Abstract

Feature Issue on Photonics in Switching

The increasing demand for bandwidth coupled with saturating electrical systems is leading the drive for optics as an interconnect technology. High-performance computing systems (HPCS) consist of a large number of components such as processors, memories, and interconnection links. As the number of components in HPCS increases, the probability of a failure also increases. Therefore, it becomes imperative that the system be fault tolerant to ensure high availability even in the presence of faults. We propose a multidimensional optoelectronic architecture, nD-RAPID (reconfigurable and scalable all-photonic interconnect for distributed and parallel systems), where n can be 1, 2, or 3. nD-RAPID provides high bandwidth, low latency, dynamic reconfiguration, and fault tolerance. While designing the fault-tolerant routing algorithm, we have tried to ensure that it provides optimum performance in the absence of faults, shows minimal degradation in the presence of faults, and can tolerate a reasonable number of faults. In the presence of faults the on-board switching mechanism dynamically reconfigures itself to reroute packets along nonfaulty links. Extensive simulation results are presented that compare nD-RAPID with other popular HPCS topologies.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  34. A. Singh, W. J. Dally, B. Towles, and A. K. Gupta, 'Globally adaptive load-balanced routing in tori,' Comput. Arch. Lett. 3, (2004).
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2006 (2)

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, 'Rapid for high-performance computing systems: architecture and performance evaluation,' Appl. Opt. 45, 6326-6334 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. E. Gomez, N. A. Nordbotten, J. Flich, P. Lopez, A. Robles, J. Duato, T. Skeie, and O. Lysne, 'A routing methodology for achieving fault tolerance in direct networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 4, 400-415 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

2004 (4)

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, and D. W. Dolfi, 'MAUI: enabling fiber-to-the processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects,' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2043-2054 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

Y. Yang and J. Wang, 'A fault-tolerant rearrangeable permutation network,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 414-426 (2004).

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, B. Towles, and A. K. Gupta, 'Globally adaptive load-balanced routing in tori,' Comput. Arch. Lett. 3, (2004).

2003 (3)

F. Petrini, E. Frachtenberg, A. Hoisie, and S. Coll, 'Performance evaluation of the quadrics interconnection network,' J. Cluster Computing 6, 125-142 (2003).

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, 'Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 614-623 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. M. Pinkston, R. Pang, and J. Duato, 'Deadlock-free dynamic reconfiguration schemes for increased network dependability,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 14, 780-794 (2003).

2002 (2)

R. D. Chamberlain, M. A. Franklin, and C. S. Baw, 'Gemini: an optical interconnection network for parallel processing,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 13, 1038-1055 (2002).

S. S. Mukherjee, P. Bannon, S. Lang, A. Spink, and D. Webb, 'The alpha 21364 network architecture,' IEEE Micro 22, 26-35 (2002).

2000 (2)

1998 (1)

A. Louri and B. Weech, 'A spanning multichannel linked hypercube: a gradually scalable optical interconnection network for massively parallel computing,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 9, 497-511 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. Galles, 'Spider: a high-speed network interconnect,' IEEE Micro 17, 34-39 (1997).

1995 (2)

R. V. Boppana and S. Chalsani, 'Faul tolerant wormhole routing algorithms for mesh networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 44, 848-864 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. A. Chen and J. H. Kim, 'Planar-adaptive routing: low cost adaptive networks for multiprocessors,' J. ACM 42, 91-123 (1995).

1994 (1)

A. Louri and H. Sung, 'An optical multi-mesh hypercube: a scalable optical interconnection network for massively parallel computing,' J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 704-716 (1994).

1990 (2)

M. S. Chen and K. G. Shin, 'Adaptive fault tolerant routing in hypercube multicomputers,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 39, 1406-1416 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. S. Chen and K. G. Shin, 'Depth-first search approach for fault-tolerant routing in hypercube multicomputers,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 1, 152-159 (1990).
[Crossref]

Afsahi, A.

Y. Qian, A. Afsahi, N. R. Fredrickson, and R. Zamani, 'Performance evaluation of the sun fire link SMP clusters,' in Proceedings of the the 18th International Symposium on High Performance Computing Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 145-156.

Alduino, A.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

Ali, M. E.

Andreassen, R.

B. Helvik and R. Andreassen, 'Fault tolerance in optical networks; a study of electronic in- and egress interconnections in torus topologies,' in Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling, ONDM (IEEE, 2005).

Banerjee, S.

S. Banerjee and D. Sarkar, 'Hypercube connected rings: a scalable fault tolerant logical topology for optical networks,' Tech report, Dept. of ECE, (University of Miami, Florida, 1994).

Bannon, P.

S. S. Mukherjee, P. Bannon, S. Lang, A. Spink, and D. Webb, 'The alpha 21364 network architecture,' IEEE Micro 22, 26-35 (2002).

Barker, K.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

Barnett, B.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

Baw, C. S.

R. D. Chamberlain, M. A. Franklin, and C. S. Baw, 'Gemini: an optical interconnection network for parallel processing,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 13, 1038-1055 (2002).

Benner, A.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

Boppana, R. V.

R. V. Boppana and S. Chalsani, 'Faul tolerant wormhole routing algorithms for mesh networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 44, 848-864 (1995).
[Crossref]

Boura, Y. M.

Y. M. Boura and C. R. Das, 'Fault-tolerant routing in mesh networks,' in Proceedings of the 1995 International Conference on Parallel Processing, Vol. 1, pp. 106-109, 1995.

Braunisch, H.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

Campenhout, J. V.

Chalsani, S.

R. V. Boppana and S. Chalsani, 'Faul tolerant wormhole routing algorithms for mesh networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 44, 848-864 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chamberlain, R. D.

R. D. Chamberlain, M. A. Franklin, and C. S. Baw, 'Gemini: an optical interconnection network for parallel processing,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 13, 1038-1055 (2002).

Chen, A. A.

A. A. Chen and J. H. Kim, 'Planar-adaptive routing: low cost adaptive networks for multiprocessors,' J. ACM 42, 91-123 (1995).

Chen, M. S.

M. S. Chen and K. G. Shin, 'Adaptive fault tolerant routing in hypercube multicomputers,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 39, 1406-1416 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. S. Chen and K. G. Shin, 'Depth-first search approach for fault-tolerant routing in hypercube multicomputers,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 1, 152-159 (1990).
[Crossref]

Coll, S.

F. Petrini, E. Frachtenberg, A. Hoisie, and S. Coll, 'Performance evaluation of the quadrics interconnection network,' J. Cluster Computing 6, 125-142 (2003).

F. Petrini, W. Feng, A. Hoisie, S. Coll, and E. Frachtenberg, 'The Quadrics Network (QsNet): high performance clustering technology,' in Proceedings of the 9th IEEE Hot Interconnects (IEEE, 2001), pp. 125-130.

Collet, J. H.

Culler, D. E.

D. E. Culler, J. P. Singh, and A. Gupta, Parallel Computer Architecture: A Hardware/Software Approach (Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).

Dally, W. J.

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, B. Towles, and A. K. Gupta, 'Globally adaptive load-balanced routing in tori,' Comput. Arch. Lett. 3, (2004).

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, A. Gupta, and B. Towles, 'GOAL: a load balanced adaptive routing algorithm for torus networks,' in Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ACM, 2003), 194-205.

W. J. Dally and B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

Das, C. R.

Y. M. Boura and C. R. Das, 'Fault-tolerant routing in mesh networks,' in Proceedings of the 1995 International Conference on Parallel Processing, Vol. 1, pp. 106-109, 1995.

Davidson, H. L.

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, 'Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 614-623 (2003).
[Crossref]

Desmulliez, M.

Dolfi, D. W.

Duato, J.

M. E. Gomez, N. A. Nordbotten, J. Flich, P. Lopez, A. Robles, J. Duato, T. Skeie, and O. Lysne, 'A routing methodology for achieving fault tolerance in direct networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 4, 400-415 (2006).

T. M. Pinkston, R. Pang, and J. Duato, 'Deadlock-free dynamic reconfiguration schemes for increased network dependability,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 14, 780-794 (2003).

J. C. Sancho, A. Robles, and J. Duato, 'A flexible routing scheme for networks of workstations,' Proceedings of the International Conference on High Performance Computing (Springer, 2000), pp. 260-267.

Feng, W.

F. Petrini, W. Feng, A. Hoisie, S. Coll, and E. Frachtenberg, 'The Quadrics Network (QsNet): high performance clustering technology,' in Proceedings of the 9th IEEE Hot Interconnects (IEEE, 2001), pp. 125-130.

Flich, J.

M. E. Gomez, N. A. Nordbotten, J. Flich, P. Lopez, A. Robles, J. Duato, T. Skeie, and O. Lysne, 'A routing methodology for achieving fault tolerance in direct networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 4, 400-415 (2006).

Flower, G. M.

Frachtenberg, E.

F. Petrini, E. Frachtenberg, A. Hoisie, and S. Coll, 'Performance evaluation of the quadrics interconnection network,' J. Cluster Computing 6, 125-142 (2003).

F. Petrini, W. Feng, A. Hoisie, S. Coll, and E. Frachtenberg, 'The Quadrics Network (QsNet): high performance clustering technology,' in Proceedings of the 9th IEEE Hot Interconnects (IEEE, 2001), pp. 125-130.

Franklin, M. A.

R. D. Chamberlain, M. A. Franklin, and C. S. Baw, 'Gemini: an optical interconnection network for parallel processing,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 13, 1038-1055 (2002).

Fredrickson, N. R.

Y. Qian, A. Afsahi, N. R. Fredrickson, and R. Zamani, 'Performance evaluation of the sun fire link SMP clusters,' in Proceedings of the the 18th International Symposium on High Performance Computing Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 145-156.

Galles, M.

M. Galles, 'Spider: a high-speed network interconnect,' IEEE Micro 17, 34-39 (1997).

Gomez, M. E.

M. E. Gomez, N. A. Nordbotten, J. Flich, P. Lopez, A. Robles, J. Duato, T. Skeie, and O. Lysne, 'A routing methodology for achieving fault tolerance in direct networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 4, 400-415 (2006).

Goodman, J.

Gupta, A.

D. E. Culler, J. P. Singh, and A. Gupta, Parallel Computer Architecture: A Hardware/Software Approach (Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, A. Gupta, and B. Towles, 'GOAL: a load balanced adaptive routing algorithm for torus networks,' in Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ACM, 2003), 194-205.

Gupta, A. K.

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, B. Towles, and A. K. Gupta, 'Globally adaptive load-balanced routing in tori,' Comput. Arch. Lett. 3, (2004).

Heck, J.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

Helvik, B.

B. Helvik and R. Andreassen, 'Fault tolerance in optical networks; a study of electronic in- and egress interconnections in torus topologies,' in Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling, ONDM (IEEE, 2005).

Hoare, R.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

Hoisie, A.

F. Petrini, E. Frachtenberg, A. Hoisie, and S. Coll, 'Performance evaluation of the quadrics interconnection network,' J. Cluster Computing 6, 125-142 (2003).

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

F. Petrini, W. Feng, A. Hoisie, S. Coll, and E. Frachtenberg, 'The Quadrics Network (QsNet): high performance clustering technology,' in Proceedings of the 9th IEEE Hot Interconnects (IEEE, 2001), pp. 125-130.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, 'Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 614-623 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ignatowski, M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

Jesshope, C.

Jones, A. K.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

Kash, J. A.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

Kerbyson, D. J.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

Kim, J. H.

A. A. Chen and J. H. Kim, 'Planar-adaptive routing: low cost adaptive networks for multiprocessors,' J. ACM 42, 91-123 (1995).

Kodi, A. K.

Koren, I.

P. Lalwaney and I. Koren, 'Fault-tolerant schemes for WDM-based multiprocessor networks,' in Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing using Optical Interconnects (MMPOI'95), (IEEE, 1995), pp. 90-97.

Kuchta, D. M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

Lalwaney, P.

P. Lalwaney and I. Koren, 'Fault-tolerant schemes for WDM-based multiprocessor networks,' in Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing using Optical Interconnects (MMPOI'95), (IEEE, 1995), pp. 90-97.

Landin, A.

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, 'Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 614-623 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lang, S.

S. S. Mukherjee, P. Bannon, S. Lang, A. Spink, and D. Webb, 'The alpha 21364 network architecture,' IEEE Micro 22, 26-35 (2002).

Lemoff, B. E.

Levi, A. F. J.

Li, D.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

Litaize, D.

Liu, A.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

Lopez, P.

M. E. Gomez, N. A. Nordbotten, J. Flich, P. Lopez, A. Robles, J. Duato, T. Skeie, and O. Lysne, 'A routing methodology for achieving fault tolerance in direct networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 4, 400-415 (2006).

Louri, A.

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, 'Rapid for high-performance computing systems: architecture and performance evaluation,' Appl. Opt. 45, 6326-6334 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. H. Collet, D. Litaize, J. V. Campenhout, C. Jesshope, M. Desmulliez, H. Thienpont, J. Goodman, and A. Louri, 'Architectural approaches to the role of optics in monoprocessor and multiprocessor machines,' Appl. Opt. 39, 671-682 (2000).

A. Louri and B. Weech, 'A spanning multichannel linked hypercube: a gradually scalable optical interconnection network for massively parallel computing,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 9, 497-511 (1998).

A. Louri and H. Sung, 'An optical multi-mesh hypercube: a scalable optical interconnection network for massively parallel computing,' J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 704-716 (1994).

Lu, D.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

Lysne, O.

M. E. Gomez, N. A. Nordbotten, J. Flich, P. Lopez, A. Robles, J. Duato, T. Skeie, and O. Lysne, 'A routing methodology for achieving fault tolerance in direct networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 4, 400-415 (2006).

Lytel, R.

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, 'Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 614-623 (2003).
[Crossref]

Madhavan, B.

Melham, R.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, 'Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,' Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mohammed, E.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

Mooney, R.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

Mukherjee, S. S.

S. S. Mukherjee, P. Bannon, S. Lang, A. Spink, and D. Webb, 'The alpha 21364 network architecture,' IEEE Micro 22, 26-35 (2002).

Nordbotten, N. A.

M. E. Gomez, N. A. Nordbotten, J. Flich, P. Lopez, A. Robles, J. Duato, T. Skeie, and O. Lysne, 'A routing methodology for achieving fault tolerance in direct networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 4, 400-415 (2006).

Pang, R.

T. M. Pinkston, R. Pang, and J. Duato, 'Deadlock-free dynamic reconfiguration schemes for increased network dependability,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 14, 780-794 (2003).

Panotopoulos, G.

Petrini, F.

F. Petrini, E. Frachtenberg, A. Hoisie, and S. Coll, 'Performance evaluation of the quadrics interconnection network,' J. Cluster Computing 6, 125-142 (2003).

F. Petrini, W. Feng, A. Hoisie, S. Coll, and E. Frachtenberg, 'The Quadrics Network (QsNet): high performance clustering technology,' in Proceedings of the 9th IEEE Hot Interconnects (IEEE, 2001), pp. 125-130.

Pinkston, T. M.

T. M. Pinkston, R. Pang, and J. Duato, 'Deadlock-free dynamic reconfiguration schemes for increased network dependability,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 14, 780-794 (2003).

Qian, Y.

Y. Qian, A. Afsahi, N. R. Fredrickson, and R. Zamani, 'Performance evaluation of the sun fire link SMP clusters,' in Proceedings of the the 18th International Symposium on High Performance Computing Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 145-156.

Rajamony, R.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

Ritter, M. B.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

Robles, A.

M. E. Gomez, N. A. Nordbotten, J. Flich, P. Lopez, A. Robles, J. Duato, T. Skeie, and O. Lysne, 'A routing methodology for achieving fault tolerance in direct networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 4, 400-415 (2006).

J. C. Sancho, A. Robles, and J. Duato, 'A flexible routing scheme for networks of workstations,' Proceedings of the International Conference on High Performance Computing (Springer, 2000), pp. 260-267.

Sancho, J. C.

J. C. Sancho, A. Robles, and J. Duato, 'A flexible routing scheme for networks of workstations,' Proceedings of the International Conference on High Performance Computing (Springer, 2000), pp. 260-267.

Sarkar, D.

S. Banerjee and D. Sarkar, 'Hypercube connected rings: a scalable fault tolerant logical topology for optical networks,' Tech report, Dept. of ECE, (University of Miami, Florida, 1994).

Schenfeld, E.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

Shao, S.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

Shin, K. G.

M. S. Chen and K. G. Shin, 'Depth-first search approach for fault-tolerant routing in hypercube multicomputers,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 1, 152-159 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. S. Chen and K. G. Shin, 'Adaptive fault tolerant routing in hypercube multicomputers,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 39, 1406-1416 (1990).
[Crossref]

Singh, A.

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, B. Towles, and A. K. Gupta, 'Globally adaptive load-balanced routing in tori,' Comput. Arch. Lett. 3, (2004).

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, A. Gupta, and B. Towles, 'GOAL: a load balanced adaptive routing algorithm for torus networks,' in Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ACM, 2003), 194-205.

Singh, J. P.

D. E. Culler, J. P. Singh, and A. Gupta, Parallel Computer Architecture: A Hardware/Software Approach (Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).

Skeie, T.

M. E. Gomez, N. A. Nordbotten, J. Flich, P. Lopez, A. Robles, J. Duato, T. Skeie, and O. Lysne, 'A routing methodology for achieving fault tolerance in direct networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 4, 400-415 (2006).

Spink, A.

S. S. Mukherjee, P. Bannon, S. Lang, A. Spink, and D. Webb, 'The alpha 21364 network architecture,' IEEE Micro 22, 26-35 (2002).

Stunkel, C.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

Sung, H.

A. Louri and H. Sung, 'An optical multi-mesh hypercube: a scalable optical interconnection network for massively parallel computing,' J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 704-716 (1994).

Sze, T.

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, 'Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 614-623 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thienpont, H.

Thomas, T.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

Towles, B.

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, B. Towles, and A. K. Gupta, 'Globally adaptive load-balanced routing in tori,' Comput. Arch. Lett. 3, (2004).

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, A. Gupta, and B. Towles, 'GOAL: a load balanced adaptive routing algorithm for torus networks,' in Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ACM, 2003), 194-205.

W. J. Dally and B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

Vandenton, G.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

Walker, P.

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

Wang, J.

Y. Yang and J. Wang, 'A fault-tolerant rearrangeable permutation network,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 414-426 (2004).

Webb, D.

S. S. Mukherjee, P. Bannon, S. Lang, A. Spink, and D. Webb, 'The alpha 21364 network architecture,' IEEE Micro 22, 26-35 (2002).

Weech, B.

A. Louri and B. Weech, 'A spanning multichannel linked hypercube: a gradually scalable optical interconnection network for massively parallel computing,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 9, 497-511 (1998).

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang and J. Wang, 'A fault-tolerant rearrangeable permutation network,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 414-426 (2004).

Young, I.

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

Zamani, R.

Y. Qian, A. Afsahi, N. R. Fredrickson, and R. Zamani, 'Performance evaluation of the sun fire link SMP clusters,' in Proceedings of the the 18th International Symposium on High Performance Computing Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 145-156.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Comput. Arch. Lett. (1)

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, B. Towles, and A. K. Gupta, 'Globally adaptive load-balanced routing in tori,' Comput. Arch. Lett. 3, (2004).

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, 'Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,' IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, 'Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 614-623 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Micro (2)

S. S. Mukherjee, P. Bannon, S. Lang, A. Spink, and D. Webb, 'The alpha 21364 network architecture,' IEEE Micro 22, 26-35 (2002).

M. Galles, 'Spider: a high-speed network interconnect,' IEEE Micro 17, 34-39 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (4)

M. E. Gomez, N. A. Nordbotten, J. Flich, P. Lopez, A. Robles, J. Duato, T. Skeie, and O. Lysne, 'A routing methodology for achieving fault tolerance in direct networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 4, 400-415 (2006).

R. V. Boppana and S. Chalsani, 'Faul tolerant wormhole routing algorithms for mesh networks,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 44, 848-864 (1995).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang and J. Wang, 'A fault-tolerant rearrangeable permutation network,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 53, 414-426 (2004).

M. S. Chen and K. G. Shin, 'Adaptive fault tolerant routing in hypercube multicomputers,' IEEE Trans. Comput. 39, 1406-1416 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. (4)

M. S. Chen and K. G. Shin, 'Depth-first search approach for fault-tolerant routing in hypercube multicomputers,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 1, 152-159 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. M. Pinkston, R. Pang, and J. Duato, 'Deadlock-free dynamic reconfiguration schemes for increased network dependability,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 14, 780-794 (2003).

A. Louri and B. Weech, 'A spanning multichannel linked hypercube: a gradually scalable optical interconnection network for massively parallel computing,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 9, 497-511 (1998).

R. D. Chamberlain, M. A. Franklin, and C. S. Baw, 'Gemini: an optical interconnection network for parallel processing,' IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 13, 1038-1055 (2002).

Intel Technol. J. (1)

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandenton, and R. Mooney, 'Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,' Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-127 (2004).

J. ACM (1)

A. A. Chen and J. H. Kim, 'Planar-adaptive routing: low cost adaptive networks for multiprocessors,' J. ACM 42, 91-123 (1995).

J. Cluster Computing (1)

F. Petrini, E. Frachtenberg, A. Hoisie, and S. Coll, 'Performance evaluation of the quadrics interconnection network,' J. Cluster Computing 6, 125-142 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. Louri and H. Sung, 'An optical multi-mesh hypercube: a scalable optical interconnection network for massively parallel computing,' J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 704-716 (1994).

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, and D. W. Dolfi, 'MAUI: enabling fiber-to-the processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects,' J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2043-2054 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, 'Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,' Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (14)

Y. M. Boura and C. R. Das, 'Fault-tolerant routing in mesh networks,' in Proceedings of the 1995 International Conference on Parallel Processing, Vol. 1, pp. 106-109, 1995.

Infiniband Trade Association, http://www.infinibandta.com.

F. Petrini, W. Feng, A. Hoisie, S. Coll, and E. Frachtenberg, 'The Quadrics Network (QsNet): high performance clustering technology,' in Proceedings of the 9th IEEE Hot Interconnects (IEEE, 2001), pp. 125-130.

J. C. Sancho, A. Robles, and J. Duato, 'A flexible routing scheme for networks of workstations,' Proceedings of the International Conference on High Performance Computing (Springer, 2000), pp. 260-267.

D. E. Culler, J. P. Singh, and A. Gupta, Parallel Computer Architecture: A Hardware/Software Approach (Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).

http://www.top500.org/.

W. J. Dally and B. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

B. Helvik and R. Andreassen, 'Fault tolerance in optical networks; a study of electronic in- and egress interconnections in torus topologies,' in Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling, ONDM (IEEE, 2005).

K. Barker, A. Benner, R. Hoare, A. Hoisie, A. K. Jones, D. J. Kerbyson, D. Li, R. Melham, R. Rajamony, E. Schenfeld, S. Shao, C. Stunkel, and P. Walker, 'On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems,' Super Computing Conference SC'05, November 2005.

S. Banerjee and D. Sarkar, 'Hypercube connected rings: a scalable fault tolerant logical topology for optical networks,' Tech report, Dept. of ECE, (University of Miami, Florida, 1994).

P. Lalwaney and I. Koren, 'Fault-tolerant schemes for WDM-based multiprocessor networks,' in Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing using Optical Interconnects (MMPOI'95), (IEEE, 1995), pp. 90-97.

A. Singh, W. J. Dally, A. Gupta, and B. Towles, 'GOAL: a load balanced adaptive routing algorithm for torus networks,' in Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ACM, 2003), 194-205.

Mellanox Technologies, http://www.mellanox.com/

Y. Qian, A. Afsahi, N. R. Fredrickson, and R. Zamani, 'Performance evaluation of the sun fire link SMP clusters,' in Proceedings of the the 18th International Symposium on High Performance Computing Systems and Applications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 145-156.

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