Abstract

<p><a href="http://www.osa-jon.org/virtual_issue.cfm?vid=31">Feature Issue on Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks</a></p>We present experimental results on the transmission of 10×10Gbit Ethernet (10 GE) channels over a 383km long fiber link composed of 133km nonzero dispersion shifted and 150km plus 100km of standard single mode fiber. Transmission is based on distributed Raman amplification in the three fiber spans. Susceptibility of the transmission quality to channel addition-removal has been investigated by replacing eight of the 10 GE small form factor pluggable module transceivers with signals from a WDM tester that were square-wave modulated at 500Hz with 50% duty cycle. Experimental results are extended by numerical simulation of surviving channel power transients in the cascade.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. E. Neuhause, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, C. Fuerst, A. Faerbert, H. Rohde, and B. Lankl, ''New remote pump scheme enabling high-capacity (3.2Tb/s) unrepeated C+L band transmission over 220km,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002), paper TuR2, pp. 117-119.
  2. K. Fukuchi, K. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, ''10.92-Tb/s (273×40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC, 2001) (IEEE, 2001), paper PD24.
  3. A. J. Lucero, G. Foursa, D. Kovsh, M. Nissov, and A. N. Pilipetskii, ''Long-haul Raman-assisted EDFA systems with ultra-long spans,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper JThA39.
  4. J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nisov, W. T. Anderson, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, and N. S. Bergano, ''Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over 4,450km with 150-km repeater spacing using Raman assisted EDFAs,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper OWM3.
  5. L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnuck, ''1.6Tb/s(160×10.7Gb/s) transmission over 4000km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. DiPasquale, F. Meli, E. Griseri, A. Squazzoti, C. Toseti, and F. Forghieri, ''All Raman transmission of 192×25-GHz spaced WDM channels at 10.66Gb/s over 30×22dB of TW-RS fiber,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 314-316 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, L. Fenghai, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, ''DWDM 40 G transmission over trans-pacific distance (10000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, all-Raman amplified 100km UlraWave fibber spans,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 203-207 (2004).
  8. M. Maeda, ''Operation and management of WDM optical networks,'' in Optical Fiber Communications, 1996 (OFC, 1996) (IEEE, 1996), paper FD4, pp. 318-319.
  9. Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastawa, J. L. Zyskind, C. Wolf, J. W. Sulhoff, and R. W. Tkach, ''Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Delevaque, T. Georges, J. F. Bayon, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Berane, ''Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by lasing at 1480nm with photoinduced Bragg gratings written on the fiber,'' Electron. Lett. 29, 1112-1114 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.
  12. M. Karasek and F. W. Willems, ''Suppression of dynamic cross saturation in cascades of overpumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1036-1038 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. J. Chen and W. S. Wong, ''Transient effects in saturated Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 371-373 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Karasek and M. Menif, ''Channel addition/removal response in Raman fiber amplifiers: modeling and experimentation,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1680-1687 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Karasek, J. Kanka, and J. Radil, ''Analysis of channel addition/removal response in all-optical gain-clamped cascade of lumped Raman fiber amplifiers,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2271-2278 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, and Y. Akasaka, ''Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper ThB4 385.
  18. E. Schulze, M. Malach, and F. Raub, ''All-Raman amplified links in comparison to EDFA links in case of switched traffic,'' in 28th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2002 (ECOC 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper S3.8.
  19. M. Karasek, J. Kanka, L. Bohac, D. Krcmarik, J. Radil, and J. Vojtech, ''Surviving-channel-power transients in second-order pumped lumped Raman fiber amplifier: experimentation and modeling,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 664-672 (2007).
  20. B. Min and W. J. Lee, ''Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1486-1488 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2007

A. J. Lucero, G. Foursa, D. Kovsh, M. Nissov, and A. N. Pilipetskii, ''Long-haul Raman-assisted EDFA systems with ultra-long spans,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper JThA39.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nisov, W. T. Anderson, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, and N. S. Bergano, ''Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over 4,450km with 150-km repeater spacing using Raman assisted EDFAs,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper OWM3.

M. Karasek, J. Kanka, L. Bohac, D. Krcmarik, J. Radil, and J. Vojtech, ''Surviving-channel-power transients in second-order pumped lumped Raman fiber amplifier: experimentation and modeling,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 664-672 (2007).

2004

2003

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnuck, ''1.6Tb/s(160×10.7Gb/s) transmission over 4000km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. DiPasquale, F. Meli, E. Griseri, A. Squazzoti, C. Toseti, and F. Forghieri, ''All Raman transmission of 192×25-GHz spaced WDM channels at 10.66Gb/s over 30×22dB of TW-RS fiber,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 314-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. E. Neuhause, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, C. Fuerst, A. Faerbert, H. Rohde, and B. Lankl, ''New remote pump scheme enabling high-capacity (3.2Tb/s) unrepeated C+L band transmission over 220km,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002), paper TuR2, pp. 117-119.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, and Y. Akasaka, ''Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper ThB4 385.

E. Schulze, M. Malach, and F. Raub, ''All-Raman amplified links in comparison to EDFA links in case of switched traffic,'' in 28th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2002 (ECOC 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper S3.8.

M. Karasek and M. Menif, ''Channel addition/removal response in Raman fiber amplifiers: modeling and experimentation,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1680-1687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukuchi, K. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, ''10.92-Tb/s (273×40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC, 2001) (IEEE, 2001), paper PD24.

C. J. Chen and W. S. Wong, ''Transient effects in saturated Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 371-373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. Min and W. J. Lee, ''Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1486-1488 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Karasek and F. W. Willems, ''Suppression of dynamic cross saturation in cascades of overpumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1036-1038 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastawa, J. L. Zyskind, C. Wolf, J. W. Sulhoff, and R. W. Tkach, ''Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

M. Maeda, ''Operation and management of WDM optical networks,'' in Optical Fiber Communications, 1996 (OFC, 1996) (IEEE, 1996), paper FD4, pp. 318-319.

1993

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, J. F. Bayon, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Berane, ''Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by lasing at 1480nm with photoinduced Bragg gratings written on the fiber,'' Electron. Lett. 29, 1112-1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Akasaka, Y.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, L. Fenghai, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, ''DWDM 40 G transmission over trans-pacific distance (10000km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, all-Raman amplified 100km UlraWave fibber spans,'' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 203-207 (2004).

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, and Y. Akasaka, ''Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper ThB4 385.

An, F.-T.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, and Y. Akasaka, ''Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper ThB4 385.

Anderson, W. T.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nisov, W. T. Anderson, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, and N. S. Bergano, ''Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over 4,450km with 150-km repeater spacing using Raman assisted EDFAs,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper OWM3.

Bayon, J. F.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, J. F. Bayon, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Berane, ''Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by lasing at 1480nm with photoinduced Bragg gratings written on the fiber,'' Electron. Lett. 29, 1112-1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bennike, J.

Berane, P.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, J. F. Bayon, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Berane, ''Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by lasing at 1480nm with photoinduced Bragg gratings written on the fiber,'' Electron. Lett. 29, 1112-1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nisov, W. T. Anderson, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, and N. S. Bergano, ''Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over 4,450km with 150-km repeater spacing using Raman assisted EDFAs,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper OWM3.

Bohac, L.

Cabot, S.

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cai, J.-X.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nisov, W. T. Anderson, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, and N. S. Bergano, ''Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over 4,450km with 150-km repeater spacing using Raman assisted EDFAs,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper OWM3.

Cao, Y.

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Centanni, J.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnuck, ''1.6Tb/s(160×10.7Gb/s) transmission over 4000km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. J.

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chen and W. S. Wong, ''Transient effects in saturated Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 371-373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

Corbett, P. C.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nisov, W. T. Anderson, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, and N. S. Bergano, ''Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over 4,450km with 150-km repeater spacing using Raman assisted EDFAs,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper OWM3.

Delevaque, E.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, J. F. Bayon, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Berane, ''Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by lasing at 1480nm with photoinduced Bragg gratings written on the fiber,'' Electron. Lett. 29, 1112-1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dey, S.

DiPasquale, F.

F. DiPasquale, F. Meli, E. Griseri, A. Squazzoti, C. Toseti, and F. Forghieri, ''All Raman transmission of 192×25-GHz spaced WDM channels at 10.66Gb/s over 30×22dB of TW-RS fiber,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 314-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Edvold, B.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnuck, ''1.6Tb/s(160×10.7Gb/s) transmission over 4000km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ellson, J. C.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

Faerbert, A.

R. E. Neuhause, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, C. Fuerst, A. Faerbert, H. Rohde, and B. Lankl, ''New remote pump scheme enabling high-capacity (3.2Tb/s) unrepeated C+L band transmission over 220km,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002), paper TuR2, pp. 117-119.

Fenghai, L.

Fjelde, T.

Forghieri, F.

F. DiPasquale, F. Meli, E. Griseri, A. Squazzoti, C. Toseti, and F. Forghieri, ''All Raman transmission of 192×25-GHz spaced WDM channels at 10.66Gb/s over 30×22dB of TW-RS fiber,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 314-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foursa, D. G.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nisov, W. T. Anderson, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, and N. S. Bergano, ''Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over 4,450km with 150-km repeater spacing using Raman assisted EDFAs,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper OWM3.

Foursa, G.

A. J. Lucero, G. Foursa, D. Kovsh, M. Nissov, and A. N. Pilipetskii, ''Long-haul Raman-assisted EDFA systems with ultra-long spans,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper JThA39.

Fuerst, C.

R. E. Neuhause, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, C. Fuerst, A. Faerbert, H. Rohde, and B. Lankl, ''New remote pump scheme enabling high-capacity (3.2Tb/s) unrepeated C+L band transmission over 220km,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002), paper TuR2, pp. 117-119.

Fukuchi, K.

K. Fukuchi, K. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, ''10.92-Tb/s (273×40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC, 2001) (IEEE, 2001), paper PD24.

Gapontsev, D.

Gassner, M. J.

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Georges, T.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, J. F. Bayon, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Berane, ''Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by lasing at 1480nm with photoinduced Bragg gratings written on the fiber,'' Electron. Lett. 29, 1112-1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gnuck, A.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnuck, ''1.6Tb/s(160×10.7Gb/s) transmission over 4000km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gottwald, E.

R. E. Neuhause, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, C. Fuerst, A. Faerbert, H. Rohde, and B. Lankl, ''New remote pump scheme enabling high-capacity (3.2Tb/s) unrepeated C+L band transmission over 220km,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002), paper TuR2, pp. 117-119.

Griseri, E.

F. DiPasquale, F. Meli, E. Griseri, A. Squazzoti, C. Toseti, and F. Forghieri, ''All Raman transmission of 192×25-GHz spaced WDM channels at 10.66Gb/s over 30×22dB of TW-RS fiber,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 314-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnuck, ''1.6Tb/s(160×10.7Gb/s) transmission over 4000km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harris, D.

Hecker-Denschlag, N. E.

R. E. Neuhause, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, C. Fuerst, A. Faerbert, H. Rohde, and B. Lankl, ''New remote pump scheme enabling high-capacity (3.2Tb/s) unrepeated C+L band transmission over 220km,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002), paper TuR2, pp. 117-119.

Ho, M. C.

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. S.-T.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, and Y. Akasaka, ''Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper ThB4 385.

Ito, T.

K. Fukuchi, K. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, ''10.92-Tb/s (273×40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC, 2001) (IEEE, 2001), paper PD24.

Ivshin, V.

Kanka, J.

Karasek, M.

Kasamatsu, K.

K. Fukuchi, K. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, ''10.92-Tb/s (273×40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC, 2001) (IEEE, 2001), paper PD24.

Kazovsky, L. G.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, and Y. Akasaka, ''Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper ThB4 385.

Kovsh, D.

A. J. Lucero, G. Foursa, D. Kovsh, M. Nissov, and A. N. Pilipetskii, ''Long-haul Raman-assisted EDFA systems with ultra-long spans,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper JThA39.

Krcmarik, D.

Lankl, B.

R. E. Neuhause, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, C. Fuerst, A. Faerbert, H. Rohde, and B. Lankl, ''New remote pump scheme enabling high-capacity (3.2Tb/s) unrepeated C+L band transmission over 220km,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002), paper TuR2, pp. 117-119.

Lee, H. K.

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. J.

B. Min and W. J. Lee, ''Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1486-1488 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leng, L.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnuck, ''1.6Tb/s(160×10.7Gb/s) transmission over 4000km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. W.

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lucero, A. J.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nisov, W. T. Anderson, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, and N. S. Bergano, ''Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over 4,450km with 150-km repeater spacing using Raman assisted EDFAs,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper OWM3.

A. J. Lucero, G. Foursa, D. Kovsh, M. Nissov, and A. N. Pilipetskii, ''Long-haul Raman-assisted EDFA systems with ultra-long spans,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper JThA39.

Maeda, M.

M. Maeda, ''Operation and management of WDM optical networks,'' in Optical Fiber Communications, 1996 (OFC, 1996) (IEEE, 1996), paper FD4, pp. 318-319.

Malach, M.

E. Schulze, M. Malach, and F. Raub, ''All-Raman amplified links in comparison to EDFA links in case of switched traffic,'' in 28th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2002 (ECOC 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper S3.8.

Mamyshev, P.

Marhic, M. E.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, and Y. Akasaka, ''Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper ThB4 385.

Meli, F.

F. DiPasquale, F. Meli, E. Griseri, A. Squazzoti, C. Toseti, and F. Forghieri, ''All Raman transmission of 192×25-GHz spaced WDM channels at 10.66Gb/s over 30×22dB of TW-RS fiber,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 314-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Menif, M.

Mikkelsen, B.

Min, B.

B. Min and W. J. Lee, ''Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1486-1488 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, J. F. Bayon, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Berane, ''Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by lasing at 1480nm with photoinduced Bragg gratings written on the fiber,'' Electron. Lett. 29, 1112-1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morie, M.

K. Fukuchi, K. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, ''10.92-Tb/s (273×40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC, 2001) (IEEE, 2001), paper PD24.

Nelson, L. E.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnuck, ''1.6Tb/s(160×10.7Gb/s) transmission over 4000km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neuhause, R. E.

R. E. Neuhause, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, C. Fuerst, A. Faerbert, H. Rohde, and B. Lankl, ''New remote pump scheme enabling high-capacity (3.2Tb/s) unrepeated C+L band transmission over 220km,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002), paper TuR2, pp. 117-119.

Newsome, G. W.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

Niay, P.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, J. F. Bayon, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Berane, ''Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by lasing at 1480nm with photoinduced Bragg gratings written on the fiber,'' Electron. Lett. 29, 1112-1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nisov, M.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nisov, W. T. Anderson, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, and N. S. Bergano, ''Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over 4,450km with 150-km repeater spacing using Raman assisted EDFAs,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper OWM3.

Nissov, M.

A. J. Lucero, G. Foursa, D. Kovsh, M. Nissov, and A. N. Pilipetskii, ''Long-haul Raman-assisted EDFA systems with ultra-long spans,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper JThA39.

Ogasahara, D.

K. Fukuchi, K. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, ''10.92-Tb/s (273×40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC, 2001) (IEEE, 2001), paper PD24.

Ohhira, R.

K. Fukuchi, K. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, ''10.92-Tb/s (273×40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC, 2001) (IEEE, 2001), paper PD24.

Ono, T.

K. Fukuchi, K. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, ''10.92-Tb/s (273×40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC, 2001) (IEEE, 2001), paper PD24.

Patterson, W. W.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nisov, W. T. Anderson, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, and N. S. Bergano, ''Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over 4,450km with 150-km repeater spacing using Raman assisted EDFAs,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper OWM3.

Pease, J. S.

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nisov, W. T. Anderson, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, and N. S. Bergano, ''Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over 4,450km with 150-km repeater spacing using Raman assisted EDFAs,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper OWM3.

A. J. Lucero, G. Foursa, D. Kovsh, M. Nissov, and A. N. Pilipetskii, ''Long-haul Raman-assisted EDFA systems with ultra-long spans,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper JThA39.

Radic, S.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnuck, ''1.6Tb/s(160×10.7Gb/s) transmission over 4000km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Radil, J.

Rasmussen, C.

Raub, F.

E. Schulze, M. Malach, and F. Raub, ''All-Raman amplified links in comparison to EDFA links in case of switched traffic,'' in 28th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2002 (ECOC 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper S3.8.

Reeves-Hall, P.

Rohde, H.

R. E. Neuhause, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, C. Fuerst, A. Faerbert, H. Rohde, and B. Lankl, ''New remote pump scheme enabling high-capacity (3.2Tb/s) unrepeated C+L band transmission over 220km,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002), paper TuR2, pp. 117-119.

Sakamoto, T.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, and Y. Akasaka, ''Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper ThB4 385.

Schulze, E.

E. Schulze, M. Malach, and F. Raub, ''All-Raman amplified links in comparison to EDFA links in case of switched traffic,'' in 28th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2002 (ECOC 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper S3.8.

Sekiya, K.

K. Fukuchi, K. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, ''10.92-Tb/s (273×40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC, 2001) (IEEE, 2001), paper PD24.

Serbe, P.

Squazzoti, A.

F. DiPasquale, F. Meli, E. Griseri, A. Squazzoti, C. Toseti, and F. Forghieri, ''All Raman transmission of 192×25-GHz spaced WDM channels at 10.66Gb/s over 30×22dB of TW-RS fiber,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 314-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A. K.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

Srivastawa, A. K.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastawa, J. L. Zyskind, C. Wolf, J. W. Sulhoff, and R. W. Tkach, ''Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

Stulz, S.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnuck, ''1.6Tb/s(160×10.7Gb/s) transmission over 4000km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastawa, J. L. Zyskind, C. Wolf, J. W. Sulhoff, and R. W. Tkach, ''Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

Sun, Y.

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastawa, J. L. Zyskind, C. Wolf, J. W. Sulhoff, and R. W. Tkach, ''Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

Tkach, R. W.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastawa, J. L. Zyskind, C. Wolf, J. W. Sulhoff, and R. W. Tkach, ''Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

Toseti, C.

F. DiPasquale, F. Meli, E. Griseri, A. Squazzoti, C. Toseti, and F. Forghieri, ''All Raman transmission of 192×25-GHz spaced WDM channels at 10.66Gb/s over 30×22dB of TW-RS fiber,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 314-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H. S.

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van der Wagt, P.

Vojtech, J.

Willems, F. W.

M. Karasek and F. W. Willems, ''Suppression of dynamic cross saturation in cascades of overpumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1036-1038 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, C.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastawa, J. L. Zyskind, C. Wolf, J. W. Sulhoff, and R. W. Tkach, ''Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

Wong, W. S.

C. J. Chen and W. S. Wong, ''Transient effects in saturated Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 371-373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yam, S. S.-H.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, and Y. Akasaka, ''Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper ThB4 385.

Ye, J.

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnuck, ''1.6Tb/s(160×10.7Gb/s) transmission over 4000km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastawa, J. L. Zyskind, C. Wolf, J. W. Sulhoff, and R. W. Tkach, ''Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

Electron. Lett.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastawa, J. L. Zyskind, C. Wolf, J. W. Sulhoff, and R. W. Tkach, ''Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,'' Electron. Lett. 33, 313-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, J. F. Bayon, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Berane, ''Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by lasing at 1480nm with photoinduced Bragg gratings written on the fiber,'' Electron. Lett. 29, 1112-1114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chen and W. S. Wong, ''Transient effects in saturated Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 371-373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y. W. Lu, M. C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H. S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, and Y. Sun, ''Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,'' Electron. Lett. 37, 1304-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnuck, ''1.6Tb/s(160×10.7Gb/s) transmission over 4000km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. DiPasquale, F. Meli, E. Griseri, A. Squazzoti, C. Toseti, and F. Forghieri, ''All Raman transmission of 192×25-GHz spaced WDM channels at 10.66Gb/s over 30×22dB of TW-RS fiber,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 314-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Karasek and F. W. Willems, ''Suppression of dynamic cross saturation in cascades of overpumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1036-1038 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Min and W. J. Lee, ''Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis,'' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1486-1488 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, ''Fast link control protection for surviving channels in multiwavelength optical network,'' in 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication, 1996 (ECOC '96) (IEEE, 1996), paper ThC.3.6.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, and Y. Akasaka, ''Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,'' in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper ThB4 385.

E. Schulze, M. Malach, and F. Raub, ''All-Raman amplified links in comparison to EDFA links in case of switched traffic,'' in 28th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2002 (ECOC 2002) (IEEE, 2002), paper S3.8.

M. Maeda, ''Operation and management of WDM optical networks,'' in Optical Fiber Communications, 1996 (OFC, 1996) (IEEE, 1996), paper FD4, pp. 318-319.

R. E. Neuhause, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, C. Fuerst, A. Faerbert, H. Rohde, and B. Lankl, ''New remote pump scheme enabling high-capacity (3.2Tb/s) unrepeated C+L band transmission over 220km,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2002 (OFC, 2002), paper TuR2, pp. 117-119.

K. Fukuchi, K. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, ''10.92-Tb/s (273×40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical-repeatered transmission experiment,'' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001 (OFC, 2001) (IEEE, 2001), paper PD24.

A. J. Lucero, G. Foursa, D. Kovsh, M. Nissov, and A. N. Pilipetskii, ''Long-haul Raman-assisted EDFA systems with ultra-long spans,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper JThA39.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nisov, W. T. Anderson, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, and N. S. Bergano, ''Long-haul 40Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmission over 4,450km with 150-km repeater spacing using Raman assisted EDFAs,'' in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 (OFC/NFOEC, 2007) (IEEE, 2007), paper OWM3.

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