Abstract

Feature Issue on Optical Code Division Multiple Access

I present an in-depth review of the trends and the directions taken by researchers worldwide in optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) systems. I highlight those trends and features that I believe are essential to the successful introduction of various OCDMA techniques in communication systems and data networks in the near future. In particular I begin by giving a comprehensive review of the construction of optical orthogonal codes (OOCs). Specifically I discuss the recently developed algorithms that are based on matrix algebra, which simplify and enhance the efficiencies of algorithms in OOC generation. In communication systems studies I first focus on and discuss various OCDMA techniques, such as incoherent and coherent OCDMA. A comprehensive discussion takes place on all important aspects of each OCDMA technique. In particular, I elaborate on enabling technologies that are needed prior to full scale consideration of OCDMA in communication systems. For incoherent OCDMA the technique is categorized into two distinguished techniques, namely, 1D and 2D OCDMA. For each technique I discuss the various receiver structures proposed to date. In particular I discuss a recently introduced powerful receiver structure based on optical AND logic gate elements. Based on this receiver structure I conclude that in many practical applications, OOCs with a cross-correlation value λ equal to 2 or 3, which have a much larger cardinality compared to OOCs with λ=1, perform much better. Many fundamental issues, including architectural consideration of multiple amplifiers, various acquisition algorithms, and advanced signaling methods, such as pulse position modulation, are discussed. For coherent OCDMA or spectrally encoded ultrashort light pulse OCDMA, I begin by having an in-depth discussion on the key and enabling technologies that are essential in the successful implementation of this very important and extremely powerful technique. In particular on the encoder-decoder side I present discussions on various key device technologies such as virtually imaged pulsed array, fiber Bragg gratings, and arrayed waveguide gratings. On the receiver side I elaborate on various nonlinear detection schemes used in such OCDMA networks. I will present an analytical framework on the above nonlinear detection schemes and discuss their pros and cons. I extend the discussion to various data networks. In particular I will discuss applications such as wireless OCDMA LAN, free-space OCDMA, fiber-to-the-home, and other code-division-multiple-access-based packet communication networks using label addressing and processing techniques to indicate the directions and the applications for which OCDMA systems are considered. It is believed that in the not so distant future OCDMA, once fully developed and matured, will be an inseparable part of advanced optical communication systems and networks, due to its various desirable features and functionalities.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

2006 (12)

Y. Igarashi and H. Yashima, 'Performance analysis of coherent ultrashort light pulse CDMA communication systems with nonlinear optical thresholder,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E89-B, 1205-1213 (2006).

K. Jamshidi and J. A. Salehi, 'Statistical characterization and bit-error rate analysis of lightwave systems with optical amplification using two-photon-absorption receiver structures,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1302-1316 (2006).

T. Pu, H. Zhang, Y. Guo, M. Xu, and Y. Li, 'Evaluation of beat noise in OCDMA system with non-Gaussian approximated method,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3574-3582 (2006).

C.-S. Bres, Y.-K. Huang, D. Rand, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, T. Bazan, C. Michie, D. Harle, and I. Andonovic, 'On the experimental characterization of beat noise in 2-D time-spreading wavelength-hopping OCDMA systems,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2314-2316 (2006).
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C. Jing, R. G. Broeke, N. K. Fontaine, C. Ji, Y. Du, N. Chubun, K. Aihara, A.-V. Pham, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, and S. J. Ben Yoo, 'Demonstration of spectral phase O-CDMA encoding and decoding in monolithically integrated arrayed-waveguide-grating-based encoder,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2602-2604 (2006).

A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, 'Spectrally efficient six-user coherent OCDMA system using reconfigurable integrated ring resonator circuits,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1952-1954 (2006).
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T. Hamanaka, X. Wang, N. Wada, A. Nishiki, and K. Kitayama, 'Ten-user truly asynchronous gigabit OCDMA transmission experiment with a 511-chip SSFBG en/decoder,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 95-102 (2006).

T. Koonen, 'Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: what, where, and when?,' Proc. IEEE 94, 911-934 (2006).

K. Kitayama, X. Wang, and N. Wada, 'OCDMA over WDM PON--Solution path gigabit-symmetric FTTH,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1654-1662 (2006).

M. Jazayerifar and J. A. Salehi, 'Atmospheric optical CDMA communication systems via optical orthogonal codes,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 1614-1623 (2006).

H. Charmchi and J. A. Salehi, 'Outer-product matrix representation of optical orthogonal codes,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 983-989 (2006).
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S. Mashhadi and J. A. Salehi, 'Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks--Part III: optical AND gate receiver structure with generalized optical orthogonal codes,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1457-1468 (2006).

2005 (11)

A. Keshavarizan and J. A. Salehi, 'Multiple-shift code acquisition of optical orthogonal codes in optical CDMA systems,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 687-697 (2005).

E. S. Shivaleela, A. Selvarajan, and T. Srinvas, 'Two-dimensional optical orthogonal codes for fiber-optic CDMA networks,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 647-654 (2005).
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J. Chen, R. G. Broeke, Y. Du, J. Cao, N. Chubun, P. Bjeletich, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, R. Welty, C. Reinhardt, P. L. Stephan, and S. J. B. Yoo, 'Monolithically integrated InP-based photonic chip development for O-CDMA systems,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 66-77 (2005).

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, V. J. Hernandez, K. Lei, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Ben Yoo, 'An eight user time-slotted SPECTS O-CDMA testbed: demonstration and simulations,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3232-3240 (2005).
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Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, S.-D. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, 'Four-user, 2.5-Gb/s, spectrally coded OCDMA system demonstration using low-power nonlinear processing,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 143-158 (2005).
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S. Etemad, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, J. Young, T. Banwell, S. Galli, J. Jackel, P. Delfyett, C. Price, and T. Turpin 'Spectrally efficient optical CDMA using coherent phase-frequency coding,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, (2005).

P. Saghari, R. Omrani, A. E. Willner, and P. V. Kumar, 'Analytical interference model for two-dimensional (time-wavelength) asynchronous O-CDMA systems using various receiver structures,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3260-3269 (2005).

J. E. McGeehan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, P. Saghari, A. E. Willner, R. Omrani, and P. V. Kumar, 'Experimental demonstration of OCDMA transmission using a three-dimensional (time-wavelength-polarization) codeset,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3282-3289 (2005).
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B. Ni and J. S. Lehnert, 'Performance of a nonlinear receiver for the ultrashort-pulse optical CDMA system,' Proc. SPIE 5908, 243-252 (2005).

X. Wang, T. Hamanaka, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, 'Dispersion-flattened-fiber based optical thresholder for multiple-access-interference suppression in OCDMA system,' Opt. Express 13, 5499-5505 (2005).
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Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, 'Reconfigurable all-optical code translation in spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA,' J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1979-1990 (2005).
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2004 (11)

G. Cincotti, 'Full optical coders/decoders for photonic IP routers,' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 337-342 (2004).

G. Cincotti, 'Design of optical full encoders/decoders for code-based photonic routers,' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1642-1650 (2004).

X. Wang and K. Kitayama, 'Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA,' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2226-2235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Ben Yoo, 'Demonstration of an error-free 4×10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2186-2188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Hamzeh and M. Kavehrad, 'OCDMA-coded free-space optical links for wireless optical-mesh networks,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 2165-2174 (2004).

H. M. H. Shalaby, 'Performance analysis of an optical CDNA random access protocol,' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1233-1241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Kwong and G.-C. Yang, 'Extended carrier-hopping prime codes for wavelength-time optical code-division multiple access,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1084-1091 (2004).
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J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, V. J. Hernandez, C. V. Bennett, and W. J. Lennon, 'High-performance optical CDMA system based on 2-D optical orthogonal codes,' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2409-2419 (2004).
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W. Chu and C. J. Colbourn, 'Optimal (n,4,2)-OOC of small orders,' Discrete Math. 279, 163-172 (2004).

C. Ding and C. Xing, 'Cyclotomic optical orthogonal codes of composite lengths,' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 263-268 (2004).

N. Miyamoto, H. Mizuno, and S. Shinohara, 'Optical orthogonal codes obtained from conics on finite projective planes,' Finite Fields and Their Applications 10, 405-411 (2004).

2003 (9)

W. Chu and S. W. Golomb, 'A new recursive construction for optical orthogonal codes,' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 49, 3072-3076 (2003).

C. Ding and C. Xing, 'Several classes of (2m−1,w,2) optical orthogonal codes,' Discrete Appl. Math. 128, 103-120 (2003).

J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, V. J. Hernandez, C. V. Bennett, and W. J. Lennon, 'Design and performance analysis of wavelength/time (W/T) matrix codes for optical CDMA,' J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2524-2533 (2003).
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T.-W. F. Chang and E. H. Sargent, 'Optimizing spectral efficiency in multi-wavelength optical CDMA system,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1442-1445 (2003).
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R. M. H. Yim, J. Bajcsy, and L. R. Chen, 'A new family of 2-D wavelength-time codes for optical CDMA with differential detection,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 165-167 (2003).

M. A. A. Mohamed, H. M. H. Shalaby, and E. A. Badawy, 'Performance analysis of an optical CDMA MAC protocol with variable-size sliding window,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3590-2462 (2003).

H. M. H. Shalaby, 'Optical CDMA random access protocols with and without pretransmission coordination,' J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2455-2462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitayama and M. Murata, 'Versatile optical code-based MPLS for circuit, burst, and packet switching,' J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2753-2764 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, 'Performance analysis of atmospheric optical PPM CDMA systems,' J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 406-411 (2003).

2002 (11)

A. Stock and E. H. Sargent, 'System performance comparison of optical CDMA and WDMA in a broadcast local area network,' IEEE Commun. Lett. 6, 409-411 (2002).
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J. H. Lee, P. C. Teh, Z. Yusoff, M. Ibsen, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, 'A holey fiber-based nonlinear thresholding device for optical CDMA receiver performance enhancement,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 876-878 (2002).
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J. H. Lee, P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, 'A grating-based OCDMA coding-decoding system incorporating a nonlinear optical loop mirror for improved code recognition and noise reduction,' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 36-46 (2002).

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, T. Krug, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Dunegan, and L. P. Barry, 'Two-photon-induced photoconductivity enhancement in semiconductor microcavities: a theoretical investigation,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2396-2402 (2002).

R. M. H. Yim, L. R. Chen, and J. Bajcsy, 'Design and performance of 2-D codes for wavelength-time optical CDMA,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 714-716 (2002).
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A. Keshavarizan and J. A. Salehi, 'Optical orthogonal code acquisition in fiber-optic CDMA systems via the simple serial-search method,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 473-483 (2002).

H. M. H. Shalaby, 'Complexity, error probabilities, and capacities of optical OOK-CDMA communication systems,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 2009-2015 (2002).
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R. Forouzan, J. A. Salehi, and M. Nasiri-Kenari, 'Frame time-hopping fiber-optic code division multiple-access using generalized optical orthogonal codes,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1971-1983 (2002).

M. Razavi and J. A. Salehi, 'Statistical analysis of fiber-optic CDMA communication systems--Part I: device modeling,' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1304-1316 (2002).
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M. Razavi and J. A. Salehi, 'Statistical analysis of fiber-optic CDMA communication systems--Part II: incorporating multiple optical amplifiers,' J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1317-1328 (2002).

J. Ratnam, 'Optical CDMA in broadband communication-scope and applications,' J. Opt. Commun. 23, 11-21 (2002).

2001 (8)

2000 (8)

T. Pfeiffer, J. Kissing, J. P. Elbers, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, H. Schmuck, and E. Voges, 'Coarse WDM/CDM/TDM concept for optical packet transmission in metropolitan and access networks supporting 400 channels at 2.5 Gb/s peak rate,' J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1928-1938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim and H. V. Poor, 'Turbo-coded packet transmission for an optical CDMA network,' J. Lightwave Technol. LT-18, 1905-1916 (2000).

H. Sotobayashi and K. Kitayama, 'Optical code based label swapping for photonic routing,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E83-B, 2341-2347 (2000).

S. Zahedi and J. A. Salehi, 'Analytical comparison of various fiber-optic CDMA receiver structures,' J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1718-1727 (2000).
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V. K. Jain and G. De Marchis, 'Performance evaluation of optical code division multiple access networks,' J. Opt. Commun. 21, 110-115 (2000).

M. M. Mustapha and R. F. Ormondroyd, 'Dual-threshold sequential detection code synchronization for an optical CDMA network in presence of multi-user interference,' J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1742-1748 (2000).
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M. M. Mustapha and R. F. Ormondroyd, 'Effect of multiaccess interference on code synchronization using a sequential detector in an optical CDMA LAN,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1103-1105 (2000).

R. Fuji-Hara and Y. Miao, 'Optical orthogonal codes: their bounds and new optimal constructions,' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 46, 2396-2406 (2000).
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1999 (11)

M. M. Mustapha and R. F. Ormondroyd, 'Performance of a serial-search synchronizer for fiber-based optical CDMA systems in the presence of multi-user interference,' Proc. SPIE 3899, 297-306 (1999).
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J. G. Zhang, L. K. Chen, W. C. Kwong, K. W. Cheung, and A. B. Sharma, 'Experiments on high-speed all-optical code-division multiplexing systems using all-serial encoders and decoders for 2 prime code,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 368-375 (1999).

R. F. Ormondroyd and M. M. Mustapha, 'Optically orthogonal CDMA system performance with optical amplifier and photodetector noise,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 617-619 (1999).

H. M. H. Shalaby, 'Performance analysis of optical overlapping PPM-CDMA communication systems,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 426-433 (1999).
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H. M. H. Shalaby, 'Direct detection optical overlapping PPM-CDMA communication systems with double optical hardlimiters,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1158-1165 (1999).

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, 'Passive optical fast frequency-hop CDMA communications system,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 397-405 (1999).
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Z. Zheng, S. Shen, H. Sardesai, C.-C. Chang, J. H. Marsh, M. M. Karkhanehchi, and A. M. Weiner, 'Ultrafast two-photon absorption optical thresholding of spectrally coded pulses,' Opt. Commun. 167, 225-233 (1999).

N. Wada, H. Sotobayashi, and K. Kitayama, 'Error-free 100 km transmission of 10 Gb/s optical code division multiplexing using BPSK picoseconds-pulse code sequence with novel time-gating detection,' IEE Electron. Lett. 35, 833-834 (1999).

A. Grunet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, 'Demonstration of all-fiber sparse lightwave CDMA based on temporal phase encoding,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1283-1285 (1999).
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H. Tsuda, H. Takenouchi, T. Ishii, K. Okamoto, T. Goh, K. Sato, A. Hirano, T. Kurokawa, and C. Amano, 'Spectral encoding and decoding of 10 Gbit/s femtosecond pulses using high resolution arrayed-waveguide grating,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1186-1187 (1999).
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N. Wada and K. Kitayama, 'A 10 Gb/s optical code division multiplexing using 8-chip optical bipolar code and coherent detection,' J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1758-1765 (1999).
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1998 (4)

1997 (7)

T. Ohtsuki, 'Performance analysis of direct-detection optical asynchronous CDMA systems with double optical hard-limiters,' J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 452-457 (1997).
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G. C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, 'Performance comparison of multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA+CDMA for fiber-optic networks,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1426-1434 (1997).
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Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, 'Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 493-495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Hsu and V. O. K. Li, 'Performance analysis of slotted fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (CDMA) packet networks,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 819-828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Hsu and V. O. K. Li, 'Performance analysis of unslotted fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (CDMA) packet networks,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 978-987 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Marsh and J. M. Kahn, 'Channel reuse strategies for indoor infrared wireless communications,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1280-1290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, 'Wireless infrared communications,' Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).
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1996 (2)

M. Shirasaki, 'Large angular dispersion by a virtually imaged phased array and its application to a wavelength demultiplexer,' Opt. Lett. 21366-368 (1996).

T. Ohtsuki, K. Sato, I. Sasase, and S. Mori, 'Direct-detection optical synchronous CDMA systems with double optical hard-limiters using modified prime sequence codes,' IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1879-1887 (1996).
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1995 (7)

L. B. Nelson and H. V. Poor, 'Performance of multiuser detection for optical CDMA--Part I: error probabilities,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2803-2811 (1995).

L. B. Nelson and H. V. Poor, 'Performance of multiuser detection for optical CDMA--Part II: asymptotic analysis,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 3015-3024 (1995).

S. Bitan and T. Etzion, 'Constructions for optimal constant weight cyclically permutable codes and difference families,' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 41, 77-87 (1995).

G. C. Yang, 'Some new families of optical orthogonal codes for code-division multiple-access fiber-optic networks,' IEE Proc.-Commun. 142, 363-368 (1995).
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H. M. H. Shalaby, 'Performance analysis of optical synchronous CDMA communication systems with PPM signaling,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 624-634 (1995).
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M. R. Pakravan and M. Kavehrad, 'Design considerations for broadband indoor infrared wireless communication systems,' Int. J. Wireless Information Networks 2, 223-238 (1995).

M. R. Dale and R. M. Gagliardi, 'Channel coding for asynchronous fiberoptic CDMA communications,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2485-2492 (1995).

1994 (5)

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, 'The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838-845 (1994).
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L. Tancevski and I. Andonovic, 'Wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems,' Electron. Lett. 30, 1388-1390 (1994).
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H. M. Kwon, 'Optical orthogonal code-division multiple-access system--Part II: multibits/sequence-period OCDMA,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2470-2479 (1994).
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G. C. Yang, 'Performance analysis for synchronization and system on CDMA optical fiber networks,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E77B, 1238-1248 (1994).

H. M. Kwon, 'Optical orthogonal code division multiple access system--Part I: with avalanche photodiode noise and thermal noise,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2470-2479 (1994).
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1992 (2)

M. Azizoglo, J. A. Salehi, and Y. Li, 'Optical CDMA via temporal codes,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1162-1170 (1992).
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W. Lam and A. M. Hussain, 'Performance analysis of direct detection optical CDMA communication systems with avalanche photodiodes,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 810-820 (1992).
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1990 (2)

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, and J. P. Heritage, 'Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems,' J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990).
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H. Chung and P. Vijay Kumar, 'Optical orthogonal codes--new bounds and an optimal construction,' IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 36, 866-873 (1990).
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1989 (5)

J. A. Salehi, 'Emerging optical code-division multiple-access communications systems,' IEEE Netw. Mag. 3, 31-39 (1989).

J. A. Salehi, 'Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks--Part I: fundamental principles,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).
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J. Chen, R. G. Broeke, Y. Du, J. Cao, N. Chubun, P. Bjeletich, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, R. Welty, C. Reinhardt, P. L. Stephan, and S. J. B. Yoo, 'Monolithically integrated InP-based photonic chip development for O-CDMA systems,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 66-77 (2005).

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J. Chen, R. G. Broeke, Y. Du, J. Cao, N. Chubun, P. Bjeletich, F. Olsson, S. Lourdudoss, R. Welty, C. Reinhardt, P. L. Stephan, and S. J. B. Yoo, 'Monolithically integrated InP-based photonic chip development for O-CDMA systems,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 66-77 (2005).

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A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, and S. Etemad, 'Spectrally efficient six-user coherent OCDMA system using reconfigurable integrated ring resonator circuits,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1952-1954 (2006).
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