Abstract

Feature Issue on Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

One of the difficulties of optical packet-switched (OPS) networks is buffering optical packets in the network. O(1) reading operation is not possible in the optical domain, because there is no equivalent optical RAM available for storing packets. Currently, the only available solution that can be used for buffering in the optical domain is using long fiber lines called fiber delay lines (FDL). However, FDLs have important limitations and may cause high packet drop rates due to the burstiness of Internet traffic. We propose an architecture using an explicit congestion control protocol (XCP) based utilization control algorithm designed for OPS wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) networks with pacing at the edge nodes for decreasing the buffer requirements at core nodes. We evaluate the FDL requirements on a meshed network with multiple-hop paths and show how FDL requirements change with slot size, utilization, FDL granularity, scheduling, and packet size distribution.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Villamizar and C. Song, 'High performance TCP in ANSNET,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 24, 45-60 (1994).
  2. G. Appenzeller, J. Sommers, and N. McKeown, 'Sizing router buffers,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.
  3. M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, and T. Roughgarden, 'Part III: routers with very small buffers,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 83-90 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Zhang, S. Shenker, and D. Clark, 'Observations on the dynamics of a congestion control algorithm: the effects of two-way traffic,' in Proceeedings of ACM SIGCOMM 1991 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1991), pp. 131-147.
  5. G. Theagarajan, S. Ravichandran, and V. Sivaraman, 'An experimental study of router buffer sizing for mixed TCP and real-time traffic,' presented at the 14th IEEE International Conference on Networks (ICoN), Singapore, 13-15 Sept. 2006.
  6. V. Sivaraman, H. Elgindy, D. Moreland, and D. Ostry, 'Packet pacing in short buffer optical packet switched networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (IEEE, 2006).
  7. Z. Lu, D. K. Hunter, and I. D. Henning, 'Contention reduction in core optical packet switches through electronic traffic smoothing and scheduling at the network edge,' J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4828-4837 (2006).
  8. O. Alparslan, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, 'Optical rate-based paced XCP for small buffered optical packet switching networks,' in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Protocols for Fast Long-Distance Networks (PFLDnet) (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 2006), pp. 117-124.
  9. D. Katabi, M. Handley, and C. Rohrs, 'Congestion control for high bandwidth-delay product networks,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2002), pp. 89-102.
  10. S. Kandula, D. Katabi, B. Davie, and A. Charny, 'Walking the tightrope: Responsive yet stable traffic engineering,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2005 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 253-264.
  11. T. Yamaguchi, K. Baba, M. Murata, and K. Kitayama, 'Scheduling algorithm with consideration to void space reduction in photonic packet switch,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 2310-2318 (2003).
  12. D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and S. Spadaro, 'Optical slot size dimensioning in IP/MPLS over OPS networks,' in Proceedings of 7th IEEE International Conference on Telecommunications (ConTEL2003), Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 759-764.
  13. S. McCanne and S. Floyd, 'ns network simulator,' http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/, Jul. 2002.
  14. H. Jiang and C. Dovrolis, 'Why is the Internet traffic bursty in short time scales?,' in Proceedings of SIGMETRICS 2005, (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 241-252.
  15. J. Roberts and J. Virtamo, 'The superposition of periodic cell arrival streams in an ATM multiplexer,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 39, 298-303 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Shalunov and B. Teitelbaum, 'TCP use and performance on Internet2,' http://ben. teitelbaum.us/internet2/papers/i2tcp-imeas2001.pdf.

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, and T. Roughgarden, 'Part III: routers with very small buffers,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 83-90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Yamaguchi, K. Baba, M. Murata, and K. Kitayama, 'Scheduling algorithm with consideration to void space reduction in photonic packet switch,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 2310-2318 (2003).

1994 (1)

C. Villamizar and C. Song, 'High performance TCP in ANSNET,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 24, 45-60 (1994).

1991 (1)

J. Roberts and J. Virtamo, 'The superposition of periodic cell arrival streams in an ATM multiplexer,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 39, 298-303 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alparslan, O.

O. Alparslan, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, 'Optical rate-based paced XCP for small buffered optical packet switching networks,' in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Protocols for Fast Long-Distance Networks (PFLDnet) (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 2006), pp. 117-124.

Appenzeller, G.

G. Appenzeller, J. Sommers, and N. McKeown, 'Sizing router buffers,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.

Arakawa, S.

O. Alparslan, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, 'Optical rate-based paced XCP for small buffered optical packet switching networks,' in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Protocols for Fast Long-Distance Networks (PFLDnet) (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 2006), pp. 117-124.

Baba, K.

T. Yamaguchi, K. Baba, M. Murata, and K. Kitayama, 'Scheduling algorithm with consideration to void space reduction in photonic packet switch,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 2310-2318 (2003).

Careglio, D.

D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and S. Spadaro, 'Optical slot size dimensioning in IP/MPLS over OPS networks,' in Proceedings of 7th IEEE International Conference on Telecommunications (ConTEL2003), Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 759-764.

Charny, A.

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, B. Davie, and A. Charny, 'Walking the tightrope: Responsive yet stable traffic engineering,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2005 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 253-264.

Clark, D.

L. Zhang, S. Shenker, and D. Clark, 'Observations on the dynamics of a congestion control algorithm: the effects of two-way traffic,' in Proceeedings of ACM SIGCOMM 1991 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1991), pp. 131-147.

Davie, B.

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, B. Davie, and A. Charny, 'Walking the tightrope: Responsive yet stable traffic engineering,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2005 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 253-264.

Dovrolis, C.

H. Jiang and C. Dovrolis, 'Why is the Internet traffic bursty in short time scales?,' in Proceedings of SIGMETRICS 2005, (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 241-252.

Elgindy, H.

V. Sivaraman, H. Elgindy, D. Moreland, and D. Ostry, 'Packet pacing in short buffer optical packet switched networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (IEEE, 2006).

Enachescu, M.

M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, and T. Roughgarden, 'Part III: routers with very small buffers,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 83-90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Floyd, S.

S. McCanne and S. Floyd, 'ns network simulator,' http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/, Jul. 2002.

Ganjali, Y.

M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, and T. Roughgarden, 'Part III: routers with very small buffers,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 83-90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goel, A.

M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, and T. Roughgarden, 'Part III: routers with very small buffers,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 83-90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Handley, M.

D. Katabi, M. Handley, and C. Rohrs, 'Congestion control for high bandwidth-delay product networks,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2002), pp. 89-102.

Henning, I. D.

Hunter, D. K.

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang and C. Dovrolis, 'Why is the Internet traffic bursty in short time scales?,' in Proceedings of SIGMETRICS 2005, (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 241-252.

Kandula, S.

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, B. Davie, and A. Charny, 'Walking the tightrope: Responsive yet stable traffic engineering,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2005 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 253-264.

Katabi, D.

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, B. Davie, and A. Charny, 'Walking the tightrope: Responsive yet stable traffic engineering,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2005 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 253-264.

D. Katabi, M. Handley, and C. Rohrs, 'Congestion control for high bandwidth-delay product networks,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2002), pp. 89-102.

Kitayama, K.

T. Yamaguchi, K. Baba, M. Murata, and K. Kitayama, 'Scheduling algorithm with consideration to void space reduction in photonic packet switch,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 2310-2318 (2003).

Lu, Z.

McCanne, S.

S. McCanne and S. Floyd, 'ns network simulator,' http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/, Jul. 2002.

McKeown, N.

M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, and T. Roughgarden, 'Part III: routers with very small buffers,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 83-90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Appenzeller, J. Sommers, and N. McKeown, 'Sizing router buffers,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.

Moreland, D.

V. Sivaraman, H. Elgindy, D. Moreland, and D. Ostry, 'Packet pacing in short buffer optical packet switched networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (IEEE, 2006).

Murata, M.

T. Yamaguchi, K. Baba, M. Murata, and K. Kitayama, 'Scheduling algorithm with consideration to void space reduction in photonic packet switch,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 2310-2318 (2003).

O. Alparslan, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, 'Optical rate-based paced XCP for small buffered optical packet switching networks,' in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Protocols for Fast Long-Distance Networks (PFLDnet) (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 2006), pp. 117-124.

Ostry, D.

V. Sivaraman, H. Elgindy, D. Moreland, and D. Ostry, 'Packet pacing in short buffer optical packet switched networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (IEEE, 2006).

Ravichandran, S.

G. Theagarajan, S. Ravichandran, and V. Sivaraman, 'An experimental study of router buffer sizing for mixed TCP and real-time traffic,' presented at the 14th IEEE International Conference on Networks (ICoN), Singapore, 13-15 Sept. 2006.

Roberts, J.

J. Roberts and J. Virtamo, 'The superposition of periodic cell arrival streams in an ATM multiplexer,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 39, 298-303 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rohrs, C.

D. Katabi, M. Handley, and C. Rohrs, 'Congestion control for high bandwidth-delay product networks,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2002), pp. 89-102.

Roughgarden, T.

M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, and T. Roughgarden, 'Part III: routers with very small buffers,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 83-90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shalunov, S.

S. Shalunov and B. Teitelbaum, 'TCP use and performance on Internet2,' http://ben. teitelbaum.us/internet2/papers/i2tcp-imeas2001.pdf.

Shenker, S.

L. Zhang, S. Shenker, and D. Clark, 'Observations on the dynamics of a congestion control algorithm: the effects of two-way traffic,' in Proceeedings of ACM SIGCOMM 1991 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1991), pp. 131-147.

Sivaraman, V.

G. Theagarajan, S. Ravichandran, and V. Sivaraman, 'An experimental study of router buffer sizing for mixed TCP and real-time traffic,' presented at the 14th IEEE International Conference on Networks (ICoN), Singapore, 13-15 Sept. 2006.

V. Sivaraman, H. Elgindy, D. Moreland, and D. Ostry, 'Packet pacing in short buffer optical packet switched networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (IEEE, 2006).

Sole-Pareta, J.

D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and S. Spadaro, 'Optical slot size dimensioning in IP/MPLS over OPS networks,' in Proceedings of 7th IEEE International Conference on Telecommunications (ConTEL2003), Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 759-764.

Sommers, J.

G. Appenzeller, J. Sommers, and N. McKeown, 'Sizing router buffers,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.

Song, C.

C. Villamizar and C. Song, 'High performance TCP in ANSNET,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 24, 45-60 (1994).

Spadaro, S.

D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and S. Spadaro, 'Optical slot size dimensioning in IP/MPLS over OPS networks,' in Proceedings of 7th IEEE International Conference on Telecommunications (ConTEL2003), Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 759-764.

Teitelbaum, B.

S. Shalunov and B. Teitelbaum, 'TCP use and performance on Internet2,' http://ben. teitelbaum.us/internet2/papers/i2tcp-imeas2001.pdf.

Theagarajan, G.

G. Theagarajan, S. Ravichandran, and V. Sivaraman, 'An experimental study of router buffer sizing for mixed TCP and real-time traffic,' presented at the 14th IEEE International Conference on Networks (ICoN), Singapore, 13-15 Sept. 2006.

Villamizar, C.

C. Villamizar and C. Song, 'High performance TCP in ANSNET,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 24, 45-60 (1994).

Virtamo, J.

J. Roberts and J. Virtamo, 'The superposition of periodic cell arrival streams in an ATM multiplexer,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 39, 298-303 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, T.

T. Yamaguchi, K. Baba, M. Murata, and K. Kitayama, 'Scheduling algorithm with consideration to void space reduction in photonic packet switch,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 2310-2318 (2003).

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, S. Shenker, and D. Clark, 'Observations on the dynamics of a congestion control algorithm: the effects of two-way traffic,' in Proceeedings of ACM SIGCOMM 1991 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1991), pp. 131-147.

Comput. Commun. Rev. (2)

M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, and T. Roughgarden, 'Part III: routers with very small buffers,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 83-90 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Villamizar and C. Song, 'High performance TCP in ANSNET,' Comput. Commun. Rev. 24, 45-60 (1994).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

J. Roberts and J. Virtamo, 'The superposition of periodic cell arrival streams in an ATM multiplexer,' IEEE Trans. Commun. 39, 298-303 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

T. Yamaguchi, K. Baba, M. Murata, and K. Kitayama, 'Scheduling algorithm with consideration to void space reduction in photonic packet switch,' IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 2310-2318 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (11)

G. Appenzeller, J. Sommers, and N. McKeown, 'Sizing router buffers,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), pp. 281-292.

L. Zhang, S. Shenker, and D. Clark, 'Observations on the dynamics of a congestion control algorithm: the effects of two-way traffic,' in Proceeedings of ACM SIGCOMM 1991 (Association for Computing Machinery, 1991), pp. 131-147.

G. Theagarajan, S. Ravichandran, and V. Sivaraman, 'An experimental study of router buffer sizing for mixed TCP and real-time traffic,' presented at the 14th IEEE International Conference on Networks (ICoN), Singapore, 13-15 Sept. 2006.

V. Sivaraman, H. Elgindy, D. Moreland, and D. Ostry, 'Packet pacing in short buffer optical packet switched networks,' in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM (IEEE, 2006).

D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and S. Spadaro, 'Optical slot size dimensioning in IP/MPLS over OPS networks,' in Proceedings of 7th IEEE International Conference on Telecommunications (ConTEL2003), Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 759-764.

S. McCanne and S. Floyd, 'ns network simulator,' http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/, Jul. 2002.

H. Jiang and C. Dovrolis, 'Why is the Internet traffic bursty in short time scales?,' in Proceedings of SIGMETRICS 2005, (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 241-252.

S. Shalunov and B. Teitelbaum, 'TCP use and performance on Internet2,' http://ben. teitelbaum.us/internet2/papers/i2tcp-imeas2001.pdf.

O. Alparslan, S. Arakawa, and M. Murata, 'Optical rate-based paced XCP for small buffered optical packet switching networks,' in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Protocols for Fast Long-Distance Networks (PFLDnet) (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 2006), pp. 117-124.

D. Katabi, M. Handley, and C. Rohrs, 'Congestion control for high bandwidth-delay product networks,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM (Association for Computing Machinery, 2002), pp. 89-102.

S. Kandula, D. Katabi, B. Davie, and A. Charny, 'Walking the tightrope: Responsive yet stable traffic engineering,' in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2005 (Association for Computing Machinery, 2005), pp. 253-264.

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