Abstract

The scarcity of buffering within all-optical routers poses a significant challenge to their potential deployment in the Internet backbone. We present a thorough investigation into the performance of the integrated router interconnected spectrally (IRIS), an all-optical router, using network and traffic models representative of the Internet backbone. When exposed to the burstiness of Internet traffic, optical routers are susceptible to significant losses, even under light load conditions. We evaluate a rate control framework that uses electronics-based edge routers to control the rate and to shape the traffic entering the all-optical core. Our results from simulations show that IRIS can operate loss free at utilizations as high as 90% and that the severity of such losses beyond the 90% threshold can be greatly reduced with a slight increase in buffer size. Finally, we show that the reordering introduced by the load-balanced architecture of IRIS has almost no effect on the end-to-end packet ordering.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Bernasconi, J. Gripp, D. Neilson, J. Simsarian, D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, and M. Zirngibl, “Architecture of an integrated router interconnected spectrally (IRIS),” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. S. Chang, D. S. Lee, and Y. S. Jou, “Load balanced Birkoff-von Neuman switches,' in 2001 IEEE Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2001), 276-280.
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, C. Dragone, M. Capuzzo, E. Laskowski, and A. Paunescu, “Large N×N waveguide grating routers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 985-991 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Bernasconi, W. Yang, L. Zhang, N. Sauer, L. Buhl, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, and D. T. Neilson, “Monolithically integrated 40 Gb/s wavelength converter with multi-frequrency laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP16.
  5. C. J. Fraleigh, “Provisioning internet backbone networks to support latency sensitive applications,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2002).
  6. W. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of ethernet traffic,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 1993), pp. 183-193.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Cao, W. Cleveland, D. Lin, and D. Sun, “On the nonstationarity of internet traffic.” in ACM SIGMETRICS (Association for Computing Machinery, 2001), pp. 102-112.
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Joo, A. C. Gilbert, and W. Willinger, “TCP/IP traffic dynamics and network performace: a lesson in workload modeling, flow control, and trace-driven simulations,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 31(2), 25-37 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Garrett and W. Willinger, “Analysis, modeling and generation of self-similar VBR video traffic,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 1994), pp. 269-280.
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Villamizar and C. Song, “High performance TCP in ANSNET,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 24(5), 45-60 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Gopalakrishnan, “Performance evaluation of IRIS with rate control,” M.S. thesis (University of California Santa Cruz, 2006).
  12. G. Appenzeller, I. Keslassy, and N. McKeown, “Sizing router buffers,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.
  13. F. Bonomi and K. W. Fendick, “The rate-based flow control framework for the available bit rate ATM service,” IEEE Network 9(2), 25-39 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Papagiannaki, R. Cruz, and C. Diot, “Network performance monitoring at small time scales,” in ACM Internet Measurement Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, 2003), pp. 295-300.
  15. A. Arulambalam, X. Chen, and N. Ansari, “Allocating fair rates for available bit rate service in ATM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 34(11), 92-100 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Kalampoukas, A. Varma, and K. Ramakrishnan, “An efficient rate allocation algorithm for ATM networks providing max-min fairness,” in 6th IFIP International Conference on High Performance Networking (Chapman & Hall, 2005), pp. 143-154.
  17. V. Paxson and S. Floyd, “Wide area traffic: the failure of Poisson modeling,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 226-244 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. The Network Simulator (NS-2), http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.
  19. L. Kleinrock, Queueing Systems, Volume 1: Theory (Wiley, 1975).
  20. R. Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated Volume 1: The Protocols (Addison-Wesley, 1993).

2001 (1)

Y. Joo, A. C. Gilbert, and W. Willinger, “TCP/IP traffic dynamics and network performace: a lesson in workload modeling, flow control, and trace-driven simulations,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 31(2), 25-37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

A. Arulambalam, X. Chen, and N. Ansari, “Allocating fair rates for available bit rate service in ATM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 34(11), 92-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

V. Paxson and S. Floyd, “Wide area traffic: the failure of Poisson modeling,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 226-244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonomi and K. W. Fendick, “The rate-based flow control framework for the available bit rate ATM service,” IEEE Network 9(2), 25-39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Villamizar and C. Song, “High performance TCP in ANSNET,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 24(5), 45-60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ansari, N.

A. Arulambalam, X. Chen, and N. Ansari, “Allocating fair rates for available bit rate service in ATM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 34(11), 92-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appenzeller, G.

G. Appenzeller, I. Keslassy, and N. McKeown, “Sizing router buffers,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.

Arulambalam, A.

A. Arulambalam, X. Chen, and N. Ansari, “Allocating fair rates for available bit rate service in ATM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 34(11), 92-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bernasconi, P.

P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, C. Dragone, M. Capuzzo, E. Laskowski, and A. Paunescu, “Large N×N waveguide grating routers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 985-991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Bernasconi, J. Gripp, D. Neilson, J. Simsarian, D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, and M. Zirngibl, “Architecture of an integrated router interconnected spectrally (IRIS),” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Bernasconi, W. Yang, L. Zhang, N. Sauer, L. Buhl, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, and D. T. Neilson, “Monolithically integrated 40 Gb/s wavelength converter with multi-frequrency laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP16.

Bonomi, F.

F. Bonomi and K. W. Fendick, “The rate-based flow control framework for the available bit rate ATM service,” IEEE Network 9(2), 25-39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L.

P. Bernasconi, W. Yang, L. Zhang, N. Sauer, L. Buhl, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, and D. T. Neilson, “Monolithically integrated 40 Gb/s wavelength converter with multi-frequrency laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP16.

Cao, J.

J. Cao, W. Cleveland, D. Lin, and D. Sun, “On the nonstationarity of internet traffic.” in ACM SIGMETRICS (Association for Computing Machinery, 2001), pp. 102-112.
[CrossRef]

Capuzzo, M.

Chandrasekhar, S.

P. Bernasconi, W. Yang, L. Zhang, N. Sauer, L. Buhl, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, and D. T. Neilson, “Monolithically integrated 40 Gb/s wavelength converter with multi-frequrency laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP16.

Chang, C. S.

C. S. Chang, D. S. Lee, and Y. S. Jou, “Load balanced Birkoff-von Neuman switches,' in 2001 IEEE Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2001), 276-280.
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

A. Arulambalam, X. Chen, and N. Ansari, “Allocating fair rates for available bit rate service in ATM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 34(11), 92-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cleveland, W.

J. Cao, W. Cleveland, D. Lin, and D. Sun, “On the nonstationarity of internet traffic.” in ACM SIGMETRICS (Association for Computing Machinery, 2001), pp. 102-112.
[CrossRef]

Cruz, R.

K. Papagiannaki, R. Cruz, and C. Diot, “Network performance monitoring at small time scales,” in ACM Internet Measurement Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, 2003), pp. 295-300.

Diot, C.

K. Papagiannaki, R. Cruz, and C. Diot, “Network performance monitoring at small time scales,” in ACM Internet Measurement Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, 2003), pp. 295-300.

Doerr, C.

Dragone, C.

Fendick, K. W.

F. Bonomi and K. W. Fendick, “The rate-based flow control framework for the available bit rate ATM service,” IEEE Network 9(2), 25-39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Floyd, S.

V. Paxson and S. Floyd, “Wide area traffic: the failure of Poisson modeling,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 226-244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fraleigh, C. J.

C. J. Fraleigh, “Provisioning internet backbone networks to support latency sensitive applications,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2002).

Garrett, M.

M. Garrett and W. Willinger, “Analysis, modeling and generation of self-similar VBR video traffic,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 1994), pp. 269-280.
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, A. C.

Y. Joo, A. C. Gilbert, and W. Willinger, “TCP/IP traffic dynamics and network performace: a lesson in workload modeling, flow control, and trace-driven simulations,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 31(2), 25-37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gopalakrishnan, R.

R. Gopalakrishnan, “Performance evaluation of IRIS with rate control,” M.S. thesis (University of California Santa Cruz, 2006).

Gripp, J.

P. Bernasconi, J. Gripp, D. Neilson, J. Simsarian, D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, and M. Zirngibl, “Architecture of an integrated router interconnected spectrally (IRIS),” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Joo, Y.

Y. Joo, A. C. Gilbert, and W. Willinger, “TCP/IP traffic dynamics and network performace: a lesson in workload modeling, flow control, and trace-driven simulations,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 31(2), 25-37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jou, Y. S.

C. S. Chang, D. S. Lee, and Y. S. Jou, “Load balanced Birkoff-von Neuman switches,' in 2001 IEEE Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2001), 276-280.
[CrossRef]

Kalampoukas, L.

L. Kalampoukas, A. Varma, and K. Ramakrishnan, “An efficient rate allocation algorithm for ATM networks providing max-min fairness,” in 6th IFIP International Conference on High Performance Networking (Chapman & Hall, 2005), pp. 143-154.

Kang, I.

P. Bernasconi, W. Yang, L. Zhang, N. Sauer, L. Buhl, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, and D. T. Neilson, “Monolithically integrated 40 Gb/s wavelength converter with multi-frequrency laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP16.

Keslassy, I.

G. Appenzeller, I. Keslassy, and N. McKeown, “Sizing router buffers,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.

Kleinrock, L.

L. Kleinrock, Queueing Systems, Volume 1: Theory (Wiley, 1975).

Laskowski, E.

Lee, D. S.

C. S. Chang, D. S. Lee, and Y. S. Jou, “Load balanced Birkoff-von Neuman switches,' in 2001 IEEE Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2001), 276-280.
[CrossRef]

Leland, W.

W. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of ethernet traffic,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 1993), pp. 183-193.
[CrossRef]

Lin, D.

J. Cao, W. Cleveland, D. Lin, and D. Sun, “On the nonstationarity of internet traffic.” in ACM SIGMETRICS (Association for Computing Machinery, 2001), pp. 102-112.
[CrossRef]

McKeown, N.

G. Appenzeller, I. Keslassy, and N. McKeown, “Sizing router buffers,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.

Neilson, D.

P. Bernasconi, J. Gripp, D. Neilson, J. Simsarian, D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, and M. Zirngibl, “Architecture of an integrated router interconnected spectrally (IRIS),” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, D. T.

P. Bernasconi, W. Yang, L. Zhang, N. Sauer, L. Buhl, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, and D. T. Neilson, “Monolithically integrated 40 Gb/s wavelength converter with multi-frequrency laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP16.

Papagiannaki, K.

K. Papagiannaki, R. Cruz, and C. Diot, “Network performance monitoring at small time scales,” in ACM Internet Measurement Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, 2003), pp. 295-300.

Paunescu, A.

Paxson, V.

V. Paxson and S. Floyd, “Wide area traffic: the failure of Poisson modeling,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 226-244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishnan, K.

L. Kalampoukas, A. Varma, and K. Ramakrishnan, “An efficient rate allocation algorithm for ATM networks providing max-min fairness,” in 6th IFIP International Conference on High Performance Networking (Chapman & Hall, 2005), pp. 143-154.

Sauer, N.

P. Bernasconi, W. Yang, L. Zhang, N. Sauer, L. Buhl, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, and D. T. Neilson, “Monolithically integrated 40 Gb/s wavelength converter with multi-frequrency laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP16.

Simsarian, J.

P. Bernasconi, J. Gripp, D. Neilson, J. Simsarian, D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, and M. Zirngibl, “Architecture of an integrated router interconnected spectrally (IRIS),” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, C.

C. Villamizar and C. Song, “High performance TCP in ANSNET,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 24(5), 45-60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, R.

R. Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated Volume 1: The Protocols (Addison-Wesley, 1993).

Stiliadis, D.

P. Bernasconi, J. Gripp, D. Neilson, J. Simsarian, D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, and M. Zirngibl, “Architecture of an integrated router interconnected spectrally (IRIS),” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, D.

J. Cao, W. Cleveland, D. Lin, and D. Sun, “On the nonstationarity of internet traffic.” in ACM SIGMETRICS (Association for Computing Machinery, 2001), pp. 102-112.
[CrossRef]

Taqqu, M. S.

W. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of ethernet traffic,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 1993), pp. 183-193.
[CrossRef]

Varma, A.

P. Bernasconi, J. Gripp, D. Neilson, J. Simsarian, D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, and M. Zirngibl, “Architecture of an integrated router interconnected spectrally (IRIS),” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Kalampoukas, A. Varma, and K. Ramakrishnan, “An efficient rate allocation algorithm for ATM networks providing max-min fairness,” in 6th IFIP International Conference on High Performance Networking (Chapman & Hall, 2005), pp. 143-154.

Villamizar, C.

C. Villamizar and C. Song, “High performance TCP in ANSNET,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 24(5), 45-60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Willinger, W.

Y. Joo, A. C. Gilbert, and W. Willinger, “TCP/IP traffic dynamics and network performace: a lesson in workload modeling, flow control, and trace-driven simulations,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 31(2), 25-37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Garrett and W. Willinger, “Analysis, modeling and generation of self-similar VBR video traffic,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 1994), pp. 269-280.
[CrossRef]

W. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of ethernet traffic,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 1993), pp. 183-193.
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. V.

W. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of ethernet traffic,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 1993), pp. 183-193.
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

P. Bernasconi, W. Yang, L. Zhang, N. Sauer, L. Buhl, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, and D. T. Neilson, “Monolithically integrated 40 Gb/s wavelength converter with multi-frequrency laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP16.

Zhang, L.

P. Bernasconi, W. Yang, L. Zhang, N. Sauer, L. Buhl, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, and D. T. Neilson, “Monolithically integrated 40 Gb/s wavelength converter with multi-frequrency laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP16.

Zirngibl, M.

P. Bernasconi, J. Gripp, D. Neilson, J. Simsarian, D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, and M. Zirngibl, “Architecture of an integrated router interconnected spectrally (IRIS),” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Commun. Rev. (2)

Y. Joo, A. C. Gilbert, and W. Willinger, “TCP/IP traffic dynamics and network performace: a lesson in workload modeling, flow control, and trace-driven simulations,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 31(2), 25-37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Villamizar and C. Song, “High performance TCP in ANSNET,” Comput. Commun. Rev. 24(5), 45-60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. Arulambalam, X. Chen, and N. Ansari, “Allocating fair rates for available bit rate service in ATM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 34(11), 92-100 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

F. Bonomi and K. W. Fendick, “The rate-based flow control framework for the available bit rate ATM service,” IEEE Network 9(2), 25-39 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

V. Paxson and S. Floyd, “Wide area traffic: the failure of Poisson modeling,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 3, 226-244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (14)

P. Bernasconi, W. Yang, L. Zhang, N. Sauer, L. Buhl, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, and D. T. Neilson, “Monolithically integrated 40 Gb/s wavelength converter with multi-frequrency laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP16.

C. J. Fraleigh, “Provisioning internet backbone networks to support latency sensitive applications,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2002).

W. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of ethernet traffic,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 1993), pp. 183-193.
[CrossRef]

J. Cao, W. Cleveland, D. Lin, and D. Sun, “On the nonstationarity of internet traffic.” in ACM SIGMETRICS (Association for Computing Machinery, 2001), pp. 102-112.
[CrossRef]

M. Garrett and W. Willinger, “Analysis, modeling and generation of self-similar VBR video traffic,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 1994), pp. 269-280.
[CrossRef]

P. Bernasconi, J. Gripp, D. Neilson, J. Simsarian, D. Stiliadis, A. Varma, and M. Zirngibl, “Architecture of an integrated router interconnected spectrally (IRIS),” in 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Chang, D. S. Lee, and Y. S. Jou, “Load balanced Birkoff-von Neuman switches,' in 2001 IEEE Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (IEEE, 2001), 276-280.
[CrossRef]

The Network Simulator (NS-2), http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.

L. Kleinrock, Queueing Systems, Volume 1: Theory (Wiley, 1975).

R. Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated Volume 1: The Protocols (Addison-Wesley, 1993).

K. Papagiannaki, R. Cruz, and C. Diot, “Network performance monitoring at small time scales,” in ACM Internet Measurement Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, 2003), pp. 295-300.

R. Gopalakrishnan, “Performance evaluation of IRIS with rate control,” M.S. thesis (University of California Santa Cruz, 2006).

G. Appenzeller, I. Keslassy, and N. McKeown, “Sizing router buffers,” in ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.

L. Kalampoukas, A. Varma, and K. Ramakrishnan, “An efficient rate allocation algorithm for ATM networks providing max-min fairness,” in 6th IFIP International Conference on High Performance Networking (Chapman & Hall, 2005), pp. 143-154.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

IRIS 2 × 2 router. HL, header lookup; FIFO, first in, first out.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Rate-controlled backbone architecture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rate control operations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Multihop topology used in the simulations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured CLR at the offered load for the single-router topology. FIFO depths of 8, 16, and 32 cells were considered.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CLR for multihop traffic. Each router at a hop was subjected to similar load conditions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Aggregate throughput of TCP flows under different load conditions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cell loss rate versus average link utilization is shown for router R2 in the multihop topology. Other routers exhibited similar behavior. Note that for a FIFO depth of four, the utilization maxes out around the 96% mark due to losses. VOQ depths were fixed at eight cells.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Loss probability versus VOQ depth is shown for a 4 × 4 router. We vary the number of inputs between 4, 8, and 12 contending for a single output.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average FIFO lengths. After the initial warmup period, averages stabilize to approximately 2.5–3 cells.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Losses at the third-stage FIFOs appear bursty at different time scales. FIFO depths are fixed at eight cells. Note that the 10 ms data is over a 1 s time frame, whereas the others are limited to 100 ms .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fraction of losses remaining after FIFO depths are increased from a base value of four cells.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Distribution of distances between successive cells as they pass through subsequent hops (flows originate at R0).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Autocorrelation function of traffic arrivals from the gateway and IRIS routers R0–R4 using a 1 μ s interval length.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Aggregate TCP throughput corresponding to where the flows originated in the multihop topology.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Cumulative probability density function for the distance between two dropped packets from the same flow.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Distribution of cell displacements from their original sequential order are shown with (left) and without (right) the rate control framework.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Scheduling Matrix for a 2 × 2 IRIS Router, Where Each Input is Paired with the N 2 Second-Stage Memories in a Round-Robin Fashion

Tables Icon

Table 2 Base Configuration Values for the IRIS Routers Used in Simulation

Tables Icon

Table 3 TCP Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 4 Individual VBR Source Node Parameters

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A max ( t ) = total bandwidth available to bottlenecked VCs number of bottlenecked VCs .
A max ( t ) = B ( t ) i S u ( t ) A i ( t ) N b ( t ) .
A max ( t ) = B ( t ) i S u ( t ) A i ( t ) + A j ( t ) [ N b ( t ) + 1 ] .
A j ( t + ) = min { A max ( t ) , E R j , C R j } .