervas, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, and M. J. O'Mahony, ''Dynamic optical-network architectures and technologies for existing and emerging grid services,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3347-3357 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Simeonidou and R. Nejabati, ''Optical network infrastructure for grid,'' Global Grid Forum (2002).
  9. ''Phosphorus,'' http://ist-phosphorus.eu.
  10. B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Network aware scheduling in grids,'' in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Networks & Optical Communications (NOC, 2004).
  11. C. Partridge, T. Mendez, and W. Milliken, ''RFC 1546: Host Anycasting Service,'' http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1546.txt.
  12. S. Deering and R. Hinden, RFC 2460: Internet Protocol, Version 6, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2460.txt.
  13. S. Bhattacharjee, M. H. Ammar, E. W. Zegura Viren Shah, and Z. Fei, ''Application-layer anycasting,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 1997), pp. 1388-1396.
  14. D. Xuan, W. Jia, and W. Zhao, ''Routing algorithms for anycast messages,'' presented at the International Conference on Parallel Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 10-14 August, 1998.
  15. W. Jia, D. Xuan, and W. Zhao, ''Integrated routing algorithms for anycast messages,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 48-53 (2000).
  16. M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, and A. Colorni, ''The ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents,'' IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 26, 29-41 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Baran and R. Sosa, ''Antnet: routing algorithm for data networks based on mobile agents,'' Inteligencia Artificial, Revista Iberoamericana de Inteligencia Artificial (AEPIA), 3, 75-94 (2001).
  18. M. Dorigo and G. Di Caro, ''The ant colony optimization meta-heuristic,'' in New Ideas in Optimization, D.Corne, M.Dorigo, and F.Glover, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1999), pp. 11-32.
  19. G. S. Pavani and H. Waldman, ''Grid resource management by means of ant colony optimization,'' Presented at the Third International Workshop on Networks for Grid Applications (GridNets 2006), San Jose, California, 2006.
  20. I. Kassabalidis, M. A. El-Sharkawi, R. J. Marks II, P. Arabshahi, and A. A. Gray, ''Swarm intelligence for routing in communication networks,'' in Global Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM'01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3613-3617.
  21. T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms (MIT Press and McGraw-Hill, 2001).

2006

G. S. Pavani and H. Waldman, ''Grid resource management by means of ant colony optimization,'' Presented at the Third International Workshop on Networks for Grid Applications (GridNets 2006), San Jose, California, 2006.

2005

2004

D. Simeonidou, ed., ''Infrastructure for grid,'' Global Grid Forum draft (2004).

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Grid computing: the next network challenge!'' J. Commun. Network 3, 159-168 (2004).

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Network aware scheduling in grids,'' in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Networks & Optical Communications (NOC, 2004).

2002

D. Simeonidou and R. Nejabati, ''Optical network infrastructure for grid,'' Global Grid Forum (2002).

2001

B. Baran and R. Sosa, ''Antnet: routing algorithm for data networks based on mobile agents,'' Inteligencia Artificial, Revista Iberoamericana de Inteligencia Artificial (AEPIA), 3, 75-94 (2001).

I. Kassabalidis, M. A. El-Sharkawi, R. J. Marks II, P. Arabshahi, and A. A. Gray, ''Swarm intelligence for routing in communication networks,'' in Global Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM'01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3613-3617.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms (MIT Press and McGraw-Hill, 2001).

2000

W. Jia, D. Xuan, and W. Zhao, ''Integrated routing algorithms for anycast messages,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 48-53 (2000).

1999

M. Dorigo and G. Di Caro, ''The ant colony optimization meta-heuristic,'' in New Ideas in Optimization, D.Corne, M.Dorigo, and F.Glover, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1999), pp. 11-32.

I. Foster and C. Kesselman, The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure (Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).

1998

D. Xuan, W. Jia, and W. Zhao, ''Routing algorithms for anycast messages,'' presented at the International Conference on Parallel Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 10-14 August, 1998.

1997

S. Bhattacharjee, M. H. Ammar, E. W. Zegura Viren Shah, and Z. Fei, ''Application-layer anycasting,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 1997), pp. 1388-1396.

1996

M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, and A. Colorni, ''The ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents,'' IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 26, 29-41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen and S. Banerjee, ''A new model for optimal routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength division multiplexed optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Fifteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer Societies. Networking the Next Generation (INFOCOM '96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 164-171.

1995

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, ''Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 489-500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. A. Brackett, ''Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: principles and applications,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 948-964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ammar, M. H.

S. Bhattacharjee, M. H. Ammar, E. W. Zegura Viren Shah, and Z. Fei, ''Application-layer anycasting,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 1997), pp. 1388-1396.

Arabshahi, P.

I. Kassabalidis, M. A. El-Sharkawi, R. J. Marks II, P. Arabshahi, and A. A. Gray, ''Swarm intelligence for routing in communication networks,'' in Global Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM'01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3613-3617.

Banerjee, S.

C. Chen and S. Banerjee, ''A new model for optimal routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength division multiplexed optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Fifteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer Societies. Networking the Next Generation (INFOCOM '96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 164-171.

Baran, B.

B. Baran and R. Sosa, ''Antnet: routing algorithm for data networks based on mobile agents,'' Inteligencia Artificial, Revista Iberoamericana de Inteligencia Artificial (AEPIA), 3, 75-94 (2001).

Bhattacharjee, S.

S. Bhattacharjee, M. H. Ammar, E. W. Zegura Viren Shah, and Z. Fei, ''Application-layer anycasting,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 1997), pp. 1388-1396.

Brackett, C. A.

C. A. Brackett, ''Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: principles and applications,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 948-964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

C. Chen and S. Banerjee, ''A new model for optimal routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength division multiplexed optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Fifteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer Societies. Networking the Next Generation (INFOCOM '96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 164-171.

Colorni, A.

M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, and A. Colorni, ''The ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents,'' IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 26, 29-41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cormen, T. H.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms (MIT Press and McGraw-Hill, 2001).

De Leenheer, M.

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Network aware scheduling in grids,'' in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Networks & Optical Communications (NOC, 2004).

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Grid computing: the next network challenge!'' J. Commun. Network 3, 159-168 (2004).

De Turck, F.

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Grid computing: the next network challenge!'' J. Commun. Network 3, 159-168 (2004).

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Network aware scheduling in grids,'' in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Networks & Optical Communications (NOC, 2004).

Deering, S.

S. Deering and R. Hinden, RFC 2460: Internet Protocol, Version 6, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2460.txt.

Demeester, P.

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Grid computing: the next network challenge!'' J. Commun. Network 3, 159-168 (2004).

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Network aware scheduling in grids,'' in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Networks & Optical Communications (NOC, 2004).

Dhoedt, B.

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Network aware scheduling in grids,'' in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Networks & Optical Communications (NOC, 2004).

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Grid computing: the next network challenge!'' J. Commun. Network 3, 159-168 (2004).

Di Caro, G.

M. Dorigo and G. Di Caro, ''The ant colony optimization meta-heuristic,'' in New Ideas in Optimization, D.Corne, M.Dorigo, and F.Glover, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1999), pp. 11-32.

Dorigo, M.

M. Dorigo and G. Di Caro, ''The ant colony optimization meta-heuristic,'' in New Ideas in Optimization, D.Corne, M.Dorigo, and F.Glover, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1999), pp. 11-32.

M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, and A. Colorni, ''The ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents,'' IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 26, 29-41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

El-Sharkawi, M. A.

I. Kassabalidis, M. A. El-Sharkawi, R. J. Marks II, P. Arabshahi, and A. A. Gray, ''Swarm intelligence for routing in communication networks,'' in Global Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM'01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3613-3617.

Fei, Z.

S. Bhattacharjee, M. H. Ammar, E. W. Zegura Viren Shah, and Z. Fei, ''Application-layer anycasting,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 1997), pp. 1388-1396.

Foster, I.

I. Foster and C. Kesselman, The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure (Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).

Gray, A. A.

I. Kassabalidis, M. A. El-Sharkawi, R. J. Marks II, P. Arabshahi, and A. A. Gray, ''Swarm intelligence for routing in communication networks,'' in Global Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM'01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3613-3617.

Hinden, R.

S. Deering and R. Hinden, RFC 2460: Internet Protocol, Version 6, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2460.txt.

Jia, W.

W. Jia, D. Xuan, and W. Zhao, ''Integrated routing algorithms for anycast messages,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 48-53 (2000).

D. Xuan, W. Jia, and W. Zhao, ''Routing algorithms for anycast messages,'' presented at the International Conference on Parallel Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 10-14 August, 1998.

Kassabalidis, I.

I. Kassabalidis, M. A. El-Sharkawi, R. J. Marks II, P. Arabshahi, and A. A. Gray, ''Swarm intelligence for routing in communication networks,'' in Global Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM'01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3613-3617.

Kesselman, C.

I. Foster and C. Kesselman, The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure (Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).

Klonidis, D.

Leiserson, C. E.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms (MIT Press and McGraw-Hill, 2001).

Maniezzo, V.

M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, and A. Colorni, ''The ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents,'' IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 26, 29-41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marks II, R. J.

I. Kassabalidis, M. A. El-Sharkawi, R. J. Marks II, P. Arabshahi, and A. A. Gray, ''Swarm intelligence for routing in communication networks,'' in Global Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM'01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3613-3617.

Mendez, T.

C. Partridge, T. Mendez, and W. Milliken, ''RFC 1546: Host Anycasting Service,'' http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1546.txt.

Milliken, W.

C. Partridge, T. Mendez, and W. Milliken, ''RFC 1546: Host Anycasting Service,'' http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1546.txt.

Nejabati, R.

O'Mahony, M. J.

Partridge, C.

C. Partridge, T. Mendez, and W. Milliken, ''RFC 1546: Host Anycasting Service,'' http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1546.txt.

Pavani, G. S.

G. S. Pavani and H. Waldman, ''Grid resource management by means of ant colony optimization,'' Presented at the Third International Workshop on Networks for Grid Applications (GridNets 2006), San Jose, California, 2006.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, ''Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 489-500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rivest, R. L.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms (MIT Press and McGraw-Hill, 2001).

Simeonidou, D.

D. Simeonidou, R. Nejabati, G. Zervas, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, and M. J. O'Mahony, ''Dynamic optical-network architectures and technologies for existing and emerging grid services,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3347-3357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Simeonidou, ed., ''Infrastructure for grid,'' Global Grid Forum draft (2004).

D. Simeonidou and R. Nejabati, ''Optical network infrastructure for grid,'' Global Grid Forum (2002).

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, ''Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 489-500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sosa, R.

B. Baran and R. Sosa, ''Antnet: routing algorithm for data networks based on mobile agents,'' Inteligencia Artificial, Revista Iberoamericana de Inteligencia Artificial (AEPIA), 3, 75-94 (2001).

Stein, C.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms (MIT Press and McGraw-Hill, 2001).

Thysebaert, P.

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Network aware scheduling in grids,'' in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Networks & Optical Communications (NOC, 2004).

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Grid computing: the next network challenge!'' J. Commun. Network 3, 159-168 (2004).

Tzanakaki, A.

Volckaert, B.

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Grid computing: the next network challenge!'' J. Commun. Network 3, 159-168 (2004).

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Network aware scheduling in grids,'' in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Networks & Optical Communications (NOC, 2004).

Waldman, H.

G. S. Pavani and H. Waldman, ''Grid resource management by means of ant colony optimization,'' Presented at the Third International Workshop on Networks for Grid Applications (GridNets 2006), San Jose, California, 2006.

Xuan, D.

W. Jia, D. Xuan, and W. Zhao, ''Integrated routing algorithms for anycast messages,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 48-53 (2000).

D. Xuan, W. Jia, and W. Zhao, ''Routing algorithms for anycast messages,'' presented at the International Conference on Parallel Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 10-14 August, 1998.

Zegura Viren Shah, E. W.

S. Bhattacharjee, M. H. Ammar, E. W. Zegura Viren Shah, and Z. Fei, ''Application-layer anycasting,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 1997), pp. 1388-1396.

Zervas, G.

Zhao, W.

W. Jia, D. Xuan, and W. Zhao, ''Integrated routing algorithms for anycast messages,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 48-53 (2000).

D. Xuan, W. Jia, and W. Zhao, ''Routing algorithms for anycast messages,'' presented at the International Conference on Parallel Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 10-14 August, 1998.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

W. Jia, D. Xuan, and W. Zhao, ''Integrated routing algorithms for anycast messages,'' IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 48-53 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

C. A. Brackett, ''Dense wavelength division multiplexing networks: principles and applications,'' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 948-964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.

M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, and A. Colorni, ''The ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents,'' IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 26, 29-41 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, ''Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,'' IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 489-500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Commun. Network

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Grid computing: the next network challenge!'' J. Commun. Network 3, 159-168 (2004).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

I. Foster and C. Kesselman, The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure (Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).

C. Chen and S. Banerjee, ''A new model for optimal routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength division multiplexed optical networks,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Fifteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer Societies. Networking the Next Generation (INFOCOM '96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 164-171.

D. Simeonidou, ed., ''Infrastructure for grid,'' Global Grid Forum draft (2004).

B. Baran and R. Sosa, ''Antnet: routing algorithm for data networks based on mobile agents,'' Inteligencia Artificial, Revista Iberoamericana de Inteligencia Artificial (AEPIA), 3, 75-94 (2001).

M. Dorigo and G. Di Caro, ''The ant colony optimization meta-heuristic,'' in New Ideas in Optimization, D.Corne, M.Dorigo, and F.Glover, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, 1999), pp. 11-32.

G. S. Pavani and H. Waldman, ''Grid resource management by means of ant colony optimization,'' Presented at the Third International Workshop on Networks for Grid Applications (GridNets 2006), San Jose, California, 2006.

I. Kassabalidis, M. A. El-Sharkawi, R. J. Marks II, P. Arabshahi, and A. A. Gray, ''Swarm intelligence for routing in communication networks,'' in Global Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM'01 (IEEE, 2001), pp. 3613-3617.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms (MIT Press and McGraw-Hill, 2001).

D. Simeonidou and R. Nejabati, ''Optical network infrastructure for grid,'' Global Grid Forum (2002).

''Phosphorus,'' http://ist-phosphorus.eu.

B. Volckaert, P. Thysebaert, M. De Leenheer, F. De Turck, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, ''Network aware scheduling in grids,'' in Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Networks & Optical Communications (NOC, 2004).

C. Partridge, T. Mendez, and W. Milliken, ''RFC 1546: Host Anycasting Service,'' http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1546.txt.

S. Deering and R. Hinden, RFC 2460: Internet Protocol, Version 6, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2460.txt.

S. Bhattacharjee, M. H. Ammar, E. W. Zegura Viren Shah, and Z. Fei, ''Application-layer anycasting,'' in Proceedings of IEEE Sixteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE, 1997), pp. 1388-1396.

D. Xuan, W. Jia, and W. Zhao, ''Routing algorithms for anycast messages,'' presented at the International Conference on Parallel Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 10-14 August, 1998.

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