Abstract

Feature Issue on Passive Optical Network Architectures and Technologies

We review the history of passive optical networking development and deployments in North America. The development of standards is discussed. We review early trials of passive optical network (PON) systems in North America, starting with A-PON, continuing with the current B-PON initiatives by Verizon and AT&T, and concluding with the initial view on G-PON emergence. Examples of how the fiber network is constructed in residential-focused B-PON deployments by AT&T and Verizon are shown. We provide several lessons learned. We conclude with a discussion of the various next-generation PON options under consideration in the industry forums and standards groups.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. W. Ballance, 'Optical communication network,' U.S. patent 4,977,593 (11 December 1990).
  2. J. R. Stern, J. W. Ballance, D. Faulkner, S. Hornung, and D. B. Payne, 'Passive optical local networks for telephony applications and beyond,' Electron. Lett. 231255-1257 (1987).
  3. K. Okada, F. Mano, and N. Miki, 'Passive double star architecture and subscriber network evolution,' Presented at the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Local Optical Networks for the Local Loop, Dec. 1990.
  4. D. Faulkner, K. Okada, W. Warzanskyj, A. Zylbersztejn, Y. Picault, R. Mistry, and T. Rowbotham, 'The full service access network initiative,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 58-68 (1997).
  5. G. Mahony, 'Fiber to the home: A summary of Bellsouth's first office application,' in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (IEEE), pp. 275-283.
  6. F. Wagoner, Motorola Wireline Access Systems group (personal communication, 2007).
  7. P. Whitehead, previously with USWEST, currently at AT&T Services (personal communication, 2007).
  8. H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).
  9. H. Shinohara and T. Manabe, 'Broadband optical access technologies and FTTH deployment in NTT,' in Broadband: Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home, C.Lin, ed. (Wiley, 2006), pp. 1-16.
  10. E. Edmon, K. McCammon, R. Estes, and J. Lorentzen, 'Today's broadband fiber access technologies and deployment considerations at SBC,' in Broadband: Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home, C.Lin, ed. (Wiley, 2006), 16-41.
  11. F. Effenberger, K. McCammon, and D. Cleary, 'Analog video and PON optical loss variations,' in National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 589-595.
  12. Recommendation ITU-T G.671 Amendment 1, 'Transmission characteristics of optical components and subsystems' (ITU, 2006).
  13. A. Cauvin, A. Tofanelli, J. Lorentzen, J. Brannan, A. Templin, T. Park, and K. Saito, 'Common technical specifications of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 34-40 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. http://www.ieee802.org/3/av/.
  15. R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, and K. McCammon, 'Options for future optical access networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 50-56 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006

A. Cauvin, A. Tofanelli, J. Lorentzen, J. Brannan, A. Templin, T. Park, and K. Saito, 'Common technical specifications of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 34-40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, and K. McCammon, 'Options for future optical access networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 50-56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

1997

D. Faulkner, K. Okada, W. Warzanskyj, A. Zylbersztejn, Y. Picault, R. Mistry, and T. Rowbotham, 'The full service access network initiative,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 58-68 (1997).

1987

J. R. Stern, J. W. Ballance, D. Faulkner, S. Hornung, and D. B. Payne, 'Passive optical local networks for telephony applications and beyond,' Electron. Lett. 231255-1257 (1987).

Abiven, J.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

Ballance, J. W.

J. R. Stern, J. W. Ballance, D. Faulkner, S. Hornung, and D. B. Payne, 'Passive optical local networks for telephony applications and beyond,' Electron. Lett. 231255-1257 (1987).

J. W. Ballance, 'Optical communication network,' U.S. patent 4,977,593 (11 December 1990).

Ballart, R.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

Bourgart, F.

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, and K. McCammon, 'Options for future optical access networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 50-56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brannan, J.

A. Cauvin, A. Tofanelli, J. Lorentzen, J. Brannan, A. Templin, T. Park, and K. Saito, 'Common technical specifications of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 34-40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cauvin, A.

A. Cauvin, A. Tofanelli, J. Lorentzen, J. Brannan, A. Templin, T. Park, and K. Saito, 'Common technical specifications of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 34-40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cleary, D.

F. Effenberger, K. McCammon, and D. Cleary, 'Analog video and PON optical loss variations,' in National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 589-595.

Davey, R.

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, and K. McCammon, 'Options for future optical access networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 50-56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Durel, S.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

Edmon, E.

E. Edmon, K. McCammon, R. Estes, and J. Lorentzen, 'Today's broadband fiber access technologies and deployment considerations at SBC,' in Broadband: Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home, C.Lin, ed. (Wiley, 2006), 16-41.

Effenberger, F.

F. Effenberger, K. McCammon, and D. Cleary, 'Analog video and PON optical loss variations,' in National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 589-595.

Erickson, J.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

Estes, R.

E. Edmon, K. McCammon, R. Estes, and J. Lorentzen, 'Today's broadband fiber access technologies and deployment considerations at SBC,' in Broadband: Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home, C.Lin, ed. (Wiley, 2006), 16-41.

Faulkner, D.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

D. Faulkner, K. Okada, W. Warzanskyj, A. Zylbersztejn, Y. Picault, R. Mistry, and T. Rowbotham, 'The full service access network initiative,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 58-68 (1997).

J. R. Stern, J. W. Ballance, D. Faulkner, S. Hornung, and D. B. Payne, 'Passive optical local networks for telephony applications and beyond,' Electron. Lett. 231255-1257 (1987).

Ford, B.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

Hornung, S.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

J. R. Stern, J. W. Ballance, D. Faulkner, S. Hornung, and D. B. Payne, 'Passive optical local networks for telephony applications and beyond,' Electron. Lett. 231255-1257 (1987).

Kani, J.

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, and K. McCammon, 'Options for future optical access networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 50-56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lorentzen, J.

A. Cauvin, A. Tofanelli, J. Lorentzen, J. Brannan, A. Templin, T. Park, and K. Saito, 'Common technical specifications of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 34-40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Edmon, K. McCammon, R. Estes, and J. Lorentzen, 'Today's broadband fiber access technologies and deployment considerations at SBC,' in Broadband: Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home, C.Lin, ed. (Wiley, 2006), 16-41.

Mahoney, G.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

Mahony, G.

G. Mahony, 'Fiber to the home: A summary of Bellsouth's first office application,' in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (IEEE), pp. 275-283.

Manabe, T.

H. Shinohara and T. Manabe, 'Broadband optical access technologies and FTTH deployment in NTT,' in Broadband: Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home, C.Lin, ed. (Wiley, 2006), pp. 1-16.

Mano, F.

K. Okada, F. Mano, and N. Miki, 'Passive double star architecture and subscriber network evolution,' Presented at the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Local Optical Networks for the Local Loop, Dec. 1990.

McCammon, K.

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, and K. McCammon, 'Options for future optical access networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 50-56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Edmon, K. McCammon, R. Estes, and J. Lorentzen, 'Today's broadband fiber access technologies and deployment considerations at SBC,' in Broadband: Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home, C.Lin, ed. (Wiley, 2006), 16-41.

F. Effenberger, K. McCammon, and D. Cleary, 'Analog video and PON optical loss variations,' in National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 589-595.

Miki, N.

K. Okada, F. Mano, and N. Miki, 'Passive double star architecture and subscriber network evolution,' Presented at the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Local Optical Networks for the Local Loop, Dec. 1990.

Mistry, R.

D. Faulkner, K. Okada, W. Warzanskyj, A. Zylbersztejn, Y. Picault, R. Mistry, and T. Rowbotham, 'The full service access network initiative,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 58-68 (1997).

Okada, K.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

D. Faulkner, K. Okada, W. Warzanskyj, A. Zylbersztejn, Y. Picault, R. Mistry, and T. Rowbotham, 'The full service access network initiative,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 58-68 (1997).

K. Okada, F. Mano, and N. Miki, 'Passive double star architecture and subscriber network evolution,' Presented at the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Local Optical Networks for the Local Loop, Dec. 1990.

Park, T.

A. Cauvin, A. Tofanelli, J. Lorentzen, J. Brannan, A. Templin, T. Park, and K. Saito, 'Common technical specifications of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 34-40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. B.

J. R. Stern, J. W. Ballance, D. Faulkner, S. Hornung, and D. B. Payne, 'Passive optical local networks for telephony applications and beyond,' Electron. Lett. 231255-1257 (1987).

Picault, Y.

D. Faulkner, K. Okada, W. Warzanskyj, A. Zylbersztejn, Y. Picault, R. Mistry, and T. Rowbotham, 'The full service access network initiative,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 58-68 (1997).

Rowbotham, T.

D. Faulkner, K. Okada, W. Warzanskyj, A. Zylbersztejn, Y. Picault, R. Mistry, and T. Rowbotham, 'The full service access network initiative,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 58-68 (1997).

Saito, K.

A. Cauvin, A. Tofanelli, J. Lorentzen, J. Brannan, A. Templin, T. Park, and K. Saito, 'Common technical specifications of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 34-40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shinohara, H.

H. Shinohara and T. Manabe, 'Broadband optical access technologies and FTTH deployment in NTT,' in Broadband: Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home, C.Lin, ed. (Wiley, 2006), pp. 1-16.

Stern, J. R.

J. R. Stern, J. W. Ballance, D. Faulkner, S. Hornung, and D. B. Payne, 'Passive optical local networks for telephony applications and beyond,' Electron. Lett. 231255-1257 (1987).

Templin, A.

A. Cauvin, A. Tofanelli, J. Lorentzen, J. Brannan, A. Templin, T. Park, and K. Saito, 'Common technical specifications of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 34-40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tofanelli, A.

A. Cauvin, A. Tofanelli, J. Lorentzen, J. Brannan, A. Templin, T. Park, and K. Saito, 'Common technical specifications of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 34-40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, H.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

Wagoner, F.

F. Wagoner, Motorola Wireline Access Systems group (personal communication, 2007).

Warzanskyj, W.

D. Faulkner, K. Okada, W. Warzanskyj, A. Zylbersztejn, Y. Picault, R. Mistry, and T. Rowbotham, 'The full service access network initiative,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 58-68 (1997).

Whitehead, P.

P. Whitehead, previously with USWEST, currently at AT&T Services (personal communication, 2007).

Zylbersztejn, A.

D. Faulkner, K. Okada, W. Warzanskyj, A. Zylbersztejn, Y. Picault, R. Mistry, and T. Rowbotham, 'The full service access network initiative,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 58-68 (1997).

Electron. Lett.

J. R. Stern, J. W. Ballance, D. Faulkner, S. Hornung, and D. B. Payne, 'Passive optical local networks for telephony applications and beyond,' Electron. Lett. 231255-1257 (1987).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

A. Cauvin, A. Tofanelli, J. Lorentzen, J. Brannan, A. Templin, T. Park, and K. Saito, 'Common technical specifications of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 34-40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, and K. McCammon, 'Options for future optical access networks,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 50-56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faulkner, K. Okada, W. Warzanskyj, A. Zylbersztejn, Y. Picault, R. Mistry, and T. Rowbotham, 'The full service access network initiative,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 58-68 (1997).

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahoney, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, 'Deployment Status and Common Technical Specifications for a B-PON System,' IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 134-141 (2001).

Other

H. Shinohara and T. Manabe, 'Broadband optical access technologies and FTTH deployment in NTT,' in Broadband: Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home, C.Lin, ed. (Wiley, 2006), pp. 1-16.

E. Edmon, K. McCammon, R. Estes, and J. Lorentzen, 'Today's broadband fiber access technologies and deployment considerations at SBC,' in Broadband: Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home, C.Lin, ed. (Wiley, 2006), 16-41.

F. Effenberger, K. McCammon, and D. Cleary, 'Analog video and PON optical loss variations,' in National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference (IEEE, 2003), pp. 589-595.

Recommendation ITU-T G.671 Amendment 1, 'Transmission characteristics of optical components and subsystems' (ITU, 2006).

G. Mahony, 'Fiber to the home: A summary of Bellsouth's first office application,' in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (IEEE), pp. 275-283.

F. Wagoner, Motorola Wireline Access Systems group (personal communication, 2007).

P. Whitehead, previously with USWEST, currently at AT&T Services (personal communication, 2007).

J. W. Ballance, 'Optical communication network,' U.S. patent 4,977,593 (11 December 1990).

http://www.ieee802.org/3/av/.

K. Okada, F. Mano, and N. Miki, 'Passive double star architecture and subscriber network evolution,' Presented at the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Local Optical Networks for the Local Loop, Dec. 1990.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.